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西方文明史 第三講: 希臘 劉 慧 教授 【本著作除另有註明外,採取創用 CC 「姓名標示 -非商業性-相同方式分享」臺灣 3.0 版授權釋出】創用 CC 「姓名標示 -非商業性-相同方式分享」臺灣 3.0 版 1.

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Presentation on theme: "西方文明史 第三講: 希臘 劉 慧 教授 【本著作除另有註明外,採取創用 CC 「姓名標示 -非商業性-相同方式分享」臺灣 3.0 版授權釋出】創用 CC 「姓名標示 -非商業性-相同方式分享」臺灣 3.0 版 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 西方文明史 第三講: 希臘 劉 慧 教授 【本著作除另有註明外,採取創用 CC 「姓名標示 -非商業性-相同方式分享」臺灣 3.0 版授權釋出】創用 CC 「姓名標示 -非商業性-相同方式分享」臺灣 3.0 版 1

2 The Earliest Civilizations of Europe; Greek Civilization The Good Life 1.Minoan period BCE Mycenaean period The Greek Dark Ages The Greek Archaic Age Greek colonization Athenian Democracy The Persian Wars 490, The Classical Age BCE 2

3 3 1. Minoan and Mycenaean Civilizations Rediscovered in the 19 th c – Heinrich Schliemann: inspired by the Iliad 1870 Troy; 1876 Mycenae – Arthur Evans: looking for king Minos of Crete 1899 Knossos Influence on later classical Greek culture? How similar to neighbouring areas?

4 Minoan Civilization BCE Writing not yet deciphered City-states: Knossos, Kato Zakros Bureaucracy No protective walls Mycenaean Civilization BCE Trading relations City-states: Mycenae, Pylos, Tiryns. Bureaucracy Heavily fortified hilltop forts Linear B – Mycenaeans ruled Crete 1250 Trojan war the Dorians ruled Greece 4

5 Society Minoan Civilization Prosperity and equality – Flush-toilet, swimming pool, parquet floors in the palace – Dwellings in the poorest quarters were well built and spacious – Women could participate in public activities and enter into many occupations (bullfighters, boxers) Recreations – Dancing, running races, boxing – Stone theaters Mycenaean Civilization Ostentatious royal graves – Inlaid bronze daggers 5

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7 Art Minoan Civilization A people dedicated to elegance Painting – Fresco – Delight in the beauty of the natural world – Delicacy, spontaneity and naturalism – Joie de vivre Sculpture – Smaller than life-size Household objects Mycenaean Civilization Not as elegant, delicate or graceful – stiffer, more symmetrical Inlaid daggers were original Little direct influence on later Greece – Homer entirely forgot the bureaucracy: destruction by the Dorians = a blessing in disguise? Art; devotion to comfort, love of amusement: – different from Mesopotamia (and from Egypt to a lesser degree) 7

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9 2. The Greek Dark Ages Written records disappeared Political patterns – Autonomous villages; village leader commanded local army (and worked on land); village assembly = informal gatherings of warriors; no formal legal institutions Social and economic life – No trading, little specialization Inferences drawn from the Iliad and the Odyssey – Evolved from oral traditions during this period 9 th century developments: – Learned from the Phoenicians: the alphabet and seafaring – Reinvent urbanism: the polis (pl. poleis) 9

10 Religion – Polytheistic system for 1) explaining the workings of the physical world Myth of Persephone, Hades and Demeter – and 2) obtaining earthly benefits Gods behaved like humans and needed to be placated. sacrifices and prayers – No professional priesthood; Greek temples were places where gods reside temporarily Fate after death – Shades in Hades gradually faded away Life was for living for its own sake; glory resided in practicing human virtues – Bravery, wisdom (cunning), service to family and community Humanism 10

11 Writing and trade Village → town (hilltop fortification with marketplaces) → (population growth) city, polis – City + surrounding countryside and villages. Kinship Colonization – Early 8 th c: commercial; c : farming – Each colony was an independent foundation, with emotional ties only to its ‘metropolis’ Forms of government – General assembly, executive council and magistrates – Oligarchy. Tyranny. Democracy 3. Archaic Greece ( BCE) 11

12 Athens Probably in the 8 th c, Athens and Attica were united into a city-state: sunoikismos Political changes in reaction to social and military changes 1.Oligarchy – Hereditary aristocracy based on family ties – 594- based on income 2.Tyranny – Peisistratus ( ) 3.Democracy – Cleisthenes

13 Athens: Social changes Conflict between various groups of aristocracy; between coastal and mountain areas; between rich and poor – Owner farmers – hektemorioi or tenant farmers paying 1/6 of their produce to the landowner – debt slavery 13

14 Athens: Military innovation 14

15 Athens: Oligarchy Draco, 621BCE – stern ‘draconian’ punishment for criminal acts – restoring order by LAW Solon, 594 BCE was granted emergency powers to forestall class warfare – restoring order by CONSTITUTION – Economic/Social Cancelled debts; loans could not be secured on the person Olive oil and wine, but not wheat, were allowed to be exported; encouraged ceramic industry – Political Classified the citizenry into 4 grades in terms of wealth (500/300/200 bushels p.a. of produce) Archonship open to men of 1st and 2nd ranks A Council of 400 to be drawn from the top 3 ranks – Legal – ended Draco's laws A popular Council of Appeal: all citizens were included as jurors 15

16 Athens: Tyranny In the short term Solon failed – in 546 Peisistratus established a tyranny – Tyrants: a member of the elite obtained support from the larger population. Unconstitutional. – State loans. Paid out of a 10% tax on all produce – Poetry, arts, building projects, popular festivals : Peisistratus was succeeded by his son Hippias, who was later overthrown 16

17 Athens: Democracy Sudden change from one-man rule In 507 Cleisthenes defeated rivals with help from the lower classes, ‘father of Athenian DEMOCRACY’ – Ephialtes (461 BCE), Pericles ( BCE) etc; navy (483-) – Sovereign power resided in the Assembly (ekklesia) Council (boule) of 500; standing committee (prytaneis) 100 magistrates 6000 citizens acting as both jurymen and judges (dikastes) a year 9 Archons; Council of Aeropagus - ex archons 17

18 – Use of lot – Set up 30 regions and 10 new ‘tribes’ for nominating councilors and magistrates; every free man participated in regional selection process Selection was based on geography rather than on family connections Decision-making was based on argument and debate, rather than local/kinship ties and custom – Citizens were paid for attending meeting and holding office – Ostracism - honourable exile to forestall the rise of tyrant The system matured by 487; worked well for a century – Strict majority rule 18

19 – Women, foreign residents and slaves were excluded – Otherwise fully participatory: Everyone could, should, and had the right to participate in public affairs Making the right decision for the common good did not require specialist expertise Everyone had the ability to chose for themselves A high regard for the dignity and worth of the individual – The danger of unreflective emotionalism 19

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22 The Persian Wars 490, Herodotus ( ) Cyrus the Great ( ): extended his rule to Asia Minor Ionian revolt Darius I: Battle of Marathon 490 Themistocles built a fleet 483 Xerxes: Battles of Thermopylae and Salamis 480, battle of Plataea 479 Greek myths about the event – The 300 at Thermopylae in 480 – struggle for liberty against despotism Confidence 22

23 Persia, BCE Cyrus Cambyses Darius I the Great Xerxes Medes, Lydia, Babylon, Egypt Satrapy, satrap Vassal states: local religious and legal institutions remained Standardized currency, weights and measures; roads, ‘postal system’ Allowed conquered peoples considerable self-determination; title: King of Kings, (instead of ‘True King’) Universalism, eclecticism Governmental instability by 4 th c BCE The Parthian dynasty in Iran from ca. 238 BCE 23

24 24 版權聲明 頁碼作品授權條件來源 / 作者 3 國立臺灣大學 歷史學系 劉 慧 教授。 3 WIKIMEDIA COMMONS (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mediterranean_Relief.jpg) ,http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mediterranean_Relief.jpg visited. 4 WIKIMEDIA COMMONS (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dolphin_Mural_Knossos.jpg) ,http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dolphin_Mural_Knossos.jpg visited. 5 Bowersarthistory (http://bowersarthistory.wikispaces.com/Mycenaean) ,http://bowersarthistory.wikispaces.com/Mycenaean visited. 5 WIKIMEDIA COMMONS (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mykene.Treasure.of.Atreus.tholos.jpg) ,http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mykene.Treasure.of.Atreus.tholos.jpg visited.

25 25 頁碼作品授權條件來源 / 作者 6 WIKIPEDIA (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Knossos_bull.jpg) ,http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Knossos_bull.jpg visited. 6 Flickr / Cåsbr (http://www.flickr.com/photos/rosemania/ /) ,http://www.flickr.com/photos/rosemania/ / visited. 6 Flickr / Cåsbr (http://www.flickr.com/photos/rosemania/ /) ,http://www.flickr.com/photos/rosemania/ / visited. 6 Flickr / tortipede (http://www.flickr.com/photos/tortipede/ /(http://www.flickr.com/photos/tortipede/ /) , visited. 6 Flickr / mitko_denev (http://www.flickr.com/photos/mitko/ /(http://www.flickr.com/photos/mitko/ /) , visited.

26 26 頁碼作品授權條件來源 / 作者 7 Flickr / clydesan (http://www.flickr.com/photos/clydesan/ /) ,http://www.flickr.com/photos/clydesan/ / visited. 8 Flickr / Templar1307 (http://www.flickr.com/photos/healinglight/ /(http://www.flickr.com/photos/healinglight/ /) , visited. 8 Flickr / *clarity* (http://www.flickr.com/photos/clairity/ /) ,http://www.flickr.com/photos/clairity/ / visited. 8 Odisea2008 / Cesar Ojeda (http://www.odisea2008.com/2009/09/arte-de-la-grecia-clasica.html) ,http://www.odisea2008.com/2009/09/arte-de-la-grecia-clasica.html visited. 11 WIKIPEDIA / Thrasis (http://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%91%CF%81%CF%87%CE%B5%CE%AF%CE%BF:Greece_and_ it‘s_colonies_in_550_BC.jpg) , visited.http://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%91%CF%81%CF%87%CE%B5%CE%AF%CE%BF:Greece_and_ it‘s_colonies_in_550_BC.jpg

27 27 頁碼作品授權條件來源 / 作者 12 bufete tecnico (http://www.bufetetecnico.es/arquitectura/proyectos1/propileos.html) ,http://www.bufetetecnico.es/arquitectura/proyectos1/propileos.html visited. 12 WIKIMEDIA COMMONS (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:AegeanSea_map_modified.png) ,http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:AegeanSea_map_modified.png visited. 13 WIKIMEDIA COMMONS / Dimorsitanos (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Trittys_map.jpg) ,http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Trittys_map.jpg visited. 14 Flickr / Ark in Time (http://www.flickr.com/photos/theheartindifferentkeys/ /(http://www.flickr.com/photos/theheartindifferentkeys/ /) , visited. 14 Flickr / Walters Art Museum (http://www.flickr.com/photos/walters-art-museum/ /in/photostream/(http://www.flickr.com/photos/walters-art-museum/ /in/photostream/) , visited.

28 28 頁碼作品授權條件來源 / 作者 14 WIKIPEDIA (http://mk.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=%D0%9F%D0%BE%D0%B4%D0%B0%D1%82%D0%B E%D1%82%D0%B5%D0%BA%D0%B0:Macedonian_Phalanx_(syntagma_formation).jpg&filetimest amp= ) , visited.http://mk.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=%D0%9F%D0%BE%D0%B4%D0%B0%D1%82%D0%B E%D1%82%D0%B5%D0%BA%D0%B0:Macedonian_Phalanx_(syntagma_formation).jpg&filetimest amp= ) 17 Flickr / pyramis (http://www.flickr.com/photos/mindmob/ /) ,http://www.flickr.com/photos/mindmob/ / visited. 20 Flickr / Kenny Murray (http://www.flickr.com/photos/kenny_murray/ /) ,http://www.flickr.com/photos/kenny_murray/ / visited. 20 WIKIMEDIA COMMONS / Rama (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Trireme_1.jpg) ,http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Trireme_1.jpg visited. 21 國立臺灣大學 歷史學系 劉 慧 教授。

29 29 頁碼作品授權條件來源 / 作者 22 Social Studies Online (http://blais.wikispaces.com/Ancient+Middle+Eastern+Peoples) ,http://blais.wikispaces.com/Ancient+Middle+Eastern+Peoples visited. 22 《 300 壯士:斯巴達的逆襲》,導演:柴克史耐德,發行:得利影視, 2010 年 08 月 01 日。 博客來 (http://www.books.com.tw/exep/prod/dvd/dvdfile.php?item=D ) , visited. 依據著作權法第 46 、 52 、 65 條合理使用。http://www.books.com.tw/exep/prod/dvd/dvdfile.php?item=D Flickr / Arian Zwegers (http://www.flickr.com/photos/azwegers/ /) ,http://www.flickr.com/photos/azwegers/ / visited.


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