Presentation on theme: "Most organic molecules are made up of 3 types of atoms:"— Presentation transcript:
Most organic molecules are made up of 3 types of atoms:
Carbon can form single, double, and triple bonds. Carbon has four places it needs to bond. Carbon Chemistry ***Macromolecules***
Carbon can form isomers. Isomers are molecules that have the same chemical formula but different shapes. Example: glucose and fructose both have chemical formulas of C6 H12 O6 BUT their shapes are different! -Silly analogy of understanding…isomers are like Eggs! Eggs can be scrambled, fried, or hard boiled so even though they are made up of the same substance (the egg = C, H, and O) they will have a different physical appearance (texture, appearance, etc. in other words, properties).
Glucose has a basic shape of a hexagon. Fructose has a basic shape of a pentagon.
Macromolecules are important to the STRUCTURE AND PROCESSING of cells Four Principle macromolecules 1.Carbohydrates 2.Lipids 3.Proteins Nucleic Acids
Things these 4 macromolecules have in common: All are organic molecules… ….that have Carbon atoms as the basis of the molecule ….that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms …that are made by chemically bonding smaller molecules called Subunits (building blocks) together
CARBOHYDRATES Carbohydrates store energy and provide support. -glucose -fructose -galactose (another isomer of glucose) The BUILDING BLOCKs of carbohydrates are monosaccharides. There are different types of monosaccharides. Here are 3: We will use glucose most often. The chemical formula is: C 6 H 12 O 6 The shape of the glucose molecule is: a hexagon H OH
Glucose is produced in plants by the process of photosynthesis. -Glucose stores energy from the sun in chemical bonds, between atoms within the molecule. (We will find that whenever bonds are broken, it uses energy and when new bonds are formed, it releases energy!!! )
Simple sugars (monosaccharides) link together with covalent bonds to make bigger molecules called polysaccharides. *There are 3 types of Glucose chains.
1. Starch - found in plants - long term glucose storage for plants - digestible by humans (source of calories for us)
2. Glycogen - found in animals - short term glucose storage in animals -digestible by humans
3. Cellulose - found in plants - used by plants for structural support - not digestible by humans = Fiber
So, A one sugar molecule is a monosaccharide. Ex: glucose A two sugar molecule is a disaccharide. Ex: sucrose A “MANY” sugar molecule is a polysaccharide. The prefix “poly” means many. Ex: starch, glycogen, and cellulose
LIPIDS Lipids store energy and are a component of cell membranes. Lipids do not dissolve in water. They are non polar = hydrophobic. Remember, polar dissolves in polar. So, non polar dissolves in non polar.
Lipid’s Structure: Hydrogen-Carbon chains linked to a “backbone” molecule called glycerin. Lipids are composed of the same elements as carbohydrates (C, H, O) BUT they have many many many more C-H bonds. Example:Beef fat C 57 H 110 O 6
The building blocks (subunit) of a lipid are fatty acids with a glycerol backbone.
A special kind of lipid - called a phospholipid, is a major component of your cell membrane. Note: this lipid unlike the food- type lipid, has only 2 Fatty Acid tails.
Other common lipids besides food lipids are waxes and steroids.
Proteins - Important for cell structure and cellular activities. -Proteins are long, twisted chains of amino acids. -Contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen atoms -Major cellular functions: * Structure of cells and tissues * Enzymes: control chemical reactions of the cell * Identification by immune system
Subunit: Amino Acids - There are 20 different kinds of amino acids The R stands for an H or an organic group, such as CH3, CH2CH3, etc. Actual amino acid looks like…..
- One long straight chain of amino acids is called a polypeptide - One or more twisted polypeptides is a protein.
Nucleic Acids - Contain cell’s genetic information - Long chains of subunit called a nucleotide A Nucleotide is made of: Phosphate Group 5C Sugar ( deoxyribose in DNA ) N-Containing Base Bases in DNA are: adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine
Two types of Nucleic Acids 1.DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) - Carries the code for making proteins 2.RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) - Important in the process of making proteins
The Cells Fuel - The ATP Molecule - ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) * Formed during cellular respiration * Stores energy released from carbohydrates and fats ** Attaches a phosphate to store energy (3 phosphates) ** Releases a phosphate to release energy (2 phosphates) ** Cell uses the energy from the ATP molecule to run chemical processes of the cell.
ATP Molecule Model: Molecule storing energy- Molecule not storing energy- P OH P PP P P H
Processing: How is the function of ATP similar to Glucose? How is the structure of the ATP molecule similar to the Nucleotide subunit? They both have three basic parts, when comparing a Nucleic Acid subunit and an ATP molecule: phosphate (or 2 or 3), a sugar, and a N-containing base. Both are a source of stored energy (stored in the bonds).