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Published byNick Voyles Modified over 2 years ago

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Use bold and font size to change the look of the heading.

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Drag the column line over to increase the size of the column - see results on next slide. Note that rows are designated with numbers and columns are designated with letter. The column that is currently highlighted on the form is C3 because it is in column C row 3.

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I have now put in the data by entering in in the cell. The first grade for Susan Ash is in cell C5 and the last grade for Susan Ash is in cell J5. To figure the average, I use the average function and inside the parenthesis, I enter the cell range being used to take the average. I therefore have average(C5:J5) Note that the two cells are separated in the function by the : which essentially establishes the range from C5 through J5. Notice also that I wrote this with an = sign in front of average.

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Once I clicked and moved away, the answer appeared. I went back and highlighted so you could see the formula for the cell and the results. Now, for David Costa I have the first grade in C6 and the last grade in J6. For Amy Rogers the grades are C7 through J7 and for Peter Brooks the grades are C8 through J8. I could do an average for each of the average celss which are K6 for David, K7 for Amy and K8 for Peter or I can copy the formula from Susan in K5 down to the others. Excel will adjust the row number for me.

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I start by doing an edit copy. When I click on copy, the cell will be highlighed with a moving dotted line border.

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After I did a copy on cell K5, I highlight the cells I want to copy to which are K6, K7 and K8. On the next slide I will paste to paste the revised formulas into the cells. Remember the revision is that the formula will adust the row number to the row it is putting the formula on. This is illustrated in two slides.

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This shows the paste.

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When the paste is complete, the averages are there and if you look at the formula for Peter Brooks you will cee that it is taking the average of C8 throughJ8 to put in the cell K8.

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If I go to tools options I will be able to set the spreadsheet to show the formulas in the cells. I am doing that next.

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I put a check beside formulas to see the formulas on the sheet. When I go back to working on the spreadsheet, I will first reset by removing the check.

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Now I can see the formulas change from C5:J5 to C6:J6 to C7:J7 to C8:J8.

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I now want to see the average for grade 1. I put the formula down in C10 and it takes the average of C5:C8. Next I am going to copy this across row 10 to get the average of all of the grades and an average of the students average.

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I have copied the formula in C10 and will paste it in the highlighted cells. Note that this time the row 10 will stay the same but under column D, the C will change to D so I will see average(D5:D8).

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The average of each column has been taken. I highlighted K10 so you can see the formula there is =AVERAGE(K5:K8)

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Now I am showing the formulas so you can see the change by column.

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Now I have decided to use column 4 to give a weight to each grade. I click on Percent and then entered.1 because I want this grade to be 10% of the total grade.

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When I move the cursor away, the.1 becomes 10% because I had clicked the percent prior to entering the number.

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I have now put in the weights. Note that In K4 I could have put a formula to sum the weights to make sure it added to 100. To do this I would use the sum function. =sum(C4:J4) Note that I have now saved this revised version as gradespreadsheet1.xls

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For Susan I am multiplying the weight times the grade for each column to calculate her grade. This works fine but there will be a problem when I copy it down - I will show you a future slide.

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When I copied the formula in K5 to K6 notice that it adjusted the C4 which has the weight to C5 and so I ended up multiplying Susan's grade by David's grade - not the results I wanted. What I needed to do was make it so the C4 did not change but the C5 for Susan changed to a C6 for David. I can do this by anchoring the data in row 4.

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I have now but a $ in front of the column and a $ in front of the row to anchor the cell - meaning it will not change. In fact, I did not have to put the $ in front of the column letter because that was not where the problem was - I could have just put the $ in front of the number since it was the row number changing that was the problem.

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I now changed the formula and took the $ away from the column letter and just left it in from of the row number and it worked. In other words, you can anchor the whole cell or just a particular row or column.

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You can now see the formula with the anchor on the row and you can see that the results are the same.

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Introduction to Spreadsheets Presented by Frank H. Osborne, Ph. D. © 2005 Bio 2900 Computer Applications in Biology.

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