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Contents 1. Risk of cross-infection (CI). 2. Inadequate disinfection, risk of CI and business. 3. Multi-channel endoscope. 4. What creates the risk of CI. 5. Base of Aseptic method of infection safety of flexible endoscopy channel endoscope. 7. Illustrations to the method of HLD, storage and transportation of new endoscope. 8. Comment to the method of HLD, storage and transportation of new endoscope. 9. Advantages of the new method of infection safety of flexible endoscopy. 10. Conclusion. 11. Sources of information. 12. News of CI from Lawrence F Muscarella, PhD, © Refernece on is obligatorywww.coloncancer.lv “The risk associated with improperly cleaned, disinfected, and sterilized endoscopes is the “most critical patient safety issue I have encountered in my 30 years in healthcare“ Nancy Chobin, 2011, : S.A. Matasov Prospects of CRC endoscopic screening Part 1 Aseptic method of infection safety of flexible endoscopy Main Forward
The ECRI 3 years in turn included flexible endoscopy into top 10 most hazard procedures in the USA : in 2010 CI risk was on the 1 st place, in on the 3 rd, in on the 4 th. 1. Risk of cross-infection (CI) Hepatitis C is a cross-infection with threat of cirrhosis and even hepatic cancer. In common, CI consequences are difficult to be revealed and assessed - clinic may appear months or years later but, likely, not everytime. Despite it, the basic requirements of medicine do not allow disregard the risk of CI: the world is increasingly talking about crimes against humanity, but what is infectioning of millions of people? Flexible endoscopes transmit more than 390 infections , among which HIV, hepatitis B and C viruses; there are described disease group cases. Pioneer in flexible endoscopes’ manufacturing is Japan: probably in this connection in 2006 there were almost 3 mln persons infected with hepatitis C virus – 2,3% of population ?  S.A. Matasov. Prospects of CRC endoscopic screening Part 1. Aseptic method of infection safety of flexible endoscopy © Refernece on is obligatorywww.coloncancer.lv As guilty of CI risk are named doctors and nurses, however problem’s analysis showed that it is not so. Forward Back 1
Analysis of first 3 decades of flexible endoscopy revealed the general inadequate high-level disinfection (HLD) and even its absence. Here are data presented by W.A. Rutala . The last 10 years practically did not reduced CI risk [5-11], but transformed it into misleading business and financial burden for medicine: while creating very expensive washing- disinfection machines, cabinets for endoscopes’ storage, transportation containers, manufacturers ignore 3 indisputable facts:[5-11] 2. Inadequate disinfection, risk o CI and business © Refernece on is obligatorywww.coloncancer.lv Thus, CI is the scaled, concealed everywhere except in the USA and Canada, problem. All (without exception!) organisers of medicine ignore its top-reasons and obtain a dangerous equipment, that can lead to dramatic consequences for each of us. 1) the main obstacle to adequate HLD is the inadequate design of endoscopes, 2) HLD adequaticy is defined not by machine, but by manual brushing of endoscope, 3) chain "machine-cabinet-container" has a risk of secondary infectioning of endoscope. S.A. Matasov. Prospects of CRC endoscopic screening Part 1. Aseptic method of infection safety of flexible endoscopy Forward Back 2
3. Multi-channel endoscope According to E.Spaulding biopsy forceps and other instrument which penetrates mucosa, are critical items; flexible endoscopes are semi-critical ones, as their separate zones are in contact with mucosa, mucus, contents. The instrument could be sterilized by high temperature, flexible endoscopes could treat only cold HLD. In the multi-channel endoscopes there are minimum 12 contact zones, which require manual brushing. These are: 2 channels of insertion part, nozzle of objective, segment of channel Suction located in a handle; 2 valves, their shafts, 3 channels of connecting part, its connector. © Refernece on is obligatorywww.coloncancer.lv Scheme of multi-channel endoscope S.A. Matasov. Prospects of CRC endoscopic screening Part 1. Aseptic method of infection safety of flexible endoscopy Forward Back 3
4. What creates the risk of CI 1.Zones which require manual brushing. As more they are, and as less they are accessible – the higher is CI risk. The old endoscopes have not less than 12 such zones. 2.Large length and small diameter of channels. In old colonoscopes length of channels reaches 3.5 m, in gastroscopes - 2,5 m. Channels with diameter 3-4 mm are cleaned by manual brushes, the small ones - with diameter about 1 mm - are flushed by liquid flow, however the OMED  and independent authors  require brushing of all channels. 3.Non-hermecity of endoscope. Infection, which penetrated inside the device, could become a source of group infection. 4.The chain "machine-cabinet-container". The existing system of disinfection, storage and transportation of old endoscopes has a risk of their secondary infection: 4.1. Sterilization of chain’s parts is impossible and disinfection is difficult. In this regard there could be breeded infection from endoscopes, which were there before At junction of chain’s parts endoscopes are contaminated by hospital infection Open device’s storage allows next endoscopy during 3 hours after HLD, at storage in special cabinet - during 3 days. Whether these conditions could be compared with storage of disposable means! 5.Infectioning of population. In connection with factors 1-4 and this one, the risk of infection by hepatitis C virus, for example in Egypt is 36 times higher, than in Italy . 6.Traumacity of endoscopy. Abrazions and microtrauma of mucosa which inevitably follow endoscope's insertion, as well as biopsy and other endoscopy operations, in combination with factors 1-5, increase the CI risk. © Refernece on is obligatorywww.coloncancer.lv S.A. Matasov. Prospects of CRC endoscopic screening Part 1. Aseptic method of infection safety of flexible endoscopy Forward Back 4
5. Base of Aseptic method of infection safety of flexible endoscopy 1. “Endoscope with single-channel endoscopic tube and disposable set which connects channel with pressure sources” (patent LV 13928, CN , JP ; applications in the UK, EAPO, USA, DE). Technical effect of invention - minimization of zones, which require manual brushing. Disposable flexible endoscopes are very expensive; alternative to them, to multi-channel endoscopes at all, disinfection machines, cabinets, transporting containers is the Method proposed. It is based on 2 inventions: 2."Aseptical method of HLD, storage and transportation of a flexible endoscope and device for its implementation" (patent LV 14318, application PCT/IB2011/04518). Technical task of invention - replacement of three-part chain "machine-cabinet-container" by a single device. Risk of CI by disposable means is everywhere close to 0. In Western Europe ≥30% of endoscopes are disinfected inadequately, in the USA in 25% of endoscopes are revealed more than bacteria ; in other regions the risk is higher. © Refernece on is obligatorywww.coloncancer.lv S.A. Matasov. Prospects of CRC endoscopic screening Part 1. Aseptic method of infection safety of flexible endoscopy Forward Back 5
© Refernece on is obligatorywww.coloncancer.lv 6. 1-channel endoscope The new endoscopic tube has not valves and has only 1 channel which connects with 3 tubes of external disposable component with the help of pressing valves and tee. The channel, 3 tubes, their valves, tee and channel provide supplying of gas and water, evacuation of contents; for washing of 3 lenses at the end of channel there is disposable inset with 3 lateral outputs, at that the direct output should be closed by the end of instrument. Thus, the new endoscope has only 2 contact zones: sheath of insertion part and its channel; manual brushing is required only channel. Its diameter is 3-4 mm, length – 1 m and 1,6 m. S.A. Matasov. Prospects of CRC endoscopic screening Part 1. Aseptic method of infection safety of flexible endoscopy Forward Back 6
7. Illustrations to the method of HLD, storage and transportation of new endoscope © Refernece on is obligatorywww.coloncancer.lv S.A. Matasov. Prospects of CRC endoscopic screening Part 1. Aseptic method of infection safety of flexible endoscopy Forward Back 7
8. Comment to the method of HLD, storage and transportation of new endoscope © Refernece on is obligatorywww.coloncancer.lv 1. Pre-cleaning. 2. Thorough cleaning-disinfecton. 3. HLD of insertion part and its channels. 4. Hermetization of channel and insertion part. The optimal variant of reprocessing of single-channel non-valve endoscopic tube includes: Thus DP ensures high-level disinfection of contact zones of single-channel non-valve endoscopic tube, their long-term storage and transportation in HLD state. The method of sterilization and storage of biopsy forceps is similar to the described above. After cleaning-disinfection, the forceps are sterilized together with silicone tube, which seals its insertion part and is called sterilizer-protector (SP) – see on slide 7. The 1 st and 2 nd reprocessing stages are made as usually, the 3 rd stage uses disenfector- protector (DP) in the shape of corrugated silicone tube (see on slide 7), putted on the insertion part. The 3 rd stage requires only about 0.2 l of disinfectant; HLD itself, following washing and drying of DP cavity, surface of the insertion part and its channel finishes the 4 th stage – their hermetization by sterile corks (see on slide 7). S.A. Matasov. Prospects of CRC endoscopic screening Part 1. Aseptic method of infection safety of flexible endoscopy Forward Back 8
9. Advantages of the new method of infectious safety of flexible endoscopy 1. New endoscopic tube has reduced: 1.1. the common number of zones which require manual brushing from 12 to 1, 1.2. the number of valves and shafts, which require manual brushing, from 4 to 0, 1.3. the number of channels, which require manual brushing, from 6 to 1, 1.4. the number of channels, inaccessible for brush, from 3 to 0, 1.5. the length of single channel of colonoscope - till 1,6 m, of gastroscope - till 1 m, 1.6. diameter of the insertion part of endoscopic tube. © Refernece on is obligatorywww.coloncancer.lv 2. Disinfector-protector of contact zones of the new endoscopic tube: 2.1. reduced equipment price up to thousand times – till € 40, 2.2. does not require premises, 2.3. could be sterilized, 2.4. reduces amount of disinfectant and sterile water to dozens times, 2.5. excludes secondary contamination of contact zones, 2.6. significally longer saves contact zones in the HLD state. S.A. Matasov. Prospects of CRC endoscopic screening Part 1. Aseptic method of infection safety of flexible endoscopy Forward Back 9
10. Conclusion 1. Manufacturers of endoscopic devices ignore design sources of CI risk, medicine – its clinical threats; fight against CI risk is converted into misleading business and a financial burden for patients. 2. The proposed Method reduced from 12 till 1 the number of endoscope's zones, which require manual brushing, and till 2 - the common number of contact zones; provided its HLD, storage and transportation in a sterilized tube, which has the small price. 3. The replacement of dangerous endoscopic devices could be defined only by legal motivation of its manufacturers. © Refernece on is obligatorywww.coloncancer.lv S.A. Matasov. Prospects of CRC endoscopic screening Part 1. Aseptic method of infection safety of flexible endoscopy Forward Back 10 Alternative to endoscopy Interpretation of Claude Serre sketch.
1. M. Vockley. Probing the Challenges ofhttp://www.aami.org/meetings/summits/reprocessing/Materials/Endoscopes_BIT_MJ_2011.pdf Endoscopes. A Clinician on a Mission. Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology. AAMI. May/june https://www.ecri.org/Documents/secure/Health_Devices_Top_10_Hazards_2012.pdf ECRI. Top 10 health technologyhttps://www.ecri.org/Documents/secure/Health_Devices_Top_10_Hazards_2012.pdf hazards for F1421C9C447B&aid=F749A4C0BC3130E62DF0AF5E593F2979&category=2ACFC FC5C75E044D3C2AD 3&sort=1&page=1 W.A.Rutala. Endoscope reprocessing: Current Status of Disinfection Recommendations.http://ssc.bibalex.org/viewer/detail.jsf;jsessionid=A53D879FB4316DA717CEB B35?lid=079393D372F05151FAFC F1421C9C447B&aid=F749A4C0BC3130E62DF0AF5E593F2979&category=2ACFC FC5C75E044D3C2AD 3&sort=1&page=1 4. Hepatitis C. Global Infection Rates.http://www.pkids.org/files/pdf/phr/02-09globalhbv.pdf 5. Гренкова Т.А. Оценка инфекционной опасности манипуляций гибкимиhttp://www.crie.ru/pdf/avtoref3(grenkova).pdf эндоскопами в лечебно-профилактических учреждениях Российской Федерации, автореферат диссертации Cелькова Е.П., Гренкова Т.А. Проблемы инфекционной безопасности в гибкойhttp://crie.ru/vbi2/ pdf эндоскопии. ФГУН МНИИЭМ, Москва D1%81%D1%82%D0%BE%D0%B2%D1%96%20%D1%80%D0%B5%D1%81%D1%83%D1%80%D1%81%D0%B8/ft 3/13.pdf Гренкова Т.А., Cелькова Е.П. Риски передачи инфекции при проведении эндоскопическихhttp://medlib.dp.gov.ua/vidannya/2011/%D0%9F%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%BD%D0%BE%D1%82%D0%B5%D0%BA% D1%81%D1%82%D0%BE%D0%B2%D1%96%20%D1%80%D0%B5%D1%81%D1%83%D1%80%D1%81%D0%B8/ft 3/13.pdf исследований. Лабораторная и инструментальная диагностика. МНИИЭМ, Москва The Dirt on Flexiblehttp://www.patientsafetyauthority.org/advisories/AdvisoryLibrary/2010/dec7(4)/pages/135.aspx Endoscope Reprocessing. Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority. Vol.7, No.4, Dec safety-protocols.html#.Uh9CUjYmv5g Nearly Half of all Department of Veterans Affairs Facilities Not inhttp://www.usmedicine.com/articles/nearly-half-of-all-department-of-veterans-affairs-facilities-not-in-compliance-with-proper- safety-protocols.html#.Uh9CUjYmv5g Compliance with proper Safety Protocols. U.S. Medicine, September, https://www.ecri.org/Documents/Reprints/Preventing_Patient_Cross- Contamination_from_Flexible_Endoscopes(TechNation).pdf Preventing Patient Cross-contamination from Flexible Endoscopes. ECRI, TechNation. July 2011https://www.ecri.org/Documents/Reprints/Preventing_Patient_Cross- Contamination_from_Flexible_Endoscopes(TechNation).pdf 11. Груздева О.А., Гвелесиани Г.А., Уварова А.В. О результатах исследованийhttp://crie.ru/vbi2/ pdf эндоскопического оборудования в годах. Москва Практическое руководство Всемирной организации гастроэнтерологов. Дезинфекция в эндоскопии.Ноябрь, 2011.http://www.worldgastroenterology.org/assets/downloads/ru/pdf/guidelines/g_data14_ru.pdf 13. Yumiko Ishino с соавторами. Подводные камни при обработкеhttp://www.pentax-med.ru/news/super_w.doc эндоскопов после использования: очистка каналов воды и воздуха обязательна для высокоуровневой дезинфекции. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, Vol 53, Iss.2 (165-16), February Sources of information © Refernece on is obligatorywww.coloncancer.lv S.A. Matasov. Prospects of CRC endoscopic screening Part 1. Aseptic method of infection safety of flexible endoscopy Back 11 Forward
12. News of CI from Lawrence F Muscarella, PhD, © Refernece on is obligatorywww.coloncancer.lv S.A. Matasov. Prospects of CRC endoscopic screening Part 1. Aseptic method of infection safety of flexible endoscopy Back Main 12 From June 03, patients should be tested on HIV, hepatitis B and C because of inadequate disinfection of endoscope during last 8 years. Quebec, Canada. levis-hotel-dieu-infection-risk-hiv-hepatitis-colonoscopy-endoscopy.htmlhttp://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/montreal/story/2013/06/03/quebec- levis-hotel-dieu-infection-risk-hiv-hepatitis-colonoscopy-endoscopy.html From May 01, patients who underwent colonoscopy, warned of infection risk of HIV as well as hepatitis B and hepatitis C. Atlanta, USA. surgery-center-wa/http://www.timesfreepress.com/news/2013/may/01/456-colonoscopy-patients-atlanta- surgery-center-wa/ From June 07, % of flexible endoscopes in 5 hospitals contained “bio-dirty” (cells and other material) from previously examined patients. Agency CNBC, USA. 15-of-endoscopes-are-dirty.htmlhttp://www.beckersasc.com/asc-quality-infection-control/study- 15-of-endoscopes-are-dirty.html From July 16, patients who had colonoscopy from January 3 till July 3, 2013, were warned about importance of being tested for HIV and the hepatitits B and C viruses. Kansas, USA. patients-at-small-risk-for-infektionhttp://www.ksn.com/2013/07/16/hospital- patients-at-small-risk-for-infektion From July 18, About 900 patients, who underwent gastro- or colonoscopy, received letters that they are at risk of infection. California. USA. patients-about-possible-infection/-/ / /-/4u05y9z/-/index.htmlhttp://www.ksbw.com/news/central-california/salinas/natividad-medical-center-sends-letter-to- patients-about-possible-infection/-/ / /-/4u05y9z/-/index.html “The replacement of dangerous endoscopic devices could be defined only by legal motivation of its manufacturers”. S.A. Matasov, slide 10.
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