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Radiographic Interpretation

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Presentation on theme: "Radiographic Interpretation"— Presentation transcript:

1 Radiographic Interpretation
What’s Normal? Bucky Boaz, ARNP


3 Cervical Spine (Lateral)
Anterior arch of the atlas
 Dens of axis Posterior arch of the atlas
 Soft palate Root of the tongue
 Transverse process
 Intervertebral disc
 Inferior articular process
 Superior articular process
 Zygapophyseal (facet) joint
 Spinous process of C7 2nd-7th: The bodies of 2nd to 7th cervical vertebrae

4 Lateral Cervical Spine

5 Anterior soft tissue swelling
soft tissue swelling is indirect indicator of significant trauma, esp. when the soft tissue swelling is above the epiglottis; retropharyngeal soft tissue swelling should not exceed: anterior to C3 should not exceed 3 mm. if > than 5 mm at C3 consider minimally displaced C2 fracture; w/ children, crying increases the C3 distance; below C4 the thickness varies from 8 to 10 mm & is less reliable;

6 Anterior soft tissue swelling
distance between tracheal air column & anterior aspect of vertebral body should be No greater than: Adults: no > than 7 mm at C2 or 22 mm at C6; Child: no > than 14 mm at C6 during x-ray child should be in neutral or sl extension and w/ a full inspiration; fullness and laxity of child's prevertbral soft tissues may simulate traumatic swelling if film is obtained during expiration or flexion;

7 Spinal Laminal Lines Three curves to follow
Anterior aspect of vertebral bodies Posterior aspect of vertebral bodies Spinolaminar line Abnormalities in the curves posterior malalignment is more significant than anterior because of proximity of the spinal cord spinal canal diameter is significantly narrowed if < 14 mm anterior subluxation is caused by facet dislocation < 50% of vertebral body width = unilateral dislocation > 50% of vertebral body width = bilateral dislocation

8 Lateral Findings Examine bones for symmetry
May provide evidence of fracture Abnormal symmetry is often due to compression compression of > 40% of normal vertebral body height usually indicates a burst fracture with possibility of bone fragments in the spinal canal anterior compression may cause a teardrop shaped fracture

9 Cervical Spine (Lateral)
Bifid spinous process of C3
 Superimposed articular processes
 Uncinate processes
 Air filled trachea
 Transverse process of C7
 Transverse process of T1
 1st rib
 Clavicle 4th-7th: The bodies of 4th to 7th cervical vertebrae

10 AP Cervical Spine

11 Odontoid View to evaluate: C1 (Jefferson), Dens, superior facets of C2
for evaluating dens fractures, body of C2, & rotary C1-C2 dislocations; mach lines - teeth, C1 arch; open mouth view, along w/ lateral view, will reveal fractures of the dens ; atlantoaxial articulation & integrity of dens and body of C2 are best seen on the odontoid view;

12 Odontoid View this is most technically most difficult film to obtain as it requires patient to open his mouth as wide as possible lateral masses of C1 should align over the lateral masses of C2; lateral displacement of masses of C1 w/ respect to C2 may indicate Jefferson or burst fracture of the Atlas; combined lateral mass displacement > 7 mm suggests that transverse ligament is torn;

13 Anatomy of C2 C2 provides rotation at its superior articulation w/ C1, & limited flexion, tilt, & rotation at its inferior articulation w/ C3; body of C2 is the largest of the cervical vertebrae; superior articulations are on the lateral masses; superior projection of the odontoid is stabilized to the C1 ring by transverse and alar ligaments;

14 Anatomy of C2 lateral masses of C2 have aperture for accepting transversing vertebral artery; axis is transverse vertebra w/ its superior articular facets located anterior and its inferior facets located posterior; prominent spinous process of C2 is palpable beneath of occiput;

15 Odontoid

16 Thoracic Vertebra Each vertebra is composed of a body anteriorly and a neural arch posteriorly The arch encloses an opening, the vertebral foramen, which helps to form a canal in which the spinal cord is housed. Protruding from the posterior extreme of each neural arch is a spinous process and extending from the lateral edges of each arch are transverse processes. The parts of the neural arch between the spinous and transverse processes are known as the laminae and the parts of the arch between the transverse processes and the body are the pedicles. At the point where the laminae and pedicles meet, each vertebra contains two superior articular facets and two inferior articular facets. The pedicle of each vertebra is notched at its superior and inferior edges. Together the notches from two contiguous vertebra form an opening, the intervertebral foramen, through which spinal nerves pass

17 Thoracic Spine Spinous process Pedicles Intervertebral disc space Ribs
Vertebral body Neural foramen

18 Lumbar Vertebra Lumbar vertebrae are characterized by massive bodies and robust spinous and transverse processes. Their articular facets are oriented somewhat parasagittally, which is thought to contribute the large range of anteroposterior bending possible between lumbar vertebrae. Lumbar vertebrae also contain small mammillary and accessory processes on their bodies. These bony protuberances are sites of attachment of deep back muscles

19 Lateral Lumbar Spine

20 Lateral Lumber Spine

21 AP Lumbar Spine

22 Vertebral Fractures

23 Pelvis

24 AP Pelvis Lateral part of the sacrum Pubic tubercle Lesser trochanter
Gas in colon Ilium Sacroiliac joint Ischial spine Superior ramus of pubis Inferior ramus of pubis Ischial tuberosity Obturator foramen Intertrochanteric crest Pubic symphysis Pubic tubercle Lesser trochanter Neck of femur Greater trochanter Head of femur Acetabular fossa Anterior inferior iliac spine Anterior superior iliac spine Posterior inferior iliac spine Posterior superior iliac spine Iliac crest

25 AP Hip Anterior superior iliac spine Ilium
Anterior inferior iliac spine Pelvic brim Acetabular fossa Head of femur Fovea Superior ramus of pubis Obturator foramen Inferior ramus of pubis Pubic symphysis Ischium Lesser trochanter Intertrochanteric crest Greater trochanter Neck of femur

26 Lateral Hip Greater trochanter Intertrochanteric crest
Lesser trochanter Neck of femur Head of femur Acetabular fossa Superior ramus of pubis Obturator foramen Inferior ramus of pubis Ischium

27 AP Knee Femur Patella Medial epicondyle of femur
Lateral epicondyle of femur Medial condyle of femur Lateral condyle of femur Intercondylar eminence Intercondylar notch Knee joint Lateral condyle of tibia Medial condyle of tibia Tibia Fibula

28 Lateral Knee Femur Lateral condyle of femur Medial condyle of femur
Fabella Patella Base of patella Apex of patella Intercondylar eminence Apex of fibula Fibula Tibia Tibial tuberosity

29 AP Ankle Fibula Tibia Distal tibiofibular joint Malleolar fossa
Lateral malleolus Ankle joint Medial malleolus Talus

30 Lateral Ankle Fibula Tibia Ankle joint Promontory of tibia
Trochlear surface of talus Talus Posterior tubercle of talus Calcaneus Sustentaculum tali Tarsal tunnel Navicular Cuneiforms Cuboid

31 Talar Dome The talar dome should be scrutinised for a subtle indentation of the joint surface, or a small detached fragment. This is evidence of an osteochondral fracture. May be subtle, is often missed, but this injury is clinically significant.


33 Boehler’s Angle Compressive fractures occur after a fall from a height. Subtle fractures may only be identified by assessing Boehler’s angle. This angle is measured by drawing a line from the highest point of the posterior tuberosity to the highest midpoint, and a 2nd line from the highest midpoint to the highest point of the anterior process. The angle, posteriorly, should be >30 degrees. If there is flattening of the bone due to a fracture, this angle will be decreased, to <30 degrees.

34 Boehler’s Angle

35 AP Foot A-E: Toes 1-5. (A:Great toe) I-V. Metatarsals Cuneiform
1,3. Distal phalax
 4. Middle phalax
 2,5. Proximal phalax Interphalangeal joints Metatarsophalangeal joints Sesamoids Head of metatarsal Shaft (body) of metatarsal Base of metatarsal Cuneiform Navicular Cuboid Talus Calcaneus Tibia Fibula Tarsometatarsal joints Transverse midtarsal joint

36 Oblique Foot Base of metatarsal Cuneiforms Navicular Cuboid Talus
Calcaneus Tibia Fibula Tarsometatarsal joints Transverse midtarsal joint A-E: Toes 1-5. (A:Great toe) 1,3. Distal phalax
 Middle phalax
 2,5. Proximal phalax Interphalangeal joints Metatarsophalangeal joints Sesamoids Head of metatarsal Shaft (body) of metatarsal

37 AP Foot

38 Oblique Foot

39 Lateral Foot

40 Lisfranc

41 Lisfranc

42 AP Shoulder Clavicle Acromioclavicular joint Acromion
Greater tubercle of humerus Head of humerus Lesser tubercle of humerus Surgical neck of humerus Coracoid process Glenoid fossa Shoulder joint Lateral border of scapula

43 AP Elbow Lateral supracondylar ridge Medial supracondylar ridge
Olecranon fossa Medial epicondyle Lateral epicondyle Capitulum Olecranon Trochlea Coronoid process of ulna Proximal radioulnar joint Head of radius Neck of radius Tuberosity of radius Ulna

44 Lateral Elbow Supracondylar ridge Trochlea Olecranon Trochlear notch
Coronoid process of ulna Head of radius Neck of radius Tuberosity of radius Ulna

45 PA Wrist I-V: Metacarpals Trapezium Trapezoid Capitate
Head of capitate Hamate Hook of hamate Scaphoid Lunate Triquetrum Pisiform Styloid process of radius Head of ulna Styloid process of ulna Radiocarpal joint Distal radioulnar joint

46 Lateral Wrist 1st metacarpal Metacarpals II-V Trapezium
Tubercle of scaphoid Lunate Triquetrum Radiocarpal joint Distal end of radius Distal end of ulna

47 Rule of 11’s Radial length or height
Radial length is measured on the PA radiograph as the distance between one line perpendicular to the long axis of the radius passing through the distal tip of the radial styloid. 
 A second line intersects distal articular surface of ulnar head. 
 This measurement averages mm.

48 Rule of 11’s Radial inclination or angle
Radial inclination represents the angle between one line connecting the radial styloid tip and the ulnar aspect of the distal radius and a second line perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the radius. 
 The radial inclination ranges between 21。 and 25。. 
Loss of radial inclination will increase the load across the lunate.

49 Rule of 11’s Radial tilt
 Radial tilt is measured on a lateral radiograph. 
 The radial tilt represents the angle between a line along the distal radial articular surface and the line perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the radius at the joint margin. The normal volar tilt averages 11。 and has a range of 2。-20。.

50 PA Hand Thumb Index Middle finger Ring finger Little finger
I-V. Metacarpal bones 1,4. Distal phalanx
 Middle phalanx
 3,5. Proximal phalanx
 Sesamoid bones Distal interphalangeal joint (DIP) Metacarpophalange al joint (V.) Carpometacarpal joints Trapezium Trapezoid Capitate Hamate Scaphoid Lunate Triquetrum Pisiform Radius Ulna


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