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Soc 100 C6 Social Interaction and Social Groups 1 Edited 3/31/01.

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Presentation on theme: "Soc 100 C6 Social Interaction and Social Groups 1 Edited 3/31/01."— Presentation transcript:

1 Soc 100 C6 Social Interaction and Social Groups 1 Edited 3/31/01

2 Social Groups and Social Interaction 1. Social Interaction 2. Networks: The Social Fabric 3. Social Groups Microsociology: exposes the hidden structure of everyday social life, much of our social behavior is regular predictable patterns (e.g. who controls the TV remote control in your house?) 2

3 A. Cultural Scripts and Ethnomethodology B. Defining the Situation C. Presentation of Self (a), (b), (c) D. Negotiations and Face Work E. Exchange and Reciprocity 1. Social Interaction Social Interaction; situation in which there is interdependent mutual action. May be superficial, deep, long lasting and complex, formal, free form…Regardless there are patterns. 3

4 A. Cultural Scripts and Ethnomethodology Symbolic Interactionists; emphasize the role of language and other symbols. The following are variations of this perspective. Dramaturgical approach; (Goffman, et. El.) analogy between real life and the stage (“backstage” and “frontstage”, “support systems”[props, look the part]). Ethnomethodology; (Garfinkle et. El.) “people rules”unconscious rules people use to maintain order and predictability in everyday life. Used “breaching experiment”, the violation of these rules to see response (Tom Green on TV, Something About Mary”) B. Definition of the situation An overall idea of what is expected, a framework for social interaction. In some cases these are long term others we develop. Determines appropriate, sets limits. Usually our patterns of interaction become so ingrained they are unconscious 4 *

5 C(a). Presentation of Self: Social Identity Social identity; our sense of who and what we are, derives from the positions we occupy in society (student, son, friend…), depends on “looking glass self process”, requires public validation Situational identities become dominant in certain settings, “mommy” social identity takes precedence at home over professional roles ______________________________________________ Social identities serve to help us decide actions, give meaning to life, arise to provide meaning, often get “jarred by reality” Each of us (according to Goffman) has an image of how he/she wants to be seen by others Presentation of Self; the ways in which people attempt to direct and control the impression of others and how others see them. 5 *

6 “Look the part”, “dress for success” people look the part by requirements or choice policemen, businessman, doctor, judge, convict, an adult who dresses in blue jeans Fashion; a relatively recent phenomenon created by production beyond essentials, trend creators, trend followers, found related to ambivalence and ambiguities in the culture. Fashion is followed by those in these positions (females, youth..) Examples of importance: $50 billion a year spent on diets, cosmetics, plastic surgery, health clubs, etc, bulimia and anorexia of MC and UC females (review Narcerima). Unequal treatment of those not fitting overweight and unacceptable looks. Fitness is an earned status symbol of the middle class as something you enjoy a winning ticket by lower class C(b). Presentation of Self: Fashion and Fitness 6 See a person in a suit and tie ask: what is he selling? (self, org, or..) *

7 Deniable communications; first hits at images actors want to play Face-work; tendency for people to support (cover) in peoples impression management. People overlook mistakes and avoid embarrassment as “The Last Taboo” C(c). Presentation of Self: Negotiations and “Face -Work” Exchange and Reciprocity Norm of reciprocity; expectation/demand, that we we respond in kind to certain behavior pervasive and powerful differs from strictly economic exchange in subtlety and pervasiveness. Involves intrinsic rewards, bodily pleasure, identity support in kind does not mean exact. Thoughtfulness, child giving you a picture they drew is acceptable exchange for a trip to Disneyland 7 *

8 Micro-approach; examination of actual connections (e.g. -concern with isolates in k-6 -types; clique, orbit, chain, ring) Macro-approach; search for statistical commonalty and connections of work, religious...,categories Network; the web of interconnections between people "The Social Fabric" 2. Networks: The Social Fabric, Four Networks 8 *

9 3. Social Groups Group; number of people, common ID, interaction A. What is a group* B. Types of groups--Type I & Type II* C. Size has an impact (dyad, triad....)* D. Groups and Behavior* 9

10 A. What is a group Common sense; aggregate a number of people, close proximity social category people who share a characteristic job, SES, homeless... Sociology Group; collection of individuals with a. shared identity b. interact on regular basis c. social structure--roles, status's, norms, etc. d. consensus--broad agreement on “we”, values *

11 B(a). Types of group--Type I & Type II Primary; small warm, intimate, personal Secondary; cool, impersonal, association, instrumental PrimarySecondary Frequent face to faceOccasional or no face to face Diffuse/multifaceted Limited/focused relationship Relationship has valueRelationship is means to end High level of intimacy Low level of intimacy Small size, Small to large size members irreplaceableMembers replaceable 11 *

12 B(b). Other Group Type I and II Classifications --not in text Type IType II Maine StatusContract Cooley Primary Secondary Redfield FolkModern Durkheim Organic Mechanistic Toennies GemeinschaftGesellschaft Weber TraditionalRational - legal Common attributes, degree of intimacy, degree of development, 12 *

13 B(c). Other sociological "Groups" Reference groups, groups we use to monitor and evaluate ourselves positive--we want to be like or approved by negative --we do not want to be like or approved by Functions: normative, set and enforce standards comparative, self esteem and aspirations (e.g. Stouffer study WW II promotion satisfaction in Army and Air Force) In-groups, groups to one feels they are part of, source of loyalty and respect Out groups, groups one feels opposed to or in competition. Peer groups; people who share similar characteristics (often used to refer to a category) 13 *

14 C. Group size has an impact (dyad, triad....) Dyad; 2 people, highly fragile, depends on commitment highly personal, loss of one member--no group Triad: 3 person, can survive loss of one member, tendency develop changing coalitions, etc.; with additional members the possibilities and complexity expand "more people then more rules are necessary” 14 *

15 (4) Groups and Behavior Leadership --requirements of group as much as individual 2 types seem to be needed a. expressive, specialist in interpersonal, conflict resolution, morale maintenance b. instrumental, coordinates group activities Styles: laissez-faire (best for friends), democratic (best overall), directive/authoritarian (best for pressure situations, emergencies) Individual attributes communicator, confident, committed appearance Other Criteria- participation, appearance, prestige (tall, good looking?) 15

16 Organizations or affected by cultural context e.g. US (individualism; exec pay, efforts, conflict) Japan (lifetime employment, collective performance group cohesion, holistic concern for employees, exec pay, consensus) Organizations have a culture and it has a big effect e.g. Apple, IBM, AT&T, 3M, Bank of America (Old and New) Organizations size and age are related to characteristics of its actions and possibilities (not in 6th ed.) "Dinosaurs" Large old connected to networks but lack flex "Dwarfs" Small new not connected but have flex, innovate Technical limitations; available resources, institutional limits (e.g. health and anti smoking for tobacco CEO's) Survival 50% not last 2 yrs, <1 in 10 makes 10 yrs Organizations and their environment Organizational Ecology Corporate Culture 16

17 Group Influence Social Facilitation; presence of others influences desires and performance Social Loafing;people working toward common goal and not accountable for efforts (group projects) Reduce Inhibitions; under some circumstances may encourage deviance or antisocial behavior (Rodney King, tower jumper, Halloween treats Groupthink; once tentative decision made the focus is on rationalizing choice. Situations of cohesive group, stress, isolation (Pearl Harbor, Bay of Pigs, Vietnam, NASA Challenger) risky shift (group more likely to take chances) [studies show not this is not universal] polarization of position often characteristic of group discussion rather then change of position with info (jury studies*) Conformity--not all bad in fact some degree a necessary for a social animal 17 *

18 Juries Stating position increases commitment Having others express views increases commitment of those with same view Persuasive arguments most likely to cause dissenters to join majority in cases of fact (guilty or not guilty?) On value questions (how much jail time) group pressure factor Higher the status of juror the more the influence 9 of 10 cases majority favored verdict on first ballot Lone dissenters rarely prevail--hung juries more 50/50 Converts from majority to minority have more influence then other minority members Minority favoring acquittal more likely to make converts Deliberations often make jurors more lenient 18 *

19 Concepts C6 Aggregate Definition of the situation (201) Ethnomethodology (200) In-Group (213) Network (207) Norm of reciprocity (206) Out group (213) Peer group (214) Presentation of self Primary group (211) Reference group (212) Secondary group (211) Social category (210) Social group (210) Social identity (203) Social interaction (199) Study Workbook Outline * 19

20 Organizational Ecology not in 6th ed. (1) Importance of Networks (2) Environmental opportunities (3) Environmental constraints "The relationship between organizations and their environment" e.g.. AT&T 1950's---Today (page 197) new S97 X Don’t Print 20

21 -Defining the situation; a collective process determines appropriate, sets limits (e.g. Husband, Wife conversations & Power 5th ed-p125) -Presentation of Self; (Erving Goffman) "All the worlds a stage" Backstage / front stage Support systems (look the part, props) Negotiations and Face work; define->all have stake->"studied nonobservance" -Exchange and Reciprocity; "Norm of Reciprocity" but not like economic not respond with same (e.g. not same dinner, gift..) response subtle and diffuse (e.g. child's gift to Dad) (2) Introduction Social Interaction Don’t Print 21

22 (d) Organizational Change & Survival in Future not in 6th ed The post entrepreneurial corporation decentralization flexibility focuses on what organization does best institutionalizes channels for innovation jobs more loosely defined employees encouraged get involved, act on ideas develop wide expertise basic characteristics: Opportunity seeking, Creation oriented, person centered, results oriented, flexible structure 50% do not survive 2 years --less then 10% make 10 years 22 X Don’t Print

23 Quiz Chapter 6 S01 ______1. Who controls the remote in the typical family? ______2. An adult who dresses in jeans most of the time wants his/her identity to be seen as? ______3. Two friends eating lunch in the cafeteria are called (be specific, type of group)? ______4. A group one uses as a base of judgment, a base for evaluation of perceived accomplishments and failures is called? ______5. NASA’s failure in the Challenger disaster was due, in part, to those involved supporting the initial decision rather then considering alternative information and decisions. This problem with decisions in groups is called? ______6. Linda helped her 7 year old daughter with her science project from 6 until 11 last night. This morning she found a picture the child had drawn placed with her purse as her thanks. What would sociologist call this exchange? ______7. A jury is taking a long time to deliberate, guess the decision. Don’t Print 23

24 Quiz S01--ANSWERS 1. Who controls the remote in the typical family? Male 2. An adult who dresses in jeans most of the time wants his/her identity to be seen as? Youthful, carefree a little rebellious 3. Two friends eating lunch in the cafeteria are called (be specific, type of group)? Primary group, informal group, dyad A group one uses as a base of judgment, a base for evaluation of perceived accomplishments and failures is called? Reference Gp 5. NASA’s failure in the Challenger disaster was due, in part, to those involved supporting the initial decision rather then considering alternative information and decisions. This problem with decisions in groups is called? groupthink 6. Linda helped her 7 year old daughter with her science project from 6 until 11 last night. This morning she found a picture the child had drawn placed with her purse as her thanks. What would sociologist call this exchange? norm of reciprocity 7. A jury is taking a long time to deliberate, guess the decision. Hung, more lenient, (acquittal ½ point-- not exactly stated) Don’t Print 24

25 QuizW99 1. The major theoretical position (model) in sociology that examines the relationship between the individual and society is called? 2. Fashion is an identity. An adult who dresses in jeans most of the time wants his/her identity to be seen as? 3. A collection of people who just happen to be in the same place at the same time (students crossing between the bookstore, DDH and the cafeteria at noon) are called? 4. One characteristic of a social group. 5. Two friends eating lunch in the cafeteria are called (be specific, type of group)? Don’t Print 25

26 QuizW99 6. A group one uses as a base of judgment (determines good or bad, uses as a base for evaluation of accomplishments) is called? 7. Which size group is the most fragile? 8. Group members are sometimes likely to make chancy decisions they would not as individuals make. What do sociologist call this behavior? 9. NASA’s failure in the Challenger disaster was due, in part, to those involved supporting the initial decision rather then considering alternative information and decisions. This problem with decisions in groups is called? 10. I helped my child with her science project from 6 until 11 last night. This morning I found a picture she had drawn placed with my class notes as her thanks. What would sociologist call this exchange? Don’t Print 26

27 QuizW99A ___________________1. The major theoretical position in sociology that examines the relationship between the individual and society is called? Symbolic Interaction, ethnomethodology, (1/2)socialization ___________________2. An adult who dresses in jeans most of the time wants his/her identity to be seen as? Youthful, carefree, a little rebellous ___________________3. A collection of people who just happen to be in the same place at the same time (students crossing between the bookstore, DDH and the cafeteria at noon) are called? aggregate ___________________4. One characteristic of a social group. Shared ID, interact regularly, social structure, consensus ___________________5. Two friends eating lunch in the cafeteria are called (be specific, type of group)? Primary group, informal group, dyad Don’t Print 27

28 QuizW99A 6. A group one uses as a base of judgment (determines good or bad, use as base for evaluation of accomplishments) is called?Reference group 7.Which size group is the most fragile dyad 8. Group members are sometimes likely to make chancy decisions they would not as individuals make. What do sociologist call this behavior? riskyshift ___________________9. NASA’s failure in the Challenger disaster was due, in part, to those involved supporting the initial decision rather then considering alternative information and decisions. This problem with decisions in groups is called? groupthink __________________(10) I helped my child with her science project from 6 until 11 last night. This morning I found a picture she had drawn placed with my class notes as her thanks. This sociologist call norm of reciprocity Don’t Print 28


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