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Week 17 – Hydrology Ocean Floor Topography

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1 Week 17 – Hydrology Ocean Floor Topography
Mr. White 6th Grade Earth Science

2 Ocean floor Features Ocean Basin- This is the actual depression in Earth’s surface that holds the ocean water

3 Continental Shelf The gradual sloping end of a continent that extends under the ocean

4 Continental Slope The continental slope drops more steeply, and extends from the outer edge of the shelf to the ocean floor

5 Continental Rise A gentle slope with a generally smooth surface, built up by the shedding of sediments from the continental block, and located between the continental slope and the abyssal plain.

6 Seamount These are underwater mountains/volcanoes that do not break the surface of the ocean.

7 Abyssal Plains The abyssal plain is some of the
deepest parts of the ocean, and some of the flattest parts of Earth

8 Abyssal plains Abyssal plains are flat or very gently sloping areas of the deep ocean basin floor. They generally lie between the foot of a continental rise and a mid-oceanic ridge.

9 Volcanic Islands What is the tallest mountain in the world?

10 If you said Mt. Everest You’re WRONG!!!
While Everest is the “Highest” (above sea level), the volcanic mountain island Mauna Kea is actually taller from base to peak! Mt. Everest is 8,848 m (29,028 ft), but Mauna Kea is 10,203 m (33,476 ft) from it’s base in the Pacific ocean.

11 A Volcanic Island Is formed by volcanic eruptions. The lava continues to pile up and harden and the mountain/island breaks the surface of the ocean.

12 Mid ocean Ridge

13 The Mid Ocean Ridge Is between 70,000 and 80,000 km long
Is a continuous chain of undersea mountains that runs all around the world Is the longest mountain chain on Earth Forms new ocean floor as lava erupts through the Earth’s crust

14 What causes the Mid Ocean Ridge?
Parts of Earth’s crust—which are called crustal plates—are constantly moving. When these plates spread apart, they allow the hot magma to enter the ocean floor. As it enters the ocean and cools, it solidifies, and forms new ocean floor.

15 Ocean Trenches Ocean trenches are like canyons on the bottom of the ocean floor. They are some of the deepest parts of the earth. Some bottoms of trenches haven’t even been explored yet.

16 Oceanic Trenches The oceanic trenches are hemispheric-scale (one hemisphere to another) long but narrow topographic depressions of the sea floor. They are also the deepest parts of the ocean floor.

17 The Mariana Trench This is the deepest trench we know of; it is over 11km deep. It is located in the Pacific Ocean. Most trenches are in the Pacific Ocean. Mt. Everest could easily fit in the Mariana Trench, and there would still be over 2000m of water over it!

18 How deep is the ocean? The depth of the ocean is extremely variable.
The Ocean has an average depth between 3 and 4 kilometers. The deepest point we know of is the Mariana Trench (about 11km).

19 How do we know how deep the ocean is?
There are several methods that have been used; can you think of any? - sounding - SONAR - diving - submersibles - Remote Underwater Manipulator - Satellites - Gravity Mapping

20 Some picture examples

21 Did you know we map the ocean floor?
Why do we map it? So ships know the best travel routes. So we can understand the different depth of the ocean and the different effects it has on life, as well as the minerals that are available. So we can better understand the formation of the Earth, and all of the valuable resources it has.

22 The type of map we use is called a
Topographic Map Topography is the study of the layout of the land. How is this different than a regular travel map? Where else would you use a topographic map? How do they work? Road map Topographic map

23 Ocean Floor Topography
When we discussed all the different sections of the ocean floor, we were discussing the subsurface topography of the ocean.

24 Wrap It Up Let’s do an exit ticket!

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