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 Swiss neutrino meeting The Beta-beam Mats Lindroos on behalf of The beta-beam study group.

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Presentation on theme: " Swiss neutrino meeting The Beta-beam Mats Lindroos on behalf of The beta-beam study group."— Presentation transcript:

1  Swiss neutrino meeting The Beta-beam Mats Lindroos on behalf of The beta-beam study group

2  Swiss neutrino meeting Collaborators The beta-beam study group: –CEA, France: Jacques Bouchez, Saclay, Paris Olivier Napoly, Saclay, Paris Jacques Payet, Saclay, Paris –CERN, Switzerland: Michael Benedikt, AB Peter Butler, EP Roland Garoby, AB Steven Hancock, AB Ulli Koester, EP Mats Lindroos, AB Matteo Magistris, TIS Thomas Nilsson, EP Fredrik Wenander, AB –Geneva University, Switzerland: Alain Blondel Simone Gilardoni –GSI, Germany: Oliver Boine-Frankenheim B. Franzke R. Hollinger Markus Steck Peter Spiller Helmuth Weick –IFIC, Valencia: Jordi Burguet, Juan-Jose Gomez-Cadenas, Pilar Hernandez, Jose Bernabeu –IN2P3, France: Bernard Laune, Orsay, Paris Alex Mueller, Orsay, Paris Pascal Sortais, Grenoble Antonio Villari, GANIL, CAEN Cristina Volpe, Orsay, Paris –INFN, Italy: Alberto Facco, Legnaro Mauro Mezzetto, Padua Vittorio Palladino, Napoli Andrea Pisent, Legnaro Piero Zucchelli, Sezione di Ferrara –Louvain-la-neuve, Belgium: Thierry Delbar Guido Ryckewaert –UK: Marielle Chartier, Liverpool university Chris Prior, RAL and Oxford university –Uppsala university, The Svedberg laboratory, Sweden: Dag Reistad –Associate: Rick Baartman, TRIUMF, Vancouver, Canada Andreas Jansson, Fermi lab, USA, Mike Zisman, LBL, USA

3  Swiss neutrino meeting The beta-beam Idea by Piero Zucchelli –A novel concept for a neutrino factory: the beta-beam, Phys. Let. B, 532 (2002) 166-172 The CERN base line scenario –Avoid anything that requires a “technology jump” which would cost time and money (and be risky) –Make use of a maximum of the existing infrastructure –If possible find an “existing” detector site

4  Swiss neutrino meeting CERN:  -beam baseline scenario PS Decay Ring ISOL target & Ion source SPL Cyclotrons, linac or FFAG Decay ring Brho = 1500 Tm B = 5 T L ss = 2500 m SPS ECR Rapid cycling synchrotron Nuclear Physics

5  Swiss neutrino meeting Target values for the decay ring 18 Neon 10+ (single target) –In decay ring: 4.5x10 12 ions –Energy: 55 GeV/u –Rel. gamma: 60 –Rigidity: 335 Tm The neutrino beam at the experiment should have the “time stamp” of the circulating beam in the decay ring. The beam has to be concentrated to as few and as short bunches as possible to maximize the number of ions/nanosecond. (background suppression), aim for a duty factor of 10 -4 6 Helium 2+ –In Decay ring: 1.0x10 14 ions –Energy: 139 GeV/u –Rel. gamma: 150 –Rigidity: 1500 Tm

6  Swiss neutrino meeting ISOL production 1 GeV p p n 2 3 8 U 2 0 1 F r + spallation 1 1 L i X + + fragmentation 1 4 3 C s Y + + fission

7  Swiss neutrino meeting Layout very similar to planned EURISOL converter target aiming for 10 15 fissions per s. 6 He production by 9 Be(n,  ) Converter technology: ( J. Nolen, NPA 701 (2002) 312c ) Courtesy of Will Talbert, Mahlon Wilson (Los Alamaos) and Dave Ross (TRIUMF)

8  Swiss neutrino meeting Scenario 1 Spallation of close-by target nuclides: 18,19 Ne from MgO and 34,35 Ar in CaO –Production rate for 18 Ne is 1x10 12 s -1 (with 2.2 GeV 100  A proton beam, cross-sections of some mb and a 1 m long oxide target of 10% theoretical density) – 19 Ne can be produced with one order of magnitude higher intensity but the half life is 17 seconds! Scenario 2 alternatively use ( ,n) and ( 3 He,n) reactions: 12 C( 3,4 He,n) 14,15 O, 16 O( 3,4 He,n) 18,19 Ne, 32 S( 3,4 He,n) 34,35 Ar –Intense 3,4 He beams of 10-100 mA 50 MeV are required Production of  + emitters

9  Swiss neutrino meeting 60-90 GHz « ECR Duoplasmatron » for pre-bunching of gaseous RIB Very high density magnetized plasma n e ~ 10 14 cm -3 2.0 – 3.0 T pulsed coils or SC coils 60-90 GHz / 10-100 KW 10 –200 µs / = 6-3 mm optical axial coupling optical radial coupling (if gas only)  1-3 mm 100 KV extraction UHF window or « glass » chamber (?) Target Rapid pulsed valve 20 – 100 µs 20 – 200 mA 10 12 to 10 13 ions per bunch with high efficiency Very small plasma chamber  ~ 20 mm / L ~ 5 cm Arbitrary distance if gas Moriond meeting: Pascal Sortais et al. LPSC-Grenoble

10  Swiss neutrino meeting Overview: Accumulation Sequential filling of 16 buckets in the PS from the storage ring

11  Swiss neutrino meeting SPS Stacking in the Decay ring Ejection to matched dispersion trajectory Asymmetric bunch merging SPS

12  Swiss neutrino meeting Asymmetric bunch merging

13  Swiss neutrino meeting Asymmetric bunch merging (S. Hancock, M. Benedikt and J,- L.Vallet, A proof of principle of asymmteric bunch pair merging, AB- note-2003-080 MD)

14  Swiss neutrino meeting Decay losses Losses during acceleration are being studied: –Full FLUKA simulations in progress for all stages (M. Magistris and M. Silari, Parameters of radiological interest for a beta-beam decay ring, TIS-2003-017-RP-TN) –Preliminary results: Can be managed in low energy part PS will be heavily activated –New fast cycling PS? SPS OK! Full FLUKA simulations of decay ring losses: –Tritium and Sodium production surrounding rock well below national limits –Reasonable requirements of concreting of tunnel walls to enable decommissioning of the tunnel and fixation of Tritium and Sodium

15  Swiss neutrino meeting SC magnets Dipoles can be built with no coils in the path of the decaying particles to minimize peak power density in superconductor –The losses have been simulated and one possible dipole design has been proposed S. Russenschuck, CERN

16  Swiss neutrino meeting Tunnels and Magnets Civil engineering costs: Estimate of 400 MCHF for 1.3% incline (13.9 mrad) –Ringlenth: 6850 m, Radius=300 m, Straight sections=2500 m Magnet cost: First estimate at 100 MCHF FLUKA simulated losses in surrounding rock (no public health implications)

17  Swiss neutrino meeting Intensities Stage 6 He 18 Ne (single target) From ECR source: 2.0x10 13 ions per second0.8x10 11 ions per second Storage ring: 1.0x10 12 ions per bunch4.1x10 10 ions per bunch Fast cycling synch: 1.0x10 12 ion per bunch4.1x10 10 ion per bunch PS after acceleration: 1.0x10 13 ions per batch5.2x10 11 ions per batch SPS after acceleration: 0.9x10 13 ions per batch4.9x10 11 ions per batch Decay ring: 2.0x10 14 ions in four 10 ns long bunch 9.1x10 12 ions in four 10 ns long bunch Only  -decay losses accounted for, add efficiency losses (50%)

18  Swiss neutrino meeting Low energy beta-beam The proposal –To exploit the beta-beam concept to produce intense and pure low-energy neutrino beams (C. Volpe, hep-ph/0303222, To appear in Journ. Phys. G. 30(2004)L1) Physics potential –Neutrino-nucleus interaction studies for particle, nuclear physics, astrophysics (nucleosynthesis) –Neutrino properties, like n magnetic moment N boost 6 He Beta-beam 6 He 6 Li+e+ e Q   MeV e e e e 6 He

19  Swiss neutrino meeting (J. Serreau and C. Volpe, hep-ph/0403293, submitted to Phys. Rev. D.) Small RingLarge Ring 25779 82645 1037077922 9453 1956 e + 208 Pb e + Nucleus e + 16 O e + D Events/year for  =14 Small Ring : L ss = 150 m, L tot = 450 m. Large Ring : L ss = 2.5 km, L tot = 7.5 km Neutrino Fluxes Neutrino-nucleus Interaction Rates at a Low-energy Beta-beam Facility CERN GANIL (EURISOL) GSI Intensities Detectors  10 12 /s 1 44 10 13 /s 1- 100 10 9 /s 1-10 4  and Close detector 4  and Close detector Autin et al, J.Phys. (2003). H. Weick (GSI) A. Villari (GANIL)

20  Swiss neutrino meeting R&D (improvements) Production of RIB (intensity) –Simulations (GEANT, FLUKA) –Target design, only 100 kW primary proton beam in present design –Accumulation scenario Acceleration and storgae –FFAG versa linac/storage ring/RCS –Two types of ions in the ring Tracking studies (intensity) –Loss management Superconducting dipoles (  of neutrinos) –Pulsed for new PS/SPS (GSI FAIR) –High field dipoles for decay ring to reduce arc length –Radiation hardness (Super FRS) SPL ISOL Target + ECR Linac, cyclotron or FFAG Rapid cycling synchrotron PSSPS Decay ring

21  Swiss neutrino meeting The EURISOL concept

22  Swiss neutrino meeting EURISOL DS Physics, beams and safety –Physics and instrumentation (Liverpool) –Beam intensity calculations (GSI) –Safety and radioprotection (Saclay) Accelerators : Synergies with HIPPI (CARE) –Proton accelerator design (INFN Legnaro) –Heavy ion accelerator design (GANIL) –SC cavity development (IPN Orsay): SC cavity prototypes and multipurpose cryomodule Targets and ion sources : Synergies with spallation sources –Multi-MW target station (CERN, PSI) : mercury converter –Direct target (CERN) : Several target-ion source prototypes –Fission target (INFN Legnaro) : UCx target Beta-Beam : Synergies with BENE –Beam preparation (Jyväskylä) : 60 GHz ECR source –Beta-beam aspects (CERN)

23  Swiss neutrino meeting EURISOL DS

24  Swiss neutrino meeting Design Study EURISOL Beta-beam Coordination Beta-beam parameter group Above 100 MeV/u Targets (PSI) 60 GHz ECR Low energy beta-beam And many more… USERS Frejus Gran Sasso High Gamma Astro-Physics Nuclear Physics ( , intensity and duty factor) OTHER LABS TRIUMF FFAG Tracking Collimators US study Neutrino Factory DS Conceptual Design # with price ### M€

25  Swiss neutrino meeting A boost for radioactive nuclear beams A boost for neutrino physics boost 6 He Beta-beam A EURISOL/beta-beam facility at CERN!

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