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Introduction The World Trade Organization (WTO/GATT) The United Nations (UN) and UNCTAD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Case.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction The World Trade Organization (WTO/GATT) The United Nations (UN) and UNCTAD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Case."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction The World Trade Organization (WTO/GATT) The United Nations (UN) and UNCTAD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Case study: economic transition in Central and Eastern Europe Conclusions CHAPTER 12; INT. TRADE ORGANIZATIONS International Trade & the World Economy;  Charles van Marrewijk

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3 Introduction The World Trade Organization (WTO/GATT) The United Nations (UN) and UNCTAD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Case study: economic transition in Central and Eastern Europe Conclusions CHAPTER 12; INT. TRADE ORGANIZATIONS International Trade & the World Economy;  Charles van Marrewijk

4 Introduction International Trade & the World Economy;  Charles van Marrewijk Jan Tinbergen ( )

5 Introduction The World Trade Organization (WTO/GATT) The United Nations (UN) and UNCTAD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Case study: economic transition in Central and Eastern Europe Conclusions CHAPTER 12; INT. TRADE ORGANIZATIONS International Trade & the World Economy;  Charles van Marrewijk

6 The World Trade Organization (WTO/GATT) International Trade & the World Economy;  Charles van Marrewijk The international GATT agreement is based on three principles: Non-discrimination; as expressed in two sub-principles - Most Favored Nation (MFN) treatment - National treatment of foreign products Two main exceptions to the non-discrimination principle: - Free trade areas and customs unions - Developing countries Reciprocity (exception: developing countries) Prohibition on trade restriction other than tariffs (exception in case of balance-of-payments problems)

7 The World Trade Organization (WTO/GATT) International Trade & the World Economy;  Charles van Marrewijk Duration of GATT rounds and number of countries involved.

8 Introduction The World Trade Organization (WTO/GATT) The United Nations (UN) and UNCTAD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Case study: economic transition in Central and Eastern Europe Conclusions CHAPTER 12; INT. TRADE ORGANIZATIONS International Trade & the World Economy;  Charles van Marrewijk

9 The United Nations (UN) and UNCTAD International Trade & the World Economy;  Charles van Marrewijk UN established in 1945, deals with many issues (culture, human rights, security, etc.); for economics most important ECOSOC: Programs and Funds; UNCTAD, UNDP, UNHCR, UNICEF, etc. Functional Commissions; Social Development, Human Rights, etc. Regional Commissions; ECA, ECE, ECLAC, ESCAP, etc. Specialized (independent) Agencies; ILO, FAO, UNESCO, WHO, WorldBank, IMF. UNCTAD established out of dissatisfaction with the role of developing countries in the world economy (Group of 77); publishes the World Investment Report.

10 Introduction The World Trade Organization (WTO/GATT) The United Nations (UN) and UNCTAD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Case study: economic transition in Central and Eastern Europe Conclusions CHAPTER 12; INT. TRADE ORGANIZATIONS International Trade & the World Economy;  Charles van Marrewijk

11 Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development, OECD International Trade & the World Economy;  Charles van Marrewijk

12 Introduction The World Trade Organization (WTO/GATT) The United Nations (UN) and UNCTAD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Case study: economic transition in Central and Eastern Europe Conclusions CHAPTER 12; INT. TRADE ORGANIZATIONS International Trade & the World Economy;  Charles van Marrewijk

13 Case study: economic transition in Central and Eastern Europe International Trade & the World Economy;  Charles van Marrewijk Economic transition has different dimensions

14 Case study: economic transition in Central and Eastern Europe International Trade & the World Economy;  Charles van Marrewijk

15 Case study: economic transition in Central and Eastern Europe International Trade & the World Economy;  Charles van Marrewijk GDP/capita (index, 1990 = 100)

16 Introduction The World Trade Organization (WTO/GATT) The United Nations (UN) and UNCTAD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Case study: economic transition in Central and Eastern Europe Conclusions CHAPTER 12; INT. TRADE ORGANIZATIONS International Trade & the World Economy;  Charles van Marrewijk

17 Conclusions International Trade & the World Economy;  Charles van Marrewijk GATT, replaced by WTO, deals most directly with international trade problems (GATT rounds to reduce trade barriers become more complicated, take longer and involve more countries over the years). UN organizations affect all aspects of human life; UNCTAD focuses on problems of developing countries. OECD is organization of economically more advanced countries. Adjusting a country’s organizational and institutional framework is an enormous and time-consuming process, as illustrated by the Central and Eastern European countries.


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