Andy Malone MVP, MCT CEO / Trainer / Consultant Quality Training (Scotland) Ltd & Dive Deeper Technology Events EMEA Session Code: CLI321
This Session Will Cover: The Need for Green! Processor Developments inc Core Parking Technology Windows Power Management Architecture Using Trigger Start Services, Idle Resource Utilisation, Timer Coalescing Enhanced Power Managements Features: Adaptive display Brightness, Low Power Audio, Bluetooth & Network power Enhancements. Enhancing Notebook & Net book Battery Life Playback Pipeline scaling Using Group Policies to configure Power & Performance settings. Power Efficiency Diagnostics: Using PowerCFG.exe Drilldown. Conclusions & Q&A
Increasing number of mobile users Increased number of users leaving laptops / PCs on downloading movies, music etc Wide Availability of Broadband. Users leaving PCs On-Line for updates, patching etc I’m not paying the bill so users have a don’t Care Mentality. Need to leave systems on for Backup, defragmentation, AV purposes.
We Need to be Smarter! A Dynamic and Design Scalable Microarchitecture
Increasing Energy Focus on PCs Increasing Energy Costs PC energy consumption has doubled since 2000 EPA estimates PCs use ~2% of all electricity consumed Businesses trimming costs Increased mobile workforce More home users are thinking “green” PC on 24/7 is 8% of household power usage
Power Management Developments Plug and Play, ACPI, On Now Solutions are a combination of Hardware Architecture & Operating System Advances Automating Internet updates or system- maintenance utilities Handling docking changes for mobile users Preserving network connections Keeping presentations online Extending mobile battery life Handling events for network agents and peripherals.
The Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) Open standard for unified operating system-centric device configuration and power management. Released in 1996, Defines platform-independent interfaces for hardware discovery, configuration, power management and monitoring. Specification is central to Operating System-directed configuration and Power Management (OSPM); a term used to describe a system implementing ACPI. Removes device management responsibilities from legacy firmware interfaces. Standard was originally developed by Intel, Microsoft, and Toshiba, and last published as "Revision 4.0", in June 2009.
Managing Active Power Windows 7 changes frequency as needed to meet performance needs, minimize power Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology Referred to as processor P-States PCU tunes voltage for given frequency, operating conditions, and silicon characteristics PCU automatically optimizes operating voltage
Processor Power Control Unit PLL Uncore, LLC Core Vcc Freq. Sensors Core Vcc Freq. Sensors Core Vcc Freq. Sensors Core Vcc Freq. Sensors PCU BCLKVcc Integrated proprietary microcontroller Shifts control from hardware to embedded firmware Real time sensors for temperature, current, power Flexibility enables sophisticated algorithms, tuned for current operating conditions
Understanding Processor States: Intel Deep Power Down Technology (DPD) (DPD) is the latest & lowest possible Processor power state. Referred to as “C6” State. In this mode The processor flushes and disables L2 cache Saves the state of each core into on-die SRAM memory. Then lowers core voltage close to 0 Volt. Thermal Design Power of dual-core mobile CPUs in this state is 0.3 Watt.
Intel Deep Power Down (DPD) The process of waking up the CPU from DPD mode is initiated by a chipset. The chipset signals VRM to increase core voltage. The CPU's internal clock is activated and wakes up the CPU. The CPU in its turn resets internal state, restores previously stored state from on-die SRAM, and enables L2 cache. Deep Power Down mode was first introduced in Intel Penryn core.
Intel® Core™ Microarchitecture Package C-State Support Example Active CPU Power Core Leakage Core Clock Distribution Core Clocks and Logic Uncore Leakage Uncore Clock Distribution I/O Uncore Logic Cores (x N) All cores in C6 state: Core power to ~0
Intel® Core™ Microarchitecture (Nehalem) Package C-State Support Example Active CPU Power Uncore Leakage Uncore Clock Distribution I/O Uncore Logic All cores in C6 state: Core power to ~0 Package to C6 state: Uncore logic stops toggling
Intel® Core™ Microarchitecture Package C-State Support Example Active CPU Power Uncore Leakage Uncore Clock Distribution I/O All cores in C6 state: Core power to ~0 Package to C6 state: Uncore logic stops toggling I/O to lower power state
Intel® Core™ Microarchitecture Package C-State Support Example All cores in C6 state: Core power to ~0 Package to C6 state: Uncore logic stops toggling I/O to lower power state Uncore clock grids stopped Active CPU Power Uncore Leakage Uncore Clock Distribution I/O Substantial reduction in idle CPU power
Windows Server 2008 R2 Core Parking Windows Server has added additional support which: Schedules virtual machines on a single server for density as opposed to dispersion This allows “park/sleep” cores by putting them in deep C states Benefits Enhances Green IT by reducing CPU power consumption
Windows 7 Power Efficiency Idle Power Management Active Power Management New Self Diagnostics Improved Local & Remote Management Always Available
New Windows 7 Power Improvements Include: Reduced Power Consumption Idle Resource Utilization Trigger Start Services Enhanced Processor Power Management Timer Coalescing Device Power Management Adaptive Display Brightness Low-Power Audio Bluetooth Power Improvements
Networking Power Improvements Enhanced User Experiences Greater Enterprise Power Management Power Efficiency Diagnostics Group Policy Windows Management Instrumentation Power Policy And There’s More:
Frequent Idle Activity Specific Windows 7 improvements Eliminate TCP DPC (Differential Power Comparison) timer on every system timer interrupt Reduce frequency of USB driver maintenance timers Intelligent Timer Tick Distribution (ITTD) Timer Coalescing Goal = Eliminate idle activity in drivers and applications Target average idle period greater than 100ms
Timer Coalescing Platform energy efficiency can be improved by extending idle periods New timer coalescing API enables callers to specify a tolerance for due time Enables the kernel to expire multiple timers at the same time Extensions should integrate with Windows 7 API/DDI
Managing Background Processes System Management Device management System Maintenance Windows Service Control Manager (SCM) Windows Task Scheduler
Services and the Service Control Manager Starts and stops services. Managing services that are running. Maintaining service-related state information. Services can either be Running Stopped Paused The SCM can also notify a service when the machine is entering a sleep state.
Service Control Manager (SCM) Device connect trigger IP address trigger Domain trigger Group Policy (GP) trigger Custom trigger Service 1 Subscribed to start on Device Connect trigger Service 1 Subscribed to start on Device Connect trigger Service 2 Subscribed to start on Domain join trigger, Stop on Domain disjoin trigger, and Start on GP trigger service 1 Subscribed to start on Device Connect trigger Service 2 Subscribed to start on Domain join trigger, Stop on Domain disjoin trigger, and Start on GP trigger service 1 Subscribed to start on Device Connect trigger
Windows Task Scheduler The Task Scheduler: Maintains a database of installed tasks Starts and stops tasks. Manages running tasks. Maintains task-related state information. Tasks can be: Ready - Running – Queued - Disabled
Windows Task Scheduler – Optimization Triggers start services allow background processes to start on demand. The following can improve system efficiency, power consumption, and user experience. Idle Condition Setting enables a task to run whenever the system is not actively in use by a user. Power Condition Specifies that the task should be run only when the system is running on AC power
Windows 7 Trigger-Start Services Many services were configured to Autostart and wait for rare events UBPM enables Trigger-Start services based on environmental changes (On Demand) Device arrival/removal, IP address change, domain join, etc. Examples Bluetooth service is started only if a Bluetooth radio is currently attached BitLocker encryption service started only when new volumes detected
Upbm...huh, What that? The ubpm.dll is a Unified Background Process Manager DLL.
Controlling Triggers Methods of starting triggers include the SC Command or through Task Scheduler. sc qtriggerinfo Configuring a service to trigger-start when the computer acquires its first IP address is similarly easy: sc triggerinfo start/networkon
Trigger Service Bluetooth Example! BTHSERV (Bluetooth) Service D The BTHSERV (Bluetooth) Service Dynamically Starts when a Bluetooth device is Started.
Adaptive Display Brightness Ambient light sensors detect changes in ambient light and adjust the display brightness. If service is disabled, display brightness will not adapt to lighting conditions. If monitor does not contain a light sensor, service can be default state of Manual or Disabled. Service Name (registry): SensrSvc
Device Power Management Adaptive display brightness Dim the mobile PC display after a period of user inactivity Intelligent policy—timeout automatically adjusts with user input Does not interfere with presentations, full-screen media playback Processor power management Updates to core performance state algorithm Core parking
Device Power Management Audio Support for the latest Intel HD Audio low-power specifications USB audio class selective suspend Bluetooth Radio enters selective suspend when connections are in sniff mode Wired LAN runtime idle detection NIC automatically enters D3 when media is disconnected
Power WMI Provider Enables power policy configuration through standard WMI interface Change power setting values Activate a given plan To get started… Change a power setting: Win32_PowerSetting Activate a plan: Win32_Plan.Activate() method
Wake Timers Opportunity to improve mobile PC experience by reducing spurious wake events E.g., system wakes up in bag due to application request, remains on, drains battery Windows 7 mobile PCs will not program wake timer alarm by default Excludes doze to hibernate Wake timers continue to be enabled by default on desktop systems Power policy control to configure wake timers
Idle Detection Windows 7 is aggressive about placing the system in sleep when idle User input and application availability requests only Availability requests allow applications to request temporary overrides on power management Media center recording service prevents idle to sleep when recording TV Windows Media Player prevents display from turning off while watching DVD Presentation Mode
Idle Detection Windows 7 improves failed idle detection diagnostics Use PowerCfg utility to inspect for requests PowerCfg /REQUESTS Network file sharing Open files in a client-side cache (offline files) will not prevent the client from sleeping Policy override capability Option to override individual availability requests Option to override all availability requests Idle detection will be based solely on user input
Power Efficiency Diagnostics Designed to evaluate problems when the system is idle Close open applications and documents “ PowerCfg /ENERGY ” at the command line to start tracing Included with Windows 7 only Leverages new inbox ETW instrumentation Advanced users can run utility and view HTML output Automatically executed when the system is idle Reports data to Microsoft via Customer Experience Improvement Program (CEIP)
Power Efficiency Diagnostics PowerCfg utility detects energy efficiency problems: USB device selective suspend Processor Power Management (PPM) Inefficient power policy settings Platform timer resolution Platform firmware problems … and others Helps detect major problems at time of system integration HTML Output can be viewed by End Users “PowerCfg /ENERGY” at the command line to start tracing Windows 7 only—leverages new inbox ETW* instrumentation *Event Tracing for Windows (Xperf)
Windows 7 Vs Windows Vista “In a demonstration of two identically configured ThinkPads T400s, Intel and Microsoft claimed that a Windows XP SP2 machine consumed on average 20.2 watts, while the Windows 7 machine consumed 15.4 watts. That translated to about 1.4 hours of additional battery life”. PC Magazine September 2009
Review: The Need for Green! Processor Developments inc Core Parking Technology Windows Power Management Architecture Using Trigger Start Services, Idle Resource Utilisation, Timer Coalescing Enhanced Power Managements Features: Adaptive display Brightness, Low Power Audio, Bluetooth & Network power Enhancements. Enhancing Notebook & Net book Battery Life Playback Pipeline scaling Using Group Policies to configure Power & Performance settings. Power Efficiency Diagnostics: Using PowerCFG.exe Drilldown. Conclusions & Q&A
Thanks for Attending! Andy Malone MVP, MCT CEO / Consultant Quality Training (Scotland) Ltd & Dive Deeper Technology Events EMEA Andrew.firstname.lastname@example.org
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