Presentation on theme: "ADVANCED ASSESSMENT Respiratory System ONTARIO BASE HOSPITAL GROUP"— Presentation transcript:
1ADVANCED ASSESSMENT Respiratory System ONTARIO BASE HOSPITAL GROUP QUITBASE HOSPITAL GROUPADVANCED ASSESSMENTRespiratory SystemInstructor Notes by:Rob Theriault EMCA, RCT(Adv.), CCP(F)Donna L.Smith AEMCA, ACP2007 Ontario Base Hospital Group
2ADVANCED ASSESSMENT Respiratory System AUTHOR(S) Mike Muir AEMCA, ACP, BHScParamedic Program ManagerGrey-Bruce-Huron Paramedic Base HospitalGrey Bruce Health Services, Owen SoundKevin McNab AEMCA, ACPQuality Assurance ManagerHuron County EMSReferences- Emergency MedicineREVIEWERS/CONTRIBUTORSRob Theriault EMCA, RCT(Adv.), CCP(F)Peel Region Base HospitalDonna L. Smith AEMCA,ACPHamilton Base Hospital2007 Ontario Base Hospital Group
3Respiratory System CONSISTS OF: Upper Respiratory Tract CONSISTS OF:Upper Respiratory TractLower Respiratory TractInstructor Notes:Discuss anatomical dead space vs. gas exchanging regions
4Functions Route for air exchange Warms and moistens air Traps/filters particles (nares)Supply of oxygenRemoval of carbon dioxideRemoval of other wastesInstructor Notes:Tie in the relevance of IV therapy for patients requiring hydration because of problems with tenacious mucous in the lungs (e.g. asthmatics, COPD, etc) Add however that this is a long term goal in the hospital setting and that in most cases, IV therapy is not indicated for mild to moderate asthma exacerbations.
5Upper Respiratory Tract Nasal Cavity and SinusesPharynxLarynxTracheaInstructor Notes:May be worth introducing concept of Sellick Maneuver on this slide.BURP – Back, UP, Right, Pressure – Pressure on the Adam’s Apple used in Intubation to align axis from mouth to Vocal cords.
6Upper Respiratory Tract PurposeWarmsMoistensFiltersConveys air to the lower Respiratory TractWhat about an intubated patient?Instructor Notes:Discuss the consequences of intubation to the air passages and lungs – e.g. dry O2 delivered, mechanisms for moistening air, clearing particles (nares), etc. bypassed when an ETT is in place.
7Upper Respiratory Tract Nasal CavityInstructor Notes:Consider mentioning the turbinates as this is a good illustration - risk of epistaxis with insertion of nasal ETT (less likely with nasopharyngeal airway).Describe how the floor of the nose is flat/straight and this is why we insert either a nasopharyngeal or nasotracheal tube straight in – as opposed to upward and along the inner curvature of the nose.Describe the cribiform plate and the risk associated with inserting an airway of other device in the nare in the presence of a facial smash.
10Upper Respiratory Tract LarynxLevel C3-> C6Extends from hyoid bone to lower border of cricoid (made up of cartilage, joined by ligaments, lined with mucous membrane)4 Major CartilagesEpiglottis, Thyroid, Arytenoid, CricoidInstructor Notes:touch on the Sellick maneuver here again from the different anatomical viewDescribe tracheal rings – i.e. semi-lunar shape & vulnerability for A/E obstruction caused by large FBO in esophagus; especially in children.The rings are open in the back, therefore an obstruction in the esophagus can actually impede the trachea, if large enough.
11Upper Respiratory Tract TracheaC6 To T5From Cricoid to Carina (10cm)First ring only solid one of trachea16-20 horseshoe shaped cartilagesCiliated columnar epitheliumBifurcates at carinaInstructor Notes:consider adding a clinical caveat (verbal) about the cough reflex centre at the carina and the expected response to deep suctioning when PCP works with an ACP. The cough reflex is refered to as the “Honey Spot” when nasally intubating, as it is one of the best indicators that you are sitting at the cords with the tube.
13Lower Respiratory Tract Right and Left main stem bronchiSecondary BronchiTertiary BronchiBronchiolesTerminal BronchiolesRespiratory BronchiolesAlveolar DuctsAlveolar SacsAlveoliInstructor Notes:
14Lower Respiratory Tract Bronchial TreeRight Mainstem5 cm long/ large caliberShorter more vertical (25 degree angle)Foreign body obstructionLeft MainstemLonger than 5 cm45 degree angleInstructor Notes:discuss incidence of right Mainstem intubation and the reason why it is important to correct.If intubation tube is passed into the Right Mainstem Bronchus and into the lung and left there, there will be No ventilation into the left lung, therefore compromising the patients outcome due to hypoxia, from hypoventilation.
15Lower Respiratory Tract AlveolusInstructor Notes:describe the risk of IV fluid therapy - i.e. increased hydrostatic pressure can lead to fluid movement into the alveolidescribe the size of the surface area across which oxygen diffuses (70 square meter) and that we can provide interventions that help to reverse conditions that diminish the size of the area of diffusion - e.g. ventilation for patients with pulmonary edema, ventolin for bronchospasm, ventilation of respiratory depression in overdose, etc.
16Lungs Lobes Right Upper Lobe Left Upper Lobe Right Middle Lobe Instructor Notes:discuss aucultation technique and rationale – if patient has considerable adipose tissue in chest region, consider going to the back as you may be able to auscultate breath sounds much easier. You will also be able to get a better look at the patients respiratory efforts.add that A/E may appear to be diminished at the right base compared to the left and this is because, although not depicted well in this diagram, the liver raises the right hemidiaphragm.Left Lower LobeRight Lower Lobe
17Lungs Pleura Instructor Notes: VertebraeBronchusLungsVisceral PleuraParietal PleuraHeartInstructor Notes:Pleura, the sack that protects the lung tissue from other organs, bony structures ( Ribs)
19Mechanics of Ventilation Pressure GradientAlveolar AtmosphereAtmosphere AlveolarInstructor Notes:
20Mechanics of Ventilation Inspiration Thoracic Cage 3 mmHg Alveolar PressureExhalation Thoracic CagePassive ProcessInstructor Notes:The diaphram is the most important muscle in the respiratory cycle. On inspiration, the diaphragm contracts and drops down causing a vacuum which makes the chest expand and causes air to rush in. In Expiration, the diaphragm relaxes again and moves back up therefore pushing air out of the lungs.In knowing this concept, we now have a better understanding of why people in respiratory distress must be assessed completely… Look test included…we can assess how hard they are working to breath, which should be a passive function, instead of a Working process! Note muscle use, position they are sitting in, ability to speak ( # of Words), anxiety level…
21Mechanics of Ventilation Accessory MusclesInspirationSternocleidomastoidsScalenesTrapeziusExhalationInternal IntercostalsAbdominalsInstructor Notes:May be worth reinforcing the importance of looking up the signs and symptoms and precipitating factors in the history and physical appearance for COPD as many patients with COPD are aware that they have some sort of lung disease but unaware that it’s a COPD.
22Amount of pressure required to expand the lungs Pulmonary ComplianceAmount of pressure required to expand the lungsDecrease ComplianceIncreased ComplianceInstructor Notes:Compliance refers to the ability for the lungs to expand to let all of the air in that is coming in… decreased compliance = COPD, any lung disease where lung tissue has been destroyed.
23Pulmonary Compliance Surface Tension pressure exerted on alveolus due to cohesive forces of water moleculesWhat stops the lungs from collapsing?Instructor Notes:Discuss how surfactant is analogous to detergent – e.g. if you place your have in a sink full of water and shake it vigorously, bubbles will form and quickly burst as the surface tension in water bubbles is high. If you add detergent (analogous to surfactant), the water tension decreases significantly. Hence the reason bubbles remain expanded much longerConsider discussing RDS in premature newborns from the lack of surfactant (I.e. mechanism of alveolar collapse and fluid movement into the lower airways)Discuss the negative pressure within the alveolus which has a suctioning effect and tends to draw fluid toward itself. This suction-like effect is offset by the greater Oncotic pressure within the pulmonary vasculature which tends to keep fluid within the vessels.Tie in the concept that IV therapy can increase hydrostatic pressure within the lungs to the point that exceeds Oncotic pressure resulting in fluid seepage into the pulmonary interstitium and eventually the alveoli
24Mechanical Work of Breathing Key TermsTidal Volume (TV or VT)Functional Residual Capacity (FRC)Total Lung CapacityForced Vital Capacity02 ConsumptionNormal Breathing – 5%Severe States – 25%Instructor Notes:Describe the term “Functional Residual Capacity” and tie it into the risk of auto-PEEP when assisted ventilation doesn’t allow for sufficient exhalationAuto Peeping refers to putting increased resistance on expired gases, by purse lipped breathing…this actually helps to keep the alveoli open for the next breath… these patients usually have Emphysema – Bad lung tissue… sticky and once the alveoli become too sticky with excess mucos, harder to expand when allowed to collapse completely.
25Central Nervous System Control Chemo ReceptorsCentralPeripheralInstructor Notes:Discuss sensitivity to high CO2 levelsDiscuss desensitization to CO2 with chronic CO2 retainersDiscuss hypoxic drive
26Ventilation Perfusion Ratio Ventilation (V): amount of air that moves in or out of the mouthMinute Ventilation: # of breaths/min X volume of each breath12 breaths/min x 500ml = 6000 ml (6L)Perfusion (Q): Flow of blood through lungslungs are perfused with 6L blood per minV = 6L Ventilation = 1Q 6L PerfusionInstructor Notes:Discuss concept that V/Q is never a perfect “1”With each breath, the ratio between ventilation and perfusion change. These changes are in reaction to changes within the body from breath to breath depending on the demands put on the body at any given moment…anything that affects this balance(disease,exercise,illness…) will alter the ventilation perfusion ratio.This will be discussed again in Oxygenation presentation.
27V/Q Mismatch V/Q < 1 = decreased ventilation V = Asthma, COPD, pulmonary edema or any other condition that interferes with the movement of air to the gas exchanging areas of the lungsV/Q > 1 = absence or in perfusion in areas of the lungs Q = Pulmonary Embolism, any shock state where the lungs are significantly hypoperfusedInstructor Notes:In a decreased ventilation state – there is not enough air getting in to the alveoli…therefore upsetting the balance.In a decreased perfusion state - there has been an interruption in the transport system to get the oxygen away from the lung tissue and to the body(bleeding,shock…)
30Intrapulmonary Shunting Area of lung with decreased ventilation(V/Q < 1) will not have fully saturated hemoglobin ex. Hb 75% saturated.This blood will mix with blood that is fully saturated ex. 98%. Mixing of this blood is the shuntOutcome is circulated blood being sat of88.5 %Instructor Notes:
31Oxygen Transport 1.5 % O2 Dissolved in blood plasma 98.5 % bound to hemoglobin (Oxyhemoglobin)PaO2 determines SA02Approx 25 % O2 utilizedEach molecule of hemoglobin is fully saturated when 4 iron sites have oxygen molecules. Harder for first to bind than othersInstructor Notes:
32Common Respiratory Illnesses Asthma – Disease of the Upper airway,resulting in constriction, which is heard as Wheezing.Emphysema – disease process that affects the smaller airways, Bronchioles,Alveoli. ++ mucos productionBronchitis – Recurrent disease process that affects the larger airways.Instructor Notes:
33HypoxiaLack of sufficient O2 to allow proper functioning of the brain and other tissuesTreatment of Hypoxia takes highest precedence in the treatment of any patient7 Causes1. Decreased FiO2Halon Gas (eats O2)Methane Gas (displaces O2)AltitudeAirway ObstructionInstructor Notes:If in doubt, put an 0xygen mask on the patient.
34Hypoxia 2. Mechanical Cord Transection C.V.A- Tumor Drug Overdose Flail ChestPneumothorax3. Lung DisordersCOPD (Emphysema, Chronic Bronchitis)AsthmaLack of SurfactantPneumoniaInstructor Notes:in addition, a pneumothorax need not be a “tension” to cause hypoxia
35Hypoxia4. MembranePathology that thickens membrane e.g. Interstitial Edema5. Cardiac OutputPathology that decreases cardiac outputM.I, Infection, Fast / Slow Heart Rate6. HemoglobinLack of RBC’s(anemia)How well it binds with oxygen (carbon monoxide poisoning7. CellHistotoxic Hypoxia (cyanide poisoning)Instructor Notes:
36Ontario Base Hospital Group Self-directed Education Program STARTQUITBASE HOSPITAL GROUPWell Done!Ontario Base Hospital Group Self-directed Education Program