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1 g_wan/index.html&h=428&w=414&sz=106&hl=en&start=12&usg=__jMR57R67pcLa5839M5MURetw4ow=&tbnid=sB2HPLIxwZJFgM:&tbnh=126&tbnw=122&pre v=/images%3Fq%3Dcell%2Bcycle%26gbv%3D2%26hl%3Den

2 How do we repair? How do we grow? If “all” human cells have 46 chromosomes, what must happen to those chromosomes before the cell divides, in order for the next two cells to each have 46 chromosomes? If “all” human cells have 46 chromosomes, what must happen to those chromosomes before the cell divides, in order for the next two cells to each have 46 chromosomes?

3 Cell Cycle & Chromosomes Introduction - 2 trillion cells reproduced daily by our bodies bodies - 25 million cells reproduced per second - new cells are reproduced when older cells divide cells divide Start notes here

4 Intro to Cell Cycle See Board (compare human cycle to cell cycle) See Board (compare human cycle to cell cycle) Text book page 204 & 206

5 a/cm1504/Image199.gif In your notes copy the image on page 206 in your text. The image should take up half of your paper. (Be sure to include the outside label) Now, in each section (G1, S, G2, Mit, Cyto) list what happens in that phase Below the image, in your notes, write and answer the following questions: Where are there checkpoints? What are checkpoints? What happens if check points don’t exist?

6 2 You tube videos

7 Why Cells Reproduce (end of cycle cycle) Grow and develop Grow and develop Heal a wound Heal a wound To produce gametes (sperm or egg) To produce gametes (sperm or egg) grefurl=http://www.ma.hw.ac.uk/~jas/researchinterests/scartissueformation.html&h=283&w=386&sz=70&hl=en&start =1&usg=__1w6FVRLuIi2irGbi1cp4bcbugQI=&tbnid=iOIUg0lJsglmIM:&tbnh=90&tbnw=123&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dhe aling%2Bwound%26gbv%3D2%26hl%3Den

8 Two types of Cell Reproduction: Two types of Cell Reproduction: 1. Asexual Reproduction - mitosis - In bacteria this is called binary fission, which creates identical offspring fission, which creates identical offspring Both mitosis and binary fission have two stages Both mitosis and binary fission have two stages 1. DNA is copied 1. DNA is copied 2. The cell divides 2. The cell divides 46 Chromosome # stays the SAME!!!! Why???

9 2. Sexual Reproduction 2. Sexual Reproduction - Meiosis - to make sperm and egg (great detail of this will come soon) detail of this will come soon) Two types of Cell Reproduction cont.: Two types of Cell Reproduction cont.: Chromosome # is cut in half!!! How many copies of DNA do you want your sperm or egg to have?

10 Now we know cells divide, in order to go into depth on the topic, we need to get some terminology for what is inside the cell. What is the control center? Inside the control center are _________. Inside the control center are _________.Notes: Terminology Check to Dive Deeper into Cell Cycle: Get text book, open to page 205 This page all side notes, you decide what you NEED to write...

11 Chromosomes: Remember are DNA, made of nucleotides Chromosomes are made of segments called genes Chromosomes are made of segments called genes Genes code for our characteristics Genes code for our characteristics Most of a cells life, chromosomes in the nucleus are spread out as chromatin while they are being read Most of a cells life, chromosomes in the nucleus are spread out as chromatin while they are being read Think of an extension cord, how is it when being used? Think of an extension cord, how is it when being used? Right before they’re ready to divide a chromosome makes a copy, Right before they’re ready to divide a chromosome makes a copy, These copies coil up and are called chromatids These copies coil up and are called chromatids Chromatids are attached at the centromere Chromatids are attached at the centromere At this point, I would copy figure 8.10 from text into my notes

12 Types of Cells and Chromosome Number Somatic cell (any cell except sperm and egg) Somatic cell (any cell except sperm and egg) Soma=body Soma=body Have two pair of chromosomes Have two pair of chromosomes Each pair are called homologous chromosomes Each pair are called homologous chromosomes Are called diploid Are called diploid 2n (n = number of chroms in one set, 23 in humans so 2n = 46) 2n (n = number of chroms in one set, 23 in humans so 2n = 46) Mitosis creates these cells Mitosis creates these cells 6gXM:&tbnh=140&tbnw=124&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dtypes%2Bof%2Bcells%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26ndsp%3D20%26tbs%3Disch:1&ei=R421TMm2MsP48Aby2JSEBg

13 Types of Cells and Chromosome Number Sex cells (sperm and egg) Sex cells (sperm and egg) Have one copy of each chromosome Have one copy of each chromosome Are called haploid Are called haploid n (n = 23 in human cells) n (n = 23 in human cells) Meiosis creates these cells Meiosis creates these cells uk.co.uk/nf/ClipArt/Image/0,,_ ,00.html&usg=__PZC8Ie7I7PdlPiZK9AlLDar0vRE=&h=287&w=464&sz=23&hl=en&start=1&sig2=_BPEBsXNoMXynT2Go9Xb0Q&zoom=1&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=ihUecOUMei8KRM:&tbnh=79&tbnw=128&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dsex%2Bcells%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26tbs%3Disch:1&ei=LYu1TO_5BYP68AalpfH0CQ %3Dplant%2Bfertilization%26start%3D60%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26ndsp%3D20%26tbs%3Disch:1&ei=G4y1TNiTKYH78Aaj5diICg sWbqxeBM:&tbnh=146&tbnw=86&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dplant%2Bfertilization%26start%3D20%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26ndsp%3D20%26tbs%3Disch:1&ei=-4u1TOXmJ8H98Abl5Kj5CQ m39KRpkKQ=&h=390&w=500&sz=52&hl=en&start=31&sig2=XmI_KJIAkxbuUzaYhUv6MA&zoom=1&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=7HQ7h8WIN1UkLM:&tbnh=101&tbnw=130&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dplant%2Bfertilization%26start%3D20%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26ndsp%3D20%26tbs%3Disch:1&ei=-4u1TOXmJ8H98Abl5Kj5CQ

14 Types of Cells and Chromosome # Cont. Fertilization – fusion (coming together) of two haploid (sperm and egg) cells, this a zygote or a fertilized egg cell. Fertilization – fusion (coming together) of two haploid (sperm and egg) cells, this a zygote or a fertilized egg cell. First cell of many new organism First cell of many new organism

15 Cell Division/Reproduction: Asexual Mitosis Used for growth, healing, cancer when out of control Used for growth, healing, cancer when out of control 4 Stages 4 Stages Things that happen in stage Things that happen in stage Prophase Prophase Metaphase Metaphase Anaphase Anaphase Telophase Telophase

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17 HW Draw and label 3 times. Time 1, use your notes, time 2 peek at your notes when you need to, time 3 complete without notes (keep repeating until can draw and label accurately without looking at your notes and your book. Mitosis

18 - View Meiosis on PP - Meiosis on Elmo and on your own sheet - Meiosis with straws Cell Division/Reproduction: Sexual Meiosis Go back and look at karyotype to see differences in sex chromosomes

19 7/meiosis.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.yorku.ca/kdenning/%2B%2B2140% / oct2006.htm&h=675&w=450&sz=21&hl=en&start=1&usg=__3MpFEBpPmHYm__VQVdZpl2sAwKI=&tbnid=hQAfHPwwDO1rwM:&tbnh= 138&tbnw=92&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmeiosis%26gbv%3D2%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DG ges/meiosis.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/M/m eiosis.html&h=338&w=273&sz=16&hl=en&start=2&usg=__hXd4nPD- jHATFBgo29E5g4prAsE=&tbnid=ZK6o4X2ZY4fTUM:&tbnh=119&tbnw=96& prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmeiosis%26gbv%3D2%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DG

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23 oogy/bills_developmental_abnormalities.htm&h=437&w=600&sz=59&hl=en&start=1&um=1&usg=__-2psa2JPlM5yLzalyct1AL_I9vI=&tbnid=zwpAd- vOwUOk8M:&tbnh=98&tbnw=135&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmale%2Band%2Bfemale%2Bkaryotype%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den Just Look

24 Notice I did not have an actual picture of meiosis Following slides must be covered in another unit. Following slides must be covered in another unit. onion/&usg=__4g1DRRUIzNCh8XCnaf9NKC55LoM=&h=318&w=481&sz=25&hl=en&start=15&sig2=5EbjOBJvvY2kuQBjgI6GPA&zoom=1&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=W28q7zMoBNBHeM:&tbnh=85&tbnw=129&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dlive%2Bpicture%2Bof%2Bmeiosis%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26ndsp%3D20%26tbs%3Disch:1&ei=xI-1TLPuL4P68Absn_SQCg Male onion

25 Notice I do not have a REAL picture of meiosis. Causes of variation in gametes (good, normal) - crossing over - random assortment of chromosomes

26 Types of Chromosomes and Sex determination Autosomes – chromosomes not involved in determining if an organism (you) are going to be a male or female Autosomes – chromosomes not involved in determining if an organism (you) are going to be a male or female Sex Chromosomes – one chromosome of our 23 ( or 2 of our 46) Sex Chromosomes – one chromosome of our 23 ( or 2 of our 46) Female is XX (X from mom and X from dad) Female is XX (X from mom and X from dad) Male XY – (x from mom and Y from dad) Only chromosome not “identical” to its pair (see Figure 6.5 in text) Male XY – (x from mom and Y from dad) Only chromosome not “identical” to its pair (see Figure 6.5 in text) Male gamete determines sex of fertilized egg Male gamete determines sex of fertilized egg

27 Types of Mutation These occur in metaphase I, why? The piece reattaches to a nonhomologous chromosome Translocation The chromosome piece breaks off reattaches to the original chromosome in a reverse manner Inversion A chromosome fragment breaks off and attaches to its homologous chrom- osome; now it carries 2 copies of same gene Duplication A piece of a chromosome breaks off; a piece is missing Deletion SketchDescriptionName of Mutation Great Website

28 ABCDEFABCDEF  deletion ABCDEFABCDEF ABCDEFABCDEF ABCDEFABCDEF  duplication ABCDEFABCDEF ABAB ABCDEFABCDEF ABCDEFABCDEF ABCABC FEDFED  Inversion ABCDEFABCDEF X Z  translocation ABCDEFABCDEF X Z ABAB

29 Abnormalities in Chromosome Number Karyotype – a photo of the chromosomes in a dividing cell (See p.329) Karyotype – a photo of the chromosomes in a dividing cell (See p.329) Abnormalities in Chromosome Number, happen in anaphase I, as a result of non-disjunction Abnormalities in Chromosome Number, happen in anaphase I, as a result of non-disjunction Trisomy – an extra chromosome, 3 instead of two in a pair, 47 instead of 46 in a human karyotype Trisomy – an extra chromosome, 3 instead of two in a pair, 47 instead of 46 in a human karyotype Down syndrome – Trisomy 21, an extra 21 st chromosome Down syndrome – Trisomy 21, an extra 21 st chromosome Klinefelter’s syndrome – Male with XXY Klinefelter’s syndrome – Male with XXY Monosomy – missing a chromosome, havine 1 instead of 2 in a pair, 45 instead of 46 in a human karyotype Monosomy – missing a chromosome, havine 1 instead of 2 in a pair, 45 instead of 46 in a human karyotype Turner’s syndrome – Female with only 1 sex chromosome, or missing part of one (XO) Turner’s syndrome – Female with only 1 sex chromosome, or missing part of one (XO)

30 =1&usg=__f2IoROWsbZj5MldAwFfjlTLKn4M=&tbnid=PNE0MKvLj0wtZM:&tbnh=125&tbnw=117&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dtrisomy%2B21%2Bkaryotype%26gbv%3D2%26hl%3Den Awesome website for images!!!!

31 The end... for now!! Ready for the test????? Nash – go over G o in cell cycle, as check points.

32 Journal 11/14Cell Cycle What are the stages to the cell cycle (remember the image you drew yesterday). What can you remember happens in each piece of the pie?

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34 Homework the night before this started was to take notes on 6.1 using the topics given to them Homework the night before this started was to take notes on 6.1 using the topics given to them Therefore in class, they would just be following along in there notes, adding and highlighting points Therefore in class, they would just be following along in there notes, adding and highlighting points

35 Journal 11/12 Cell Division How do you think a cell divides. There is tons of information inside the nucleus, and when the cell divides, that same information must be in the new cell and the old cell. What methods do you think, or do you remember, will a cell go through to replicate? If you have no idea, be creative.


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