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SPANISH AND BRASILIAN WORKSHOP ON RENEWABLE ENERGY R+D ON BIOENERGY IN SPAIN M. Ballesteros Head of Biofuels Unit CIEMAT Rio de Janeiro 30 SEPTEMBER –

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Presentation on theme: "SPANISH AND BRASILIAN WORKSHOP ON RENEWABLE ENERGY R+D ON BIOENERGY IN SPAIN M. Ballesteros Head of Biofuels Unit CIEMAT Rio de Janeiro 30 SEPTEMBER –"— Presentation transcript:

1 SPANISH AND BRASILIAN WORKSHOP ON RENEWABLE ENERGY R+D ON BIOENERGY IN SPAIN M. Ballesteros Head of Biofuels Unit CIEMAT Rio de Janeiro 30 SEPTEMBER – 1 OCTOBER 2013

2 10% OF WORLD PRIMARY ENERGY CONSUMPTION (45 EJ) BIOMASS CONSUMPTION (2007) Fuente: Best et al –80% traditional solid biomass for heating and cooking –20% commercial biomass : 80% heat, 1% power, 2% liquid biofuels

3 BIOENERGY SYSTEMS Traditional Biomass over-exploitation of natural resources, low economic valorization of biomass, low efficienct technologies Modern biomass commercial efficient technologies environmentally sustainable production and use

4 BIOMASS AS ENERGY RESOURCE Abundant energy resource It can be stored It can be transformed into energy by different technologies (mechanical, thermochemical, biological) It provides solid, liquid and gaseous biofuels to use for heating, power and transport purposes It can not be found free. It requires a long chain of activities: planting, growing, harvesting and pretreatment (storage and drying) before it can be transformed into an energy carrier. Biofuels have an associated cost that has to be considered.

5 … not only depends on more efficient conversion technologies (combustion, co-firing, gasification, second generation liquid biofuels) but A broad range of research topics should be considered such as biomass availability and logistics. Technological development to support the use of biomass…

6 More than 100 Organizations working on Bioenergy - Excellent research teams in universities and specialized centers - Strong National Research Institutes: CIEMAT, CENER,,CSIC, INIA… High participation in the European Research Framework Programmes High Spanish participation in the European Research Alliance in Bioenergy Members: CIEMAT and CENER Associated to CIEMAT: Unizar, IREC, Imdea-Energy and Tecnalia Dynamic industry with technological leadership Abengoa Bioenergy, REPSOL, Acciona, … Spain is very active in R+D on Bioenergy

7 R&D Programme of Biomass Unit Objective: To develop knowledge, technologies and applications to produce solid and liquid biofuels for heating, power and transport purposes. 1 Feedstock research R&D activities 3 Second generation Biofuels 2 Solids Biofuels

8 Madrid Center Soria Center Feedstock research and solid biofuels production Liquid Biofuels Research

9 R&D Programme of Biomass Unit Objective: To develop knowledge, technologies and applications to produce solid and liquid biofuels for heating, power and transport purposes. 1 Feedstock research R&D activities Evaluation of avalilable resources Energy crops Logistics: collecting, transporting

10 FEEDSTOCK RESEARCH Objective: To improve the cost competitiveness of biomass supplies to energy systems  Evaluation of available biomass resources taking into account the geographical specificity of biomass supply and consumption. The aim is to assess the level of supplies compatible with sustainable production  Development, production and management of energy crops, taking into account issues related to planting, used of chemicals for fertilizing, irrigation, weed control or soil quality  Studies on biomass harvesting, storage and transportation technologies to reduce the cost of biomass delivery to energy plant.

11 Brassica carinata Sorgo híbrido Cardo Panicum virgatum Paulownia Chopos Olmo de Siberia Agropiros Caña común Cereales para bioetanol Triticale y otras gramíneas anuales Herbáceos Leñosos Robinia

12 Sinapis alba Cultivos Oleaginosos para Biodiesel Colza (Brassica napus) Jatropha curcasCamelina sp. Crambe

13 R&D Programme of Biomass Unit 1 Feedstock research R&D activities Available resources Energy crops Logistics 2 Solid biofuels for heating and power High quality solid biofuels from energy crops Drying Milling Compaction Combustion of biomass with high ash content Sinterization Emissions Characterization Objective: To develop knowledge, technologies and applications to produce solid and liquid biofuels for heating, power and transport purposes.

14  BIOMASS CHARACTERIZATION LABORATORY (BCL) is a scientific reference laboratory for energy and physico- chemical characterization of biomass and solid biofuels. It is equipped with facilities to perform the following analysis: Proximate analysis (moisture, ash and volatile compounds content) Ultimate analysis (carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur and clorum) Inorganic compounds content Higher Heat Value and Lower Heat values Thermogavimetric analysis Particle size distribution Pile density Pellet durability CHARACTERIZATION Objective: To know biomass chemical and physical characteristics in order to choose the best energetic conversion process BCL belongs to the Technical Committee CEN/TC 335 which is working on the standardisation of solid biofuels derived from pure biomass.

15 Hammermill with particle size classification ( kg/h) Rotary air dryer ( kg/h) HIGH-QUALITY SOLID BIOFUELS FROM HIGH ASH CONTENT BIOMASS Pelleting plant ( kg/h)

16 Slagging on the grate of a combustion system 1.1-Metil naftaleno 2.2-Metil naftaleno 3.Dimetil naftaleno 4.Acenaftileno 5.Acenafteno 6.Fluoreno 7.Fenantreno 8.Antraceno 9.Fluoranteno 10.Pireno 11.Benzo(a)antraceno** 12.Criseno 13.Benzo(b)fluoranteno* 14.Benzo(k)fluoranteno 15.Benzo(a)pireno** 16.Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene* 17.Dibenzo(ah)antraceno 18.Naftaleno 19.Benzo(ghi)perileno Gases Cenizas Polinuclear Aromaric Hydrocarbons formed in biomass combustion Objective: To study the release of ash forming compounds from biomass fuels in both fixed and fluidised bed combustion systems to determine data concerning the melting behaviour and emissions. ASH-RELATED PROBLEMS IN COMBUSTION OF BIOMASS

17 17 kW Boiler 100 kW Boiler 500 kW Boiler

18 R&D Programme of Biomass Unit 1 Feedstock research R&D activities Avalilable resources Energy crops Logistics 2 Solid biofuels for heating and power Pretreatment Drying Milling Compaction Ash-related problems In biomass combustion Sinterization Emissions Characterization 3 Liquid Biofuels Pretreatment Enzymatic hydrolysis Fermentation Objective: To develop knowledge, technologies and applications to produce solid and liquid biofuels for heating, power and transport purposes.

19 LIQUID BIOFUELS UNIT OBJECTIVE To develop processes and technologies for converting lignocellulosic materials into ethanol and other high value products in an efficient and cost-effective manner to facilitate the adoption of these processes by industry

20 Power generation PROCESS CHART Cellulose ( glucose ) Hemicellulose (C5 & C6 sugars) Lignin Cellulosic biomass Pretreatment Biological steps: Celullase production, Hydrolysis, fermentation Ethanol recovery Residue processing Process effluents Fuel: Ethanol Solid Liquid

21 Power generation PROCESS CHART Cellulose ( glucose ) Hemicellulose (C5 & C6 sugars) Lignin Cellulosic biomass Pretreatment Biological steps: Celullase production, Hydrolysis, fermentation Ethanol recovery Residue processing Process effluents Fuel: Ethanol Solid Liquid

22 TECHNOLOGY CHALLENGES FOR BIOCHEMICAL ROUTE To reduce the cost of the pretreatment while maintaining efficiency To limit the consumption of chemicals, energy and water and the production of wastes To minimize sugar degradation and inhibitors formation (moderate conditions) 1.FEEDSTOCK PRETREATMENT

23 Biomass deconstruction technologies Pretreatment Temperature (ºC) Time (min) ChemicalConcentration Stirred & pressure reactor None/ Dilute acid 1-2% H 2 SO 4 Steam Explosion None Extrusion Alkaline5-10% on dw raw material

24 Steam explosion pretreatment plants of 2 and 10 litres 2 L laboratory prototype for LHW pretreatment

25 EXTRUSION PRETREATMENT Twin-screw extruder (10 kg/h capacity) Different screws in twin-screw extruder CS CS- Conveying screw MS MS- Mixing screw RS RS- Reverse screw CS RSMS

26 TECHNOLOGY CHALLENGES FOR BIOCHEMICAL ROUTE 2.NEW AND/OR IMPROVED ENZYMES To reduce the costs of enzyme production by improving cellulase production and enzymatic cocktail efficiency To find the way for reducing enzyme loading without loss of performance To develop enzymes with improved thermo-stability and less susceptibility to sugars inhibition Develop yeast strains resistant to toxic compounds, high solids concentration and rising ethanol concentration 3. FERMENTATION

27 Joint Unit of Biotechnological Processes for Energy Production To incorporate molecular biology tools to improve the efficiency and economics of biochemical conversion processes of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels: enzyme and fermenting microorganisms development To produce biofuels from microalgae. Advanced conversion path based on biological and chemical process

28 Joint Biotechnological Processes Unit Research Activities Isolation and characterization of new microorganisms and their enzymatic complex to transform lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels. Production of biofuels and other added- value products from microalgae Genetic manipulation (modification or introduction of new steps) of metabolic routes in hydrolytic and/or fermentative microorganisms and microalgae to increase production of target metabolites

29 Cellulose hydrolysis Cellulases Hexoses Fermentation Pentose Fermentation SHF SSF SSCFCBP SHF: Separate Hydrolysis and fermentation; SSF: Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, SSFC: Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation CBP: Consolidated bioprocessing TECHNOLOGY CHALLENGES FOR BIOCHEMICAL ROUTE 4.PROCESS INTEGRATION Level of integration

30 The Second generation Biofuel Centre is a Process Development Units (PDUs) to produce 2 nd generation biofuels on a pilot scale level as an intermediate step towards the industrial scale-up of these technologies and as a biorefinery test platform.. Sugar Platform Biochemical processes Waste Lignin BIOMASS BioFuels BioProducts BioPolymers BioMaterials Synthesis gas platform Thermochemical processes Gasification Synthesis gas preparation Raw Material Sugars Cogeneration (CHP) Energy and heat Second Generation Biofuel Center (CB2G); collaboration CENER-CIEMAT

31 Pretreatment Unit: Capacity: 500 Kg Biomass/h In operation from 2008 Chipper & Chopper Drying Unit Milling Units Torrefaction reactor Pelletizing unit

32 ABFB Gasifier & Thermal Oxidizer and Flue gases treatment Thermochemical Unit: Capacity: 2 MWt-500 Kg Biomass/h In operation from 2012

33 Biochemical Process Unit: Capacity: Up to 1,500 kg biomass / week In operation from 2013 The unit offers:  Biomass feedstock flexibility.  Flexible scaling-up: pilot- semi industrial.  High solid content processes development.  Different conditions and process configurations.  Different target products: biofuels and bio-products Main equipment includes:  Vacuum Belt Filter  Detoxification and Dilution Tanks  Enzymatic Hydrolysis (2 x 3 m 3 )  Bioreactors (1, 3 and 6 m 3 )

34 Biochemical Process Unit: Pilot Plant In operation from 2013 Continuous horizontal reactor: 5Kg/h up to 14.5bar & 200ºC Bioreactor fully monitored. Pretreatment Enzymatic Hydrolysis Fermentation Stirred tank reactor to develop high consistency EH

35 PROJECTS COLLABORATION 7FP BRASIL-UBL (CIEMAT) Biofuels Assessment on Technical Opportunities and Research Needs for Latin America Specific International Cooperation Actions; Integration of Biology and Engineering into an Economical and Energy- Efficient 2G Bioethanol Biorefinery EU-Brazil Collaborative project PROETHANOL2G

36 BioTop Partners BioTop Partners WIP – Renewable Energies, Alemania (WIP) Technical University of Denmark (DTU) University of Graz, Austria (UNI GRAZ) BTG Biomass Technology Group, Holanda (BTG) Argentine Renewable Energies Chamber (ABC) Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Chile (UCV) Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) Fundación Bariloche, Argentina (FB) FUSP/CENBIO, Brasil CIEMAT, España To identify technical opportunities and research needs for Latin America in order to maximize synergies in the biofuels sectors of Latin America and Europe.

37 Proethanol 2G: EU-Brazil Collaborative project EU: FP7-ENERGY-2009-BRAZIL (Contract No )/ BRAZIL: Edital nº 006/ CNPq/MCT PROETHANOL2G focus on: The effective integration and development of advanced technologies through the combined use of Biology and Engineering for the production of second generation (2G) bioethanol, from the most representatives European (wheat straw) and Brazilian (sugarcane bagasse and straw) feedstocks.

38 COLLABORATION will continue in Horizon 2020 Workprogramme for 2015 Partnering with Brazil on advanced biofuels In the framework of the EU-Brazil S&T Cooperation Agreement, the European Commission and the Brasilean Ministry of Science and Technology are working together to benefit from the complementarities in research and innovation, in order to foster the development of advanced biofuels and accelerate their commercialisation both in Brazil and in Europe.

39 ¡¡¡OBRIGADA PELA ATENÇÃO¡¡¡ ¡¡¡GRACIAS POR LA ATENCION¡¡¡


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