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Mats Lindroos on behalf of The beta-beam study group

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Presentation on theme: "Mats Lindroos on behalf of The beta-beam study group"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Beta-beam http://cern.ch/beta-beam/
Mats Lindroos on behalf of The beta-beam study group Swiss neutrino meeting

2 Collaborators The beta-beam study group:
CEA, France: Jacques Bouchez, Saclay, Paris Olivier Napoly, Saclay, Paris Jacques Payet, Saclay, Paris CERN, Switzerland: Michael Benedikt, AB Peter Butler, EP Roland Garoby, AB Steven Hancock, AB Ulli Koester, EP Mats Lindroos, AB Matteo Magistris, TIS Thomas Nilsson, EP Fredrik Wenander, AB Geneva University, Switzerland: Alain Blondel Simone Gilardoni GSI, Germany: Oliver Boine-Frankenheim B. Franzke R. Hollinger Markus Steck Peter Spiller Helmuth Weick IFIC, Valencia: Jordi Burguet, Juan-Jose Gomez-Cadenas, Pilar Hernandez, Jose Bernabeu IN2P3, France: Bernard Laune, Orsay, Paris Alex Mueller, Orsay, Paris Pascal Sortais, Grenoble Antonio Villari, GANIL, CAEN Cristina Volpe, Orsay, Paris INFN, Italy: Alberto Facco, Legnaro Mauro Mezzetto, Padua Vittorio Palladino, Napoli Andrea Pisent, Legnaro Piero Zucchelli, Sezione di Ferrara Louvain-la-neuve, Belgium: Thierry Delbar Guido Ryckewaert UK: Marielle Chartier, Liverpool university Chris Prior, RAL and Oxford university Uppsala university, The Svedberg laboratory, Sweden: Dag Reistad Associate: Rick Baartman, TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada Andreas Jansson, Fermi lab, USA, Mike Zisman, LBL, USA This are all the participants in the present study. I have a few more names on the mailing list but they are only there to be kept informed. Swiss neutrino meeting

3 The beta-beam Idea by Piero Zucchelli The CERN base line scenario
A novel concept for a neutrino factory: the beta-beam, Phys. Let. B, 532 (2002) The CERN base line scenario Avoid anything that requires a “technology jump” which would cost time and money (and be risky) Make use of a maximum of the existing infrastructure If possible find an “existing” detector site Swiss neutrino meeting

4 CERN: b-beam baseline scenario
Nuclear Physics SPL Decay ring Brho = 1500 Tm B = 5 T Lss = 2500 m SPS Decay Ring ISOL target & Ion source ECR Cyclotrons, linac or FFAG Foer politiska skael har jag laatit bli att skriva EURISOL och valt att skriva Nuclear Physics istaellet. Energin foer jonerna aer laangt ifraan helt fast-staelld. Gamma=150 foer Helium aer inte ett “magiskt” tal men det aer mest kraevande utifraan accelerator synpunkt saa daerfoer har jag koncentrerat mig paa detta I fortsaettningen. Rapid cycling synchrotron PS Swiss neutrino meeting

5 Target values for the decay ring
6Helium2+ In Decay ring: x1014 ions Energy: GeV/u Rel. gamma: 150 Rigidity: Tm 18Neon10+ (single target) In decay ring: x1012 ions Energy: GeV/u Rel. gamma: 60 Rigidity: Tm The neutrino beam at the experiment should have the “time stamp” of the circulating beam in the decay ring. The beam has to be concentrated to as few and as short bunches as possible to maximize the number of ions/nanosecond. (background suppression), aim for a duty factor of 10-4 VIKTIGT: Vi har I princip kommit oeverens med vaar kollegor neutrinofysikerna att de kan raekna med en faktor tre mer ( ^12 ioner) Neon men daa anvaender vi tre target EFTER varandra. En mono-jon kaella vid varje target (tre) men sjaelvklart bara en super-duper-ECR kaella (typ Pascal/Fredrik). Swiss neutrino meeting

6 ISOL production + + + F r U L i X C s Y 1 GeV p Swiss neutrino meeting
2 1 F r + spallation 1 GeV p p n 2 3 8 U 1 L i X + fragmentation 1 4 3 C s Y + fission Swiss neutrino meeting

7 6He production by 9Be(n,a)
Converter technology: (J. Nolen, NPA 701 (2002) 312c) Courtesy of Will Talbert, Mahlon Wilson (Los Alamaos) and Dave Ross (TRIUMF) Layout very similar to planned EURISOL converter target aiming for 1015 fissions per s. Swiss neutrino meeting

8 Production of b+ emitters
Scenario 1 Spallation of close-by target nuclides: 18,19Ne from MgO and 34,35Ar in CaO Production rate for 18Ne is 1x1012 s-1 (with 2.2 GeV 100 mA proton beam, cross-sections of some mb and a 1 m long oxide target of 10% theoretical density) 19Ne can be produced with one order of magnitude higher intensity but the half life is 17 seconds! Scenario 2 alternatively use (,n) and (3He,n) reactions: 12C(3,4He,n)14,15O, 16O(3,4He,n)18,19Ne, 32S(3,4He,n)34,35Ar Intense 3,4He beams of mA 50 MeV are required Baade Neon och helium aer producerat med EURISOLs “lilla” target station foer 100 kW. Igen, foer neon har vi taenkt oss tre targets efter varandra. Swiss neutrino meeting

9 60-90 GHz « ECR Duoplasmatron » for pre-bunching of gaseous RIB
2.0 – 3.0 T pulsed coils or SC coils Very high density magnetized plasma ne ~ 1014 cm-3 Very small plasma chamber F ~ 20 mm / L ~ 5 cm Target Arbitrary distance if gas Rapid pulsed valve 1-3 mm 100 KV extraction 60-90 GHz / KW 10 –200 µs /  = 6-3 mm optical axial coupling UHF window or « glass » chamber (?) 20 – 100 µs 20 – 200 mA 1012 to 1013 ions per bunch with high efficiency OK, haer en bild paa Pascal’s och Fredrik’s monster. Diskutera detaljer med Fredrik. Pascal aer mycket entusiastik foer moejligheterna att detta ska fungera. Jag aer inte saeker paa om det aer en ECR kaella eller en duoplasmatron kaella egentligen? Som sgat, diskutera med Fredrik. Jag tror dessutom att detta kan bli raett anvaendbart foer EURISOL (RIA). Rena kanonkulan paa target I mini-ball! Tala om back-ground supression. Moriond meeting: Pascal Sortais et al. LPSC-Grenoble optical radial coupling (if gas only) Swiss neutrino meeting

10 Overview: Accumulation
Klicka paa bilden av PS saa startar AVI filmen. Egentligen ska det staa cyclotron, FFAG eller LINAC. Den svarta “pluppen” aer en folie foer laddningsavrivning vid injection. Jag tror inte vi kommer att anvaenda den metdoen men bilden aer “historisk”. Sequential filling of 16 buckets in the PS from the storage ring Swiss neutrino meeting

11 Stacking in the Decay ring
Ejection to matched dispersion trajectory Asymmetric bunch merging SPS SPS SPS SPS SPS SPS SPS SPS SPS I den foersta delan av “filmen” ser man vad som haender I vaart tredimensionella rum. Naer klasarna kommer in I decay ringen roterar vi dem I fasrummet (Energi avvikelse fraan medelenergin plottat mot klas laengd I tid) foer att de ska komma I raett laege foer Steve’s fantastiska “asymmetric bunch merging” (naesta bild). Swiss neutrino meeting

12 Asymmetric bunch merging
Foersta bilden visar en simulering av “asymmetric bunch merging” (klicka paa bilden saa startar AVI filmen) medan den andra sekvensen aer en test med riktiga partiklar och “en tomm” klase I CERN PS. Rekonstruktion genom att anvaenda mitt och Steve’s tommografi program foer fasrumstomografi (http://cern.ch/tomography). Den longitudinella emittansen oekar enbart med storleken av den klase som vi laegger I centrum. Det partiklar som redan var daer trycks utaat saa att man foer en loekskinns struktur med de aeldsta partiklarna laengst ut. Detta aer foerstaas en utmaekt metod att lagra foer kaernfysik experiment I t.ex ESR eller HESR paa GSI. Paa min poster om lagringsringar foer RNB6 har vi precis foereslagit detta. Snaella, saeg detta. Swiss neutrino meeting

13 Asymmetric bunch merging
(S. Hancock, M. Benedikt and J,-L.Vallet, A proof of principle of asymmteric bunch pair merging, AB-note MD) Swiss neutrino meeting

14 Decay losses Losses during acceleration are being studied:
Full FLUKA simulations in progress for all stages (M. Magistris and M. Silari, Parameters of radiological interest for a beta-beam decay ring, TIS RP-TN) Preliminary results: Can be managed in low energy part PS will be heavily activated New fast cycling PS? SPS OK! Full FLUKA simulations of decay ring losses: Tritium and Sodium production surrounding rock well below national limits Reasonable requirements of concreting of tunnel walls to enable decommissioning of the tunnel and fixation of Tritium and Sodium Du har faatt en kopia av Matteo’s papper. Swiss neutrino meeting

15 SC magnets S. Russenschuck, CERN
Dipoles can be built with no coils in the path of the decaying particles to minimize peak power density in superconductor The losses have been simulated and one possible dipole design has been proposed Thomas: Neon och Helium boejs aat olika haall saa men denna typ av dipol saa reducerar man bara problemet foer en typ av joner. Antagligen raecker det daa Matteo’s “heat loss” plot visar att den vaerme man skapar kan hanteras med klassiskt supra ledande teknik. Foer phase ett av beta-beam saa taenker vi oss att man anvaender klassiska supraledande magneter och inte LHC typen (superfluid). Naer vi vill uppgradera till Pilar Herenandez super beta-beam facilitet (gamma=400) saa kanske tekniken foer superfluid helium magneter aer saa bra saa att vi kan anvaenda den. En supraldenade magnet som aer “oeppen” paa baegge sidor aer mycket svaar att konstruera men folk foersoeker och kanske vi kan taenkas anvaenda en saadan foer beta-beams. S. Russenschuck, CERN Swiss neutrino meeting

16 Tunnels and Magnets Civil engineering costs: Estimate of 400 MCHF for 1.3% incline (13.9 mrad) Ringlenth: 6850 m, Radius=300 m, Straight sections=2500 m Magnet cost: First estimate at 100 MCHF Med stoersta sannolikhet koster tunneln enbart 200 MCHF (inga stora kammrar foer detektorer och liten lutning) men vi behoever nog perngarna foer en PS ring istaellet. FLUKA simulated losses in surrounding rock (no public health implications) Swiss neutrino meeting

17 Intensities Stage 6He 18Ne (single target)
From ECR source: 2.0x1013 ions per second 0.8x1011 ions per second Storage ring: 1.0x1012 ions per bunch 4.1x1010 ions per bunch Fast cycling synch: 1.0x1012 ion per bunch 4.1x1010 ion per bunch PS after acceleration: 1.0x1013 ions per batch 5.2x1011 ions per batch SPS after acceleration: 0.9x1013 ions per batch 4.9x1011 ions per batch Decay ring: 2.0x1014 ions in four 10 ns long bunch 9.1x1012 ions in four 10 ns long bunch OK, igen gloemm inte att paapeka att foer neon saa aer detta intensiteten foer en “target”. Vi lovar mer foer fyskerna med med hjaelp att tre target efter varandra. Only b-decay losses accounted for, add efficiency losses (50%) Swiss neutrino meeting

18 Low energy beta-beam n n The proposal Physics potential ne Beta-beam
boost n 6He Beta-beam The proposal To exploit the beta-beam concept to produce intense and pure low-energy neutrino beams (C. Volpe, hep-ph/ , To appear in Journ. Phys. G. 30(2004)L1) Physics potential Neutrino-nucleus interaction studies for particle, nuclear physics, astrophysics (nucleosynthesis) Neutrino properties, like n magnetic moment N 6He 6Li+e+ne Qb=4. MeV ne e n Swiss neutrino meeting

19 Neutrino-nucleus Interaction Rates at a Low-energy Beta-beam Facility
CERN GANIL (EURISOL) GSI Intensities Detectors g 1012 n/s 1 4p 1013 n/s 1-100 109 n/s 1-10 4p and Close detector Autin et al, J.Phys. (2003). H. Weick (GSI) A. Villari (GANIL) Neutrino Fluxes (J. Serreau and C. Volpe, hep-ph/ , submitted to Phys. Rev. D.) Small Ring Large Ring 25779 82645 103707 7922 9453 1956 ne + 208Pb ne + Nucleus ne + 16O ne + D Events/year for g=14 Small Ring : Lss = 150 m, Ltot = 450 m. Large Ring : Lss = 2.5 km, Ltot = 7.5 km Swiss neutrino meeting

20 R&D (improvements) Production of RIB (intensity)
SPL ISOL Target + ECR Linac, cyclotron or FFAG Rapid cycling synchrotron PS SPS Decay ring Production of RIB (intensity) Simulations (GEANT, FLUKA) Target design, only 100 kW primary proton beam in present design Accumulation scenario Acceleration and storgae FFAG versa linac/storage ring/RCS Two types of ions in the ring Tracking studies (intensity) Loss management Superconducting dipoles (g of neutrinos) Pulsed for new PS/SPS (GSI FAIR) High field dipoles for decay ring to reduce arc length Radiation hardness (Super FRS) Swiss neutrino meeting

21 The EURISOL concept Swiss neutrino meeting

22 EURISOL DS Physics, beams and safety
Physics and instrumentation (Liverpool) Beam intensity calculations (GSI) Safety and radioprotection (Saclay) Accelerators : Synergies with HIPPI (CARE) Proton accelerator design (INFN Legnaro) Heavy ion accelerator design (GANIL) SC cavity development (IPN Orsay): SC cavity prototypes and multipurpose cryomodule Targets and ion sources : Synergies with spallation sources Multi-MW target station (CERN, PSI) : mercury converter Direct target (CERN) : Several target-ion source prototypes Fission target (INFN Legnaro) : UCx target Beta-Beam : Synergies with BENE Beam preparation (Jyväskylä) : 60 GHz ECR source Beta-beam aspects (CERN) Swiss neutrino meeting

23 EURISOL DS Swiss neutrino meeting

24 Beta-beam Coordination
Design Study USERS Frejus Gran Sasso High Gamma Astro-Physics Nuclear Physics (g, intensity and duty factor) EURISOL Beta-beam Coordination Beta-beam parameter group Above 100 MeV/u Targets (PSI) 60 GHz ECR Low energy beta-beam And many more… OTHER LABS TRIUMF FFAG Tracking Collimators US study Neutrino Factory DS Conceptual Design # with price ### M€ Swiss neutrino meeting

25 A EURISOL/beta-beam facility at CERN!
boost n 6He Beta-beam A EURISOL/beta-beam facility at CERN! A boost for radioactive nuclear beams A boost for neutrino physics Swiss neutrino meeting


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