# D1.1 Atoms are the smallest form of elements.

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D1.1 Atoms are the smallest form of elements.

I.All matter is made of atoms.
a. Hydrogen is most abundant in universe b. Oxygen is most abundant in Earth’s crust Oxygen

II. Each element is made of a different atom.
a. Atoms are composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons.

nucleus: center of the atom; made up of protons and neutrons
electron: orbit the nucleus

atomic # = protons atomic mass = protons + neutrons

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Go S.T.E.M.!

Formula: # of neutrons = atomic mass - atomic # *Always round atomic mass to the whole number

Ex.) How many neutrons in a carbon atom?
# of neutrons = atomic mass - atomic #

Ex.) How many neutrons in a carbon atom?
# of neutrons = atomic mass - atomic # = = 6 neutrons *Always round atomic mass to the whole number

How many neutrons in a nitrogen atom?

How many neutrons in an einsteinium atom?

Calculate the number of neutrons in an iron atom.
Round atomic mass to the whole number.

The number of electrons in an atom is
equal to the number of protons. # of protons = # of electrons # p = # e

Calculate the number of neutrons in an oxygen atom.
Sketch in your notebook the structure of this atom.

Calculate the number of neutrons in an oxygen atom.
Sketch in your notebook the structure of this atom.

Calculate the number of neutrons in an oxygen atom.
Sketch in your notebook the structure of this atom.

In your notebook, calculate the number neutrons, for the following elements.
Copper (Cu) Arsenic (As) Selenium (Se) Mercury (Hg) Plutonium (Pu)

In your notebook, calculate the number of protons, neutrons, and elements, for the following elements. Copper (Cu) Arsenic (As) Selenium (Se) Mercury (Hg) Plutonium (Pu) Barium (Ba) Xenon (Xe) Krypton (Kr) Potassium (K) Americium (Am)

In your notebook, calculate the number of protons, neutrons, and elements, for the following elements. Copper (Cu) p=29, n=64-29=35 , e=29 Arsenic (As) p=33, n=75-33=42 , e=33 Selenium (Se) p=34, n=79-34=45 , e=34 Mercury (Hg) p=80, n=201-80=121 , e=80 Plutonium (Pu) p=94, n=244-94=150 , e=94 Barium (Ba) p=56, n=137-56=81 , e=56 Xenon (Xe) p=54, n=131-54=77 , e=54 Krypton (Kr) p=36, n=84-36=48 , e=36 Potassium (K) p=19, n=39-19=20 , e=19 Americium (Am) p=95, n=243-95=148 , e=95

Calculate the number of neutrons in the element Tellurium (Te). Put a box around the formula. Calculate the number of particles in each element. Draw the atom. -Magnesium (Mg) -Aluminum (Al)

QUIZ: On a piece of paper:
Calculate the number of neutrons in the element Silver (Ag). Put a box around the formula. Calculate the number of particles in each element. Draw the atom. -Helium (He) -Beryllium (Be) -Fluorine (F) -Sodium (Na)

QUIZ: On a piece of paper:
Calculate the number of particles in each element. Draw the atom. -Fluorine (F) -Sodium (Na)

How to draw an atom: Make a list of the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons. Draw circles: label the protons with + label the neutrons with N Draw a circle, surrounding the nucleus (p+n). Draw circles: label the electrons with - Check your calculations, count your drawn particles, to make sure you have done this correctly.

Practice Drawing Atoms:
Draw these atoms, in your notebook. Lithium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Hydrogen

Calculate the number of particles in each element. Draw the atom. Carbon (C) Helium (He)

“Happy” atoms rule: An atom is least reactive when the outer orbital shell is full.

Electron configurations:
In the electron cloud, there are 4 orbitals on which electrons travel.

Practice: Draw the Periodic Table Box.
Calculate the number of particles in the atom. Draw the atom. Electrons should be in the correct energy level. Subtract electrons as you sit them. Is this atom happy? Boron (B)

Practice: Draw the Periodic Table Box.
Calculate the number of particles in the atom. Draw the atom. Electrons should be in the correct energy level. Subtract electrons as you sit them. Is this atom happy? Fluorine (F)

Practice: Draw the Periodic Table Box.
Calculate the number of particles in the atom. Draw the atom. Electrons should be in the correct energy level. Subtract electrons as you sit them. Is this atom happy? Chlorine (Cl)

Practice: Draw the Periodic Table Box.
Calculate the number of particles in the atom. Draw the atom. Electrons should be in the correct energy level. Subtract electrons as you sit them. Is this atom happy? Calcium (Ca) Germanium (Ge)

Practice: Draw the Periodic Table Box.
Calculate the number of particles in the atom. Draw the atom. Electrons should be in the correct energy level. Subtract electrons as you sit them. Is this atom happy? Titanium (Ti)

Name: Date: Pop Quiz Lithium (Li) Neon (Ne) Potassium (K)
Draw the Periodic Table Box. Calculate the number of particles in the atom. Draw the atom. Electrons should be in the correct energy level. Subtract electrons as you sit them. Is this atom happy? Lithium (Li) Neon (Ne) Potassium (K)

atomic compound: 2 or more atoms bonded together
Compounds with the same type of atom (element) Compounds with different types of atoms (elements)

chemical formula: an expression that shows
the # of different types of atoms in a compound the ratio of different atoms

ratio: the number of one object in relation
to the number of another object Examples: 10 apples per 1 bag 1 calculator per 3 students 2 hydrogen per 1 oxygen

ratio: the number of one object in relation
to the number of another object Examples: 2 hydrogen per 1 oxygen

ratio: the number of one object in relation to
to the number of another object Examples: 2 hydrogen per 1 oxygen

Modeling Atomic Compounds
Procedure: 1. Gather materials. Read the board to find out which compound you are to build. Read the board to find out which color = which element. Build a model of the compound, using toothpicks to connect the atoms.

Modeling Atomic Compounds
#1 C O 2

Modeling Atomic Compounds
#1 C1O 2 # of carbon atoms = WHITE # of oxygen atoms = RED

Modeling Atomic Compounds
#2 H2O

Modeling Atomic Compounds
#2 H2O # of hydrogen atoms = BROWN TOOTSIE ROLL # of oxygen atoms = 1 WHITE MARSHMALLOW

Modeling Atomic Compounds
#3 Na Cl

Modeling Atomic Compounds
#3 Na Cl # of sodium atoms = CANDY CORN TRIANGLE # of chlorine atoms = 1 BROWN TOOTSIE ROLL

Modeling Atomic Compounds
#4 H2SO4

Modeling Atomic Compounds
#4 H2SO4 # of hydrogen atoms = 2 CANDY CORN # of sulfur atoms = 1 WHITE MARSHMALLOW # of oxygen atoms = 4 RED TWIZZLER

Modeling Atomic Compounds
#5 C6H12O6

Modeling Atomic Compounds
#5 C6H12O6 # of carbon atoms = WHITE # of hydrogen atoms = 12 RED # of oxygen atoms = BROWN

Use 2 gummy bears of different colors.
Modeling Atomic Compounds #6 O2 Use 2 gummy bears of different colors. This compound is made up of 2 oxygen isotopes.

Hydrogen atoms are isotopes. Use gummy bears.
Modeling Atomic Compounds #7 C H3 # of carbon atoms = Hydrogen atoms are isotopes. Use gummy bears.

Hydrogen atoms are isotopes. Use gummy bears.
Modeling Atomic Compounds #7 C H3 # of carbon atoms = 1 Hydrogen atoms are isotopes. Use gummy bears.

Modeling Atomic Compounds
PHOTOSYNTHESIS!

Hydrogen atoms are isotopes. Use gummy bears.
Modeling Atomic Compounds #7 C H3 # of carbon atoms = 1 Hydrogen atoms are isotopes. Use gummy bears.

# of hydrogen atoms = # of oxygen atoms = Modeling Atomic Compounds #8

# of hydrogen atoms =12 RED # of oxygen atoms = 6 BROWN TOOTSIE ROLLS
Modeling Atomic Compounds #8 6 H20 # of hydrogen atoms =12 RED # of oxygen atoms = 6 BROWN TOOTSIE ROLLS No isotopes.

1. The two atoms most common in Earth’s crust are oxygen and silicon.
D1.1 (1-5), Restate the Qs 1. The two atoms most common in Earth’s crust are oxygen and silicon. The two atoms most common in the human body are oxygen and carbon.

2. The particles that make up an atom are
D1.1 (1-5), Restate the Qs 2. The particles that make up an atom are protons, neutrons, and electrons.

3. When an atom forms an ion, it gains or loses an electron.
D1.1 (1-5), Restate the Qs 3. When an atom forms an ion, it gains or loses an electron.

4. The size of a magnesium ion with a 2+ charge
D1.1 (1-5), Restate the Qs 4. The size of a magnesium ion with a 2+ charge can be compared with that of a sodium ion with a single + charge. A 2+ charge means the atom has lost 2 electrons. A single + charge means the atom has lost 1 electron. A 2+ atom (ion) is smaller than a (1)+ atom (ion).

5. Potassium-39 differs from potassium-41
D1.1 (1-5), Restate the Qs 5. Potassium-39 differs from potassium-41 because they have a different number of neutrons. Potassium-41 has two more neutrons than Potassium-39.

How big is an atom? Tell us, Bill Nye!
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MZ6-dpxLqUk On a separate sheet of paper, write 10 facts and 1 question.

D1.2 Elements make up the periodic table.

Different types of atoms are organized onto a chart
Different types of atoms are organized onto a chart. This chart is called the Periodic Table of Elements.

Science + Music = Awesome Asap 4. 2 https://www. youtube. com/watch

Elements can be organized by similarities
The periodic table organizes the atoms of the elements by properties and atomic number row = “period” similar chemical properties

The periodic table has distinct regions.

Most elements are metals.

Nonmetals and metalloids have a wide range of properties.

Choose 3 colors. Make a key, of what each color stands for
Choose 3 colors. Make a key, of what each color stands for. Color the periodic table into 3 sections (as in this image):

D1.3 The periodic table is a map of the elements.
group: vertical column period: horizontal row

Periodic table parts:

Video 4.5min Chemical reactions
+reverse: another: reactions: w/ heat: Nye: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=smkVzfZmDIU 23:

Alka Seltzer Chemical reaction

atomic compound: two or more atoms bonded together

3 States of Matter?

States of matter .....change of phase

non-Newtonian fluid: a state of matter;
substance acts like a liquid when at rest, like a solid when pressure is applied pool: over speaker: Slow Mo: science party:

More non-newtonian vids:
Mythbusters: Oobleck Dubb step:

Matter can undergo physical and
chemical changes.

physical change: the visible structure of an object is changed, but not the molecular structure. the object stays the same substance, but in a different physical shape.

2. all or some signs are present: -production of an odor
chemical change: the molecular structure of an object is changed into a new substance. all or some signs are present: -production of an odor -change in temperature -change in color -formation of bubbles -formation of a solid VID:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qqqmFFCwd7k

energy: the ability to cause a change

chemical reaction: results in the rearrangement of atoms, in a substance

Examples of chemical reactions: Heating your house

In a chemical reaction, energy is either released or absorbed
In a chemical reaction, energy is either released or absorbed. Energy is required to break the bonds between atoms.

Examples of chemical reactions: Photosynthesis

Examples of chemical reactions: wood burning (fire)

Examples of chemical reactions: wood burning (fire)

Examples of chemical reactions: wood burning (fire)

Examples of chemical reactions: Metabolism (digesting food for energy)

Examples of chemical reactions: Formation of gases into water

Write 5 sentences: Describe a chemical reaction that you have observed in everyday life. Underline: 3 pieces of quantitative info Underline: 5 pieces of qualitative info How did the chemical reaction start? What did it look like? What was the end result? How did you know it was a chemical reaction?

Ionic bonding: when a metal transfers one or
more electrons to a nonmetal, forming a bond video:

Study by watching videos
Balancing equations: Sodium Chloride reaction atoms: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2LjxwUNSdFA

isotopes: atoms of the same element, with different # of neutrons

Scientists can calculate the age of rocks by studying the rate of decay of isotopes. These scientists study radioactive decay. animation https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s9QIgY5_8ok end nuclear reactiosn: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dj4CTJy6U9M

4. Some atoms can change their identity

radioactivity: the process by which the nucleus
of an atom releases energy and particles

A scientific model... Nuclear fission

Radioactive decay 1. the process by which the neutrons in an
atom change over time; 2. a method used to find out the age of fossils How vid:

half-life: the amount of time it takes for one-half of a
particular atom to decay (and perhaps eventually turn into another element)

Atoms form ions. ions: charged atoms; an atom that has lost or gained electrons

Opposite charges attract (pull towards). Same charges repel (push away). Positive charge attracts negative charge. Positive charge repels positive charge. Negative charge repels negative charge.

Opposite charges attract (pull towards). Same charges repel (push away). Atomic bonds Magnets

Chemical bonds are formed due to the movement of electrons
Chemical bonds are formed due to the movement of electrons. Electrons are transferred (lost/gained) or shared.

ionic bond: electrons are transferred (lost/gained) covalent bond: electrons are shared

ionic bond: electrons are transferred (lost/gained) covalent bond: electrons are shared

Chemical bonds are formed due to the movement of electrons
Chemical bonds are formed due to the movement of electrons. Magnetism is due to the movement of electrons. Electricity is due to the movement of electrons.

Radioactive dating: the method of studying radioactive decay rates in order to measure the age of rocks info: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vYvUSro7YUM

How to express ratios verbally.
3:1 three to one ...book example: hydrogen to nitrogen H3N This is NOT the same as 1:3

1: CO2 in words? ratio of elements?

1: CO2 one to two ratio of elements?

1: CO2 one to two carbon to oxygen

ratio? H2O in words? ratio of elements?

2: H2O two to one hydrogen to oxygen

ratio? C6H12O6 in words? ratio of elements?

6:12: C6H12O6 six to twelve to six carbon to hydrogen to oxygen

Unit D Section 2.1 I. Elements combine to form compounds

Unit D Section 2.1 the elements that make them.
I. Elements combine to form compounds a. Compounds have different properties form the elements that make them.

Unit D Section 2.1 different elements
I. Elements combine to form compounds a. Compounds have different properties form the elements that make them. i. compound: a substance made of atoms of 2 or more different elements

Unit D Section 2.1 ii. chemical bonds: hold atoms together in large
I. Elements combine to form compounds a. Compounds have different properties form the elements that make them. i. compound: a substance made of atoms of 2 or more different elements ii. chemical bonds: hold atoms together in large networks or small groups; determine the properties of a compound.

Unit D Section 2.1 iii. compound properties: depend upon type of atoms
I. Elements combine to form compounds a. Compounds have different properties form the elements that make them. i. compound: a substance made of atoms of 2 or more different elements ii. chemical bonds: hold atoms together in large networks or small groups; determine the properties of a compound. iii. compound properties: depend upon type of atoms (element) and shape (arrangement of atoms)

Unit D Section 2.1 I. Elements combine to form compounds a. Compounds have different properties form the elements that make them. i. compound: a substance made of atoms of 2 or more different elements ii. chemical bonds: hold atoms together in large networks or small groups; determine the properties of a compound. iii. compound properties: depend upon type of atoms (element) and shape (arrangement of atoms) iv. properties of compound may be different than the substances they make-up

b. Atoms combine in predictable numbers.
I. Elements combine to form compounds a. Compounds have different properties form the elements that make them. b. Atoms combine in predictable numbers.

i. particular compounds contain a particular ratio
I. Elements combine to form compounds a. Compounds have different properties form the elements that make them. b. Atoms combine in predictable numbers. i. particular compounds contain a particular ratio of atoms; this ratio determines the substance

i. chemical formula: represents the ratio of atoms
I. Elements combine to form compounds a. Compounds have different properties form the elements that make them. b. Atoms combine in predictable numbers. i. particular compounds contain a particular ratio of atoms; this ratio determines the substance c. Chemical formulas i. chemical formula: represents the ratio of atoms in a chemical compound using element symbols

ii. steps to writing a chemical formula
I. Elements combine to form compounds a. Compounds have different properties form the elements that make them. b. Atoms combine in predictable numbers. i. particular compounds contain a particular ratio of atoms; this ratio determines the substance c. Chemical formulas i. chemical formula: represents the ratio of atoms in a chemical compound using element symbols ii. steps to writing a chemical formula

1. find the symbols for the element types
2. include a subscript to note how many atoms of each type of element; (the subscript 1 is never used)

d. Same elements, different compounds
i. different compounds can be formed of atoms of the same elements

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2.1 Review Questions 1. In many cases, they are different.

2.1 Review Questions 1. In many cases, they are different.
2. 12 carbon atoms + 22 oxygen atoms + 11 oxygen atoms = 45 total atoms

2.1 Review Questions 1. In many cases, they are different.
2. 12 carbon atoms + 22 oxygen atoms + 11 oxygen atoms = 45 total atoms 3. Atoms can combine in many different ratios.

2.1 Review Questions 4. All atoms are in a 1:1 ratio.
5. Compare how they react with another substance 6. The carbon and oxygen atoms are in different ratios in the compounds.

2.5 What the Bleep: Water mediation6min Water Strider types of bonds (cov+ionic) another Hydrogen Bonding (Polar) FUnction of neurotransmitters solute into solvent Acid Rain Bonds happy#: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QqjcCvzWwww dogs: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_M9khs87xQ8

quantitative: (adj) expressed as a quantity;
information as expressed through numbers

qualitative: (adj) expressed in a description;

What is the charge of an electron? What is an ion?

What is the charge of an electron. negative What is an ion
What is the charge of an electron? negative What is an ion? an atom with a (positive or negative) charge

What determines an ion’s charge?
If an atom loses an electron, then it becomes less negative and has a positive charge. If an atom gains an electron, then it becomes more negative and has a negative charge.

Visual reminder:

MAGNETS! How’s it made, magnets Vinegar battery: Solar cell: Earth’s magnetic field: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=izlqoHYZWqg Ferrofluid:

Magnetic field: Magnets exhibit (show) positive and negative charges.
This attraction forms a magnetic field. Gravity pulls electrons from one side of the magnet to the other side.

Vocabulary: magnetic field: invisible force that travels from positive to negative north pole: end of magnet that is positively charged south pole: end of magnet that is negatively charged

Rules for drawing magnetic field lines:
Arrows start at the (positively charged) north pole to (negatively charged) the south pole Arrows should never cross The closer the field lines are to each other, the stronger the magnet “Electrons travel from positive to negative.”

electricity: presence and motion of charged particles
Vocabulary electricity: presence and motion of charged particles electric current: flow of electrons around a closed path (electric circuit) circuit: closed path on which electrons travel

Unlike charges attract.
Electric charge: there are two types of electric charges - positive and negative Like charges repel. Unlike charges attract.

conductor: a material through which electrons
flow easily

insulator: a material that resists the flow of
electrons

Let’s practice making more circuits!

The flow of electrons creates an electrical current.

How many circuit combinations can you make?

What are the four qualities of a scientist?
-creative -curious -skeptical -observant

What are the four qualities of a scientist?
-creative -curious -skeptical -observant These qualities require self-direction, a personal responsibility to learn.

static electricity: electrical force (push/pull of
electrons) caused by a buildup of negative charges in one place and positive charges in another demo: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WxxmeI1gW0k

Static Electricity Lab - Observations
1. Interaction between balloon and wall Provide space between numbers for qualitative and quantitative data. -For each: 3 pieces of qualitative data, 3 pieces of quantitative data 2. Interaction between balloon and hair 3. Interaction between 2 pieces of tape, not touching 4. Interaction between 2 pieces of tape, overlapping 5. Interaction between pen and paper scraps