2 C6.1 Chemicals are why we need them Chemical synthesis: chemical reactions and processes used to get a desired product using starting materials called reagents. The products can be useful for a variety of purposes but tend to be either…
3 Understand the importance of chemical synthesis to provide food additives, fertilisers, dyestuffs, paints, pigments and pharmaceuticals.
4 Interpret information about the sectors, scale and importance of chemical synthesis in industry and laboratory.fine chemicals A chemical product that is made in relatively small quantities and is typically high in cost, e.g. a flavouring or vitamin, drugs etc. They are made to high levels of purity. Usually in laboratories.bulk chemicalsA chemical product that is made in large amounts, very cheaply and often used to make other chemicals or to process other materials e.g. bleach, solvents, sulphuric acid etc. Usually made in industries.
7 H ONLY : Work out the formulae of ionic compounds given the charges on the ions. Positive ionNegative ionFormulaSodium chlorideNa+Cl-NaClMagnesium chlorideMg2+MgCl2Calcium oxideCa2+O2-CaOAluminium oxideAl3+Al2O3Magnesium sulfateSO42-MgSO4
8 H ONLY Work out the charge on one ion, given the formula of a salt and the charge on the other ion. If magnesium forms Mg2+ ions and sulfate forms SO42- ions then identify the charges on the other ions in the following compounds…MgOMgCl2MgNO3Na2SO4Al2(SO4)3CaSO4
9 Recall the main hazard symbols, and understand the safety precautions to use when handling hazardous chemicals.harmful / irritantcorrosivetoxichighly flammableoxidising
10 Recall examples of pure acidic compounds which are solid, liquids and gases. Solids =citric acid & tartaric acidLiquids =sulfuric, nitric and ethanoic acidshydrogen chlorideGases =
11 Recall common alkalis… sodium hydroxidepotassium hydroxidecalcium hydroxide.
12 Recall the pH scale pH 1 to pH 3 shows that there is a STRONG ACID pH 4 to pH 6 shows that there is a WEAK ACIDpH 7 shows that the substance is NEUTRALpH 8 to pH 10 shows that there is a WEAK ALKALIpH 11 to pH 14 shows that there is a STRONG ALKALI
13 Recall the use of indicators and pH meters to measure pH. Colour in acidColour in neutralColour in alkalilitmusRedBluephenolphthaleincolourlesspinkUniversal (a mixture of indicators)GreenPurple
15 Recall the reactions of acids that produce salts. Salts can be produced by reacting acids with…..metalsmetal oxidesmetal hydroxidesmetal carbonatesWrite balanced equations with state symbols to describe the characteristic reactions of acids
16 Ca(s) H2SO4(aq) CaSO4(aq) H2(g) + + MgCl2(aq) H2(g) Mg(s) HCl(aq) + + Metal + acidMetal acid metal salt hydrogencalcium + sulfuriccalciumsulfate+hydrogenacidCa(s)H2SO4(aq)CaSO4(aq)H2(g)++magnesium + hydrochloricmagnesiumchloride+hydrogenacidMgCl2(aq)H2(g)Mg(s)HCl(aq)++
17 CuO(s) H2SO4(aq) + CuSO4(aq) + H2O(l) MgO(s) + 2HCl(aq) MgCl2(aq) + Metal oxide + acidmetal acid metal salt wateroxidecopper + sulfuriccoppersulfate+wateroxideacidCuO(s)H2SO4(aq)+CuSO4(aq)+H2O(l)magnesiumchloride+watermagnesium + hydrochloricoxideacidMgO(s)+2HCl(aq)MgCl2(aq)+H2O(l)
18 2KOH(aq) H2SO4(aq) K2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(l) + H2O(l) NaOH(aq) HCl(aq) Metal hydroxide + acidmetal acid metal salt waterhydroxidepotassium + sulfuricpotassiumsulfate+waterhydroxideacid2KOH(aq)H2SO4(aq)K2SO4(aq)+2H2O(l)+sodium + hydrochloricsodiumchloride+waterhydroxideacidH2O(l)NaOH(aq)HCl(aq)NaCl(aq)++
20 Recall that the reaction of acid with an alkali to form a salt is a neutralisation reaction. Explain what happens during a neutralisation reaction.H+ ions from the acid react with OH- ions from the alkali.When the number of H+ ions is exactly matched by the number of OH- ions to form a pH of 7H+(aq) + OH- (aq) H2O(l)An alkali can cancel out an acid to form a salt and the water (shown above)
21 Acidic substances…Dissolve in water to form H+ ions giving a pH of less than 7Can be…solids e.g. citric acid, tartaric acidLiquids e.g. sulfuric acid, nitric acid, ethanoic acidGases e.g. hydrogen chlorideForm salts with many other substances such as alkalis, hydroxides, carbonates, oxides, metals
22 Explain that acidic compounds…. Dissolve in water to produce aqueous hydrogen ions H+(aq)All acids contain hydrogen – HCl, H2SO4, CH3COOHForm solutions with pH lower than 7.Explain that alkaline compounds….Dissolve in water to produce aqueous hydroxide ions OH-(aq)Form solutions with pH higher than 7.
23 Write down the formula of the salt produced given the formula of the acid and the alkali. HClNaOHNaClH2SO4KOHK2SO4Ca(OH)2CaCl2Mg(OH)2MgSO4
24 C6.2 : Planning, Carrying out and controlling chemical synthesis 1. Identify the stages in the chemical synthesis of an inorganic compound.choosing the reaction or series of reactionsrisk assessment (chemical and procedural)working out the quantities of reactants to usecarrying out the reaction in suitable apparatus in the right conditions (such as temperature, concentration or the presence of a catalyst)separating the product from the reaction mixturepurifying the productmeasuring the yield and checking the purity of the product.
25 Understand the purpose of these techniques…. Dissolving… forming solutions to allow easy mixing of reactantsCrystallisation… to purify a sample by the formation of pure crystals from a cooled (often saturated) solution,Filtration… to separate solid impurities from a solution, or to remove excess solid.Evaporation… to remove excess solvent from a solutionDrying in an oven or dessicator… to remove water without the risk of wasting yield.Titration… to find the concentration of an acid (or alkali) using an alkali (or acid) of a known concentration AND an indicator
26 Understand the importance of purifying chemicals and checking their purity. There are three main grades of chemicals :1. Analytical – this is the most pure (and most expensive!) If a product is to be used in foods/medicines then this grade is needed – eg. Table salt.2. Laboratory – this is the ‘medium grade’.3. Technical – this is low grade purity – eg salt for gritting roads.
27 Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) MgCl2(aq) +H2(g) Understand that a balanced equation for a chemical reaction shows the relative numbers of atoms and molecules of reactants and products.Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) MgCl2(aq) +H2(g)Reactants : 1 x Magnesium atom2 x Hydrogen atoms2 x Chlorine atomsAnd, because the equation is balanced, the same number of atoms are present for the products side!The numbers in front of the formula tells you how many molecules there are of it. So above, there are 2 molecules of HCl, and 1 molecule of everything else.
28 Understand that the relative atomic mass of an element shows the mass of it’s atom relative to the mass of other atoms.Specifically, the RAM is compared to the mass of Hydrogen.
29 Be able to use the periodic table to obtain the relative atomic masses of elements. Look at the periodic table in your planners.The bottom number is the relative atomic mass.
30 Calculate the relative formula mass of a compound using the formula and the relative atomic masses of the atoms it contains.What is the relative formula mass of calcium carbonate?Formula of calcium carbonate = CaCO3Periodic table :Ca = 40g C = 12g O = 16gCaCO3 = (3x16)== 100g
31 What is the relative formula mass of magnesium chloride? Formula of magnesium chloride = MgCl2From the periodic table:Mass of Mg = 24g Mass of Cl = 35.5gMgCl2 = 24 + (2 x 35.5)== 95g
33 How much magnesium oxide should we expect? 16/32 = 0.5 2Mg(s) + O2(g) 2MgO(s)8OOn periodic table1616g of oxygen (Relative formula mass = 32) is used to make magnesium oxide (relative formula mass = 40).How much magnesium oxide should we expect?16/32 = 0.5Ratio is 1:2 for oxygen to magnesium oxide2 X 0.5 X 40 = 40g yield of magnesium oxide
34 Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) MgCl2(aq) +H2(g) 2.4g of magnesium (Relative atomic mass = 24) is used to make magnesium chloride (relative formula mass = 95).How much of this salt should we expect?2.4/24 = 0.1Ratio is 1:1 for magnesium to magnesium chloride0.1 X 1 X 95 = 9.5g yield of magnesium chloride
35 Calculate percentage yields given the actual and theoretical yield. actual mass of pure sample X 100theoretical mass expectedSo if by experiment, 7.4g of magnesium chloride was made, when theoretically 9.5g was expected; what is the percentage yield?% yield = 7.4X 100= x 100= 77.8 % yield.9.5
37 TitrationsAn acid-base titration is the determination of the concentration of an acid or base by exactly neutralizing the acid/base with an acid or base of known concentration. This allows for quantitative analysis of the concentration of an unknown acid or soluble base. It makes use of the neutralisation reaction that occurs between acids and bases and the knowledge of how acids and bases will react if their formulas are known.Acid-Base titrations can also be used to find percent purity of chemicals.
40 (This could be a solid dissolved in water) Describe how to carry out an acid alkali titration accurately.Open the tap to let the acid run into the flaskStop the tap at the first sign of a colour changeNote the volume delivered (this is approximate)Repeat, but add drop by drop near the volume noted for greater accuracy. Record exact volume of acid needed to get colour change for neutral.Use the volumes of both solutions and the concentration of the acid to find the concentration of the alkali using a given formula(This could be a solid dissolved in water)
41 What is the concentration of hydrochloric acid? Substitute results in a given formula to interpret titration results quantitatively.In a titration, 50cm3 of 2M sodium hydroxide was exactly neutralised by 30cm3 of hydrochloric acid.What is the concentration of hydrochloric acid?Method1. Write a balanced equation for the reaction.sodium hydroxide + hydrochloric acid sodium chloride + waterNaOH(aq) HCl(aq)NaCl(aq)H2O(l)2. Use the big numbers in front of the formulae ( if any) to work out the proportion of NaOH to HCl.In this case, it is 1:1 so 1 mole NaOH reacts with 1 mole HCl
42 3. Find out how many moles of sodium hydroxide are present. (moles = [concentration (in M) x volume (in cm3)] : 1000The number of moles in 50cm3 of 2M sodium hydroxide = (2x50) : 1000= 0.1 moles of sodium hydroxide.From part 1 and 2 we know that 30cm3 of HCl also contains 0.1 moles.So to find the concentration of acid you rearrange the formula: concentration = (moles x 1000) : VolumeConc = (0.1 x 1000) : 30= 3.33 M
43 Understand why it is important to control the rate of a chemical synthesis. If it is too fast it could make it unsafe.(eg could get too hot if exothermic; gas could be produced to quickly and pressure build up)If it is too slow, then product would be made too slowly, and yield low, so profit too low. (economic factors)
44 Explain the term ‘rate of chemical reaction’. This is the speed at which the reaction takes place.A reaction takes place when reactant molecules collide with enough energy .
45 Describe ways for following the rate of a reaction. 1. By collecting a gas.2. Weighing the reaction mixture.3. Observing colour change or precipitate.
46 Interpret results from experiments that investigate rate of reactions. Time (seconds)Mass lost (g)The reaction starts off quicklyIt slows down as it proceeds.It eventually stops when one of the reactant particles has run out.
47 Rate graphs and reactant concentrations Amount of productTimeAll productMix of reactantAnd productReactant Concentration fallsRate of Reaction fallsreactantsproductGradient of graph decreasesAll reactant
48 Rates and GraphsThese show the increasing amount of product or the decreasing amount of reactant.Amount of productTimeAmount of reactantTimeSteep gradient Fast reactionShallow gradient Slow reactionSteep gradient Fast reactionShallow gradient Slow reaction
51 Increasing the temperature would have the same effect. Graph shows a faster reaction with powder. Same final volume of gas made.TimeMass lostChipsPowderIncreasing the temperature would have the same effect.
52 Recall that reaction rates vary with…. particle size (surface area)concentrationtemperature.Remember – to increase the rate of reaction, there needs to be more successful collisions per second.
53 Extra surface for molecules to collide with. Surface areaThe reactions of solids can clearly only take place at the surface of the solid.If we break a solid into smaller pieces we get more area and a faster reaction.Molecules collide with the surface of the solidExtra surface for molecules to collide with.
54 Collisions infrequent Use simple collision theory to explain how rates of reaction depend on the concentration of solutions of soluble chemicals.Reactions in solution involve dissolved particles that must collide before reaction is possible.The more crowded (concentrated) the solution, the faster the reaction because the frequency of successful collisions increases.Collisions infrequentCollisions frequent
55 Understand that catalysts speed up a chemical reaction while not being used up in the process. Because they are not used up, they are recyclable.For chemical reactions to occur:Existing bonds have to begin breaking so that new ones can be formed.The molecules have to collide in such a way that the reacting parts of the molecules are brought together.Catalysts can help with either or both of these processes.