Cervical Spine (Lateral) 1.Anterior arch of the atlas 2.Dens of axis 3.Posterior arch of the atlas 4.Soft palate 5.Root of the tongue 6.Transverse process 7.Intervertebral disc 8.Inferior articular process 9.Superior articular process 10.Zygapophyseal (facet) joint 11.Spinous process of C7 2nd-7th: The bodies of 2nd to 7th cervical vertebrae
Anterior soft tissue swelling soft tissue swelling is indirect indicator of significant trauma, esp. when the soft tissue swelling is above the epiglottis; retropharyngeal soft tissue swelling should not exceed: –anterior to C3 should not exceed 3 mm. –if > than 5 mm at C3 consider minimally displaced C2 fracture;C2 –w/ children, crying increases the C3 distance; –below C4 the thickness varies from 8 to 10 mm & is less reliable;
Anterior soft tissue swelling distance between tracheal air column & anterior aspect of vertebral body should be No greater than: –Adults: no > than 7 mm at C2 or 22 mm at C6;C2 –Child: no > than 14 mm at C6 during x-ray child should be in neutral or sl extension and w/ a full inspiration; fullness and laxity of child's prevertbral soft tissues may simulate traumatic swelling if film is obtained during expiration or flexion;
Spinal Laminal Lines Three curves to follow –Anterior aspect of vertebral bodies –Posterior aspect of vertebral bodies –Spinolaminar line Abnormalities in the curves –posterior malalignment is more significant than anterior because of proximity of the spinal cord spinal canal diameter is significantly narrowed if < 14 mm anterior subluxation is caused by facet dislocation –< 50% of vertebral body width = unilateral dislocation –> 50% of vertebral body width = bilateral dislocation
Lateral Findings Examine bones for symmetry May provide evidence of fracture Abnormal symmetry is often due to compression compression of > 40% of normal vertebral body height usually indicates a burst fracture with possibility of bone fragments in the spinal canal anterior compression may cause a teardrop shaped fracture
Cervical Spine (Lateral) 1.Bifid spinous process of C3 2.Superimposed articular processes 3.Uncinate processes 4.Air filled trachea 5.Transverse process of C7 6.Transverse process of T1 7.1st rib 8.Clavicle 4th-7th: The bodies of 4th to 7th cervical vertebrae
Odontoid View to evaluate: –C1 (Jefferson), Dens, superior facets of C2C1JeffersonC2 for evaluating dens fractures, body of C2, & rotary C1-C2 dislocations;dens fracturesC2C1C2 mach lines - teeth, C1 arch;C1 open mouth view, along w/ lateral view, will reveal fractures of the dens ;lateral viewfractures of the dens atlantoaxial articulation & integrity of dens and body of C2 are best seen on the odontoid view;C2
Odontoid View this is most technically most difficult film to obtain as it requires patient to open his mouth as wide as possible lateral masses of C1 should align over the lateral masses of C2;C1 C2 lateral displacement of masses of C1 w/ respect to C2 may indicate Jefferson or burst fracture of the Atlas;C1C2JeffersonAtlas –combined lateral mass displacement > 7 mm suggests that transverse ligament is torn;
Anatomy of C2 C2 provides rotation at its superior articulation w/ C1, & limited flexion, tilt, & rotation at its inferior articulation w/ C3;C1 body of C2 is the largest of the cervical vertebrae; superior articulations are on the lateral masses; superior projection of the odontoid is stabilized to the C1 ring by transverse and alar ligaments;C1
Anatomy of C2 lateral masses of C2 have aperture for accepting transversing vertebral artery; axis is transverse vertebra w/ its superior articular facets located anterior and its inferior facets located posterior; prominent spinous process of C2 is palpable beneath of occiput;
Thoracic Vertebra Each vertebra is composed of a body anteriorly and a neural arch posteriorly The arch encloses an opening, the vertebral foramen, which helps to form a canal in which the spinal cord is housed. Protruding from the posterior extreme of each neural arch is a spinous process and extending from the lateral edges of each arch are transverse processes. The parts of the neural arch between the spinous and transverse processes are known as the laminae and the parts of the arch between the transverse processes and the body are the pedicles. At the point where the laminae and pedicles meet, each vertebra contains two superior articular facets and two inferior articular facets. The pedicle of each vertebra is notched at its superior and inferior edges. Together the notches from two contiguous vertebra form an opening, the intervertebral foramen, through which spinal nerves pass
Thoracic Spine Spinous process Pedicles Intervertebral disc space Ribs Vertebral body Neural foramen
Lumbar Vertebra Lumbar vertebrae are characterized by massive bodies and robust spinous and transverse processes. Their articular facets are oriented somewhat parasagittally, which is thought to contribute the large range of anteroposterior bending possible between lumbar vertebrae. Lumbar vertebrae also contain small mammillary and accessory processes on their bodies. –These bony protuberances are sites of attachment of deep back muscles
Lateral Ankle 1.Fibula 2.Tibia 3.Ankle joint 4.Promontory of tibia 5.Trochlear surface of talus 6.Talus 7.Posterior tubercle of talus 8.Calcaneus 9.Sustentaculum tali 10.Tarsal tunnel 11.Navicular 12.Cuneiforms 13.Cuboid
Talar Dome The talar dome should be scrutinised for a subtle indentation of the joint surface, or a small detached fragment. This is evidence of an osteochondral fracture. –May be subtle, is often missed, but this injury is clinically significant.
Boehler’s Angle Compressive fractures occur after a fall from a height. Subtle fractures may only be identified by assessing Boehler’s angle. This angle is measured by drawing a line from the highest point of the posterior tuberosity to the highest midpoint, and a 2nd line from the highest midpoint to the highest point of the anterior process. –The angle, posteriorly, should be >30 degrees. –If there is flattening of the bone due to a fracture, this angle will be decreased, to <30 degrees.
AP Shoulder 1.Clavicle 2.Acromioclavicular joint 3.Acromion 4.Greater tubercle of humerus 5.Head of humerus 6.Lesser tubercle of humerus 7.Surgical neck of humerus 8.Coracoid process 9.Glenoid fossa 10.Shoulder joint 11.Lateral border of scapula
AP Elbow 1.Lateral supracondylar ridge 2.Medial supracondylar ridge 3.Olecranon fossa 4.Medial epicondyle 5.Lateral epicondyle 6.Capitulum 7.Olecranon 8.Trochlea 9.Coronoid process of ulna 10.Proximal radioulnar joint 11.Head of radius 12.Neck of radius 13.Tuberosity of radius 14.Ulna
Lateral Elbow 1.Supracondylar ridge 2.Trochlea 3.Olecranon 4.Trochlear notch 5.Coronoid process of ulna 6.Head of radius 7.Neck of radius 8.Tuberosity of radius 9.Ulna
PA Wrist I-V: Metacarpals 1.Trapezium 2.Trapezoid 3.Capitate 4.Head of capitate 5.Hamate 6.Hook of hamate 7.Scaphoid 8.Lunate 9.Triquetrum 10.Pisiform 11.Styloid process of radius 12.Head of ulna 13.Styloid process of ulna 14.Radiocarpal joint 15.Distal radioulnar joint
Lateral Wrist 1.1st metacarpal 2.Metacarpals II-V 3.Trapezium 4.Tubercle of scaphoid 5.Lunate 6.Triquetrum 7.Radiocarpal joint 8.Distal end of radius 9.Distal end of ulna
Rule of 11’s Radial length or height –Radial length is measured on the PA radiograph as the distance between one line perpendicular to the long axis of the radius passing through the distal tip of the radial styloid. –A second line intersects distal articular surface of ulnar head. –This measurement averages 10-13 mm.
Rule of 11’s Radial inclination or angle –Radial inclination represents the angle between one line connecting the radial styloid tip and the ulnar aspect of the distal radius and a second line perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the radius. –The radial inclination ranges between 21 ｡ and 25 ｡. Loss of radial inclination will increase the load across the lunate.
Rule of 11’s Radial tilt –Radial tilt is measured on a lateral radiograph. –The radial tilt represents the angle between a line along the distal radial articular surface and the line perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the radius at the joint margin. –The normal volar tilt averages 11 ｡ and has a range of 2 ｡ -20 ｡.