Bloom’s Taxonomy Richard C. Overbaugh, Lynn Schultz Old Dominion University
Student Objectives for this course Analyze and explain chemical differences among the various classes of organic compounds Evaluate carbohydrate structure and reactivity Compare and contrast the four main classes of key biomolecules Explain the processes of protein folding and enzymatic catalysis Use knowledge of replication, transcription, and translation to predict the outcome of genetic diseases Relate biochemical concepts to digestion, metabolism, and nutrition
The language of Chemistry Molecular Formula C2H6OC2H6O Structural Formula Condensed Structural Formula CH 3 CH 2 OH 3D Structural Formula Molecular Representation Skeletal, line-angle Formula or
Alkanes Simplest hydrocarbons Composed of only single bonds Often referred to as aliphatic hydrocarbons –From Greek aleiphar (fat or oil) Also called Paraffins –From Latin parum affinis (barely reactive) General formula: C n H 2n+2
Butane & Constitutional Isomers n-butane isobutane C 4 H 10
How many constitutional isomers? C 5 H 12 3 C 6 H 14 5 C 10 H 22 75 C 20 H 42 366,319 C 30 H 62 > 4 billion C 40 H 82 > 65 trillion C 20 H 42 366,319 C 30 H 62 > 4 billion C 40 H 82 > 65 trillion constitutional (structural) isomers
Naming Conventions: IUPAC Nomenclature International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry Gives a set of unambiguous names Despite this, common names are still used
Naming Alkanes #C Prefix + -ane C 3 "prop" Gr., protos pion (first fat)* C 4 "but" L., butyrum (butter) C 5 "pent" Gr., pente (five) C 6 "hex" Gr., hex (six) C 7 "hept" Gr., hepta (seven) C 8 "oct" L., octo (eight) C 9 "non" L., nona (nine) C 10 "dec" L., deca (ten) C 1 "meth" Gr., methy (wine)* C 2 "eth" Gr., aithein (blaze)
Dreadful Details! 1. The name for an alkane with an unbranched chain of carbon atoms consists of a prefix showing the number of carbon atoms and the ending -ane. 2. For branched-chain alkanes, the longest chain of carbon atoms is the parent chain and its name is the root name. 3. Name and number each substituent on the parent chain and use a hyphen to connect the number to the name. 4. If there is one substituent, number the parent chain from the end that gives the substituent the lower number.
Dreadful details (part 2)! 5. If the same substituent occurs more than once: –Number the parent chain from the end that gives the lower number to the substituent encountered first. –Indicate the number of times the substituent occurs by a prefix di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, and so forth. –Use a comma to separate position numbers. 6. If there are two or more different substituents –List them in alphabetical order. –Number the chain from the end that gives the lower number to the substituent encountered first. –If there are different substituents at equivalent positions on opposite ends of the parent chain, give the substituent of lower alphabetical order the lower number. 7. Do not include the prefixes di-, tri-, tetra-, and so forth or the hyphenated prefixes sec- and tert- in alphabetizing; –Alphabetize the names of substituents first, and then insert these prefixes.