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MISTY1 Block Cipher Undergrad Team U8 – JK FlipFlop Clark Cianfarini and Garrett Smith.

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Presentation on theme: "MISTY1 Block Cipher Undergrad Team U8 – JK FlipFlop Clark Cianfarini and Garrett Smith."— Presentation transcript:

1 MISTY1 Block Cipher Undergrad Team U8 – JK FlipFlop Clark Cianfarini and Garrett Smith

2 What is MISTY1? Cryptographic block cipher Cryptographic block cipher Developed by Mitsubishi Electric Developed by Mitsubishi Electric Created in 1995 Created in 1995 Developed primarily for encryption on mobile phones and other mobile devices Developed primarily for encryption on mobile phones and other mobile devices Stands for: Mitsubishi Improved Security TechnologY Stands for: Mitsubishi Improved Security TechnologY

3 Technical Specs Feistel Network Feistel Network 64-bit block size 64-bit block size 128-bit key 128-bit key Rounds in multiples of 4 (4, 8, 12, 16, …) Rounds in multiples of 4 (4, 8, 12, 16, …) RFC 2994 RFC 2994 Picture from: sty/misty_e_b.pdf

4 Our Original Implementation 8 rounds; the standard 8 rounds; the standard 128-bit key and 64-bit data as hexadecimal inputs (command line arguments) 128-bit key and 64-bit data as hexadecimal inputs (command line arguments) Encrypt and decrypt functionality both implemented (as well as performing both consecutively for benchmarking) Encrypt and decrypt functionality both implemented (as well as performing both consecutively for benchmarking)

5 Original (Unoptimized) Design Designed for code size and clarity Designed for code size and clarity Written in C Written in C Only standard libraries used Only standard libraries used Inefficiencies in: loops, multiplies and divides, function calls, parameter passing Inefficiencies in: loops, multiplies and divides, function calls, parameter passing Usage:./misty [I] Usage:./misty [I] 'e' to encrypt, 'd' to decrypt, 'b' to test both'e' to encrypt, 'd' to decrypt, 'b' to test both K is a required 16-digit hex string (128 bits)K is a required 16-digit hex string (128 bits) M is a required 8-digit hex string (64 bits)M is a required 8-digit hex string (64 bits) I is an optional number of iterations for benchmarkingI is an optional number of iterations for benchmarking

6 Original Design GPROF Profile % cumulative self self total time seconds seconds calls us/call us/call name fi fo fl flinv key_schedule decrypt_block encrypt_block unpack_data decrypt_round_even encrypt_round_even decrypt_round_odd __gmon_start__ encrypt_round_odd encrypt_final main xtoi print_hex_data parse_hex_arg 80% of the time spent in FO/FI/FL/FLINV 80% of the time spent in FO/FI/FL/FLINV Compiled with gcc Compiled with gcc Benchmarked on 64-bit 2.4 GHz, linux Benchmarked on 64-bit 2.4 GHz, linux

7 Unoptimized Execution Time gcc misty_slow.c -o slow gcc misty_slow.c -o slow time./slow b aabbccddeeff abcdef time./slow b aabbccddeeff abcdef real 0m23.093s user 0m22.886s sys 0m0.031s real 0m23.093s user 0m22.886s sys 0m0.031s 10 million iterations, 2.31 µs per iteration (~ 1.15 µs per encryption and decryption) 10 million iterations, 2.31 µs per iteration (~ 1.15 µs per encryption and decryption)

8 Revised Software Design Designed for optimal performance Designed for optimal performance Loops unrolled (rounds, d0/d1 pack) Loops unrolled (rounds, d0/d1 pack) Pow-2 mul, div, mod → shift, and Pow-2 mul, div, mod → shift, and Functions inlined Functions inlined Reduced parameter passing (key) Reduced parameter passing (key) Compiler optimization levels enabled Compiler optimization levels enabled Compiler architecture-specific options enabled Compiler architecture-specific options enabled

9 Rounds: Before Unrolling for (i = 0; i < NUM_ROUNDS; i++) for (i = 0; i < NUM_ROUNDS; i++) { if (i == (NUM_ROUNDS - 1)) if (i == (NUM_ROUNDS - 1)) encrypt_final(i, &d0, &d1, ek); encrypt_final(i, &d0, &d1, ek); else if ((i % 2) == 0) else if ((i % 2) == 0) encrypt_round_even(i, &d0, &d1, ek); encrypt_round_even(i, &d0, &d1, ek); else else encrypt_round_odd(i, &d0, &d1, ek); encrypt_round_odd(i, &d0, &d1, ek); }

10 Rounds: After Unrolling // round 0 // round 0 d0 = fl(d0, 0); d0 = fl(d0, 0); d1 = fl(d1, 1); d1 = fl(d1, 1); d1 = d1 ^ fo(d0, 0); d1 = d1 ^ fo(d0, 0); // round 1 // round 1 d0 = d0 ^ fo(d1, 1); d0 = d0 ^ fo(d1, 1); // round 2 // round 2 d0 = fl(d0, 2); d0 = fl(d0, 2); d1 = fl(d1, 3); d1 = fl(d1, 3); d1 = d1 ^ fo(d0, 2); d1 = d1 ^ fo(d0, 2); // round 3 // round 3 d0 = d0 ^ fo(d1, 3); d0 = d0 ^ fo(d1, 3); // round 7 // round 7 d0 = d0 ^ fo(d1, 7); d0 = d0 ^ fo(d1, 7); // finalize // finalize d0 = fl(d0, 8); d0 = fl(d0, 8); d1 = fl(d1, 9); d1 = fl(d1, 9); // round 4 // round 4 d0 = fl(d0, 4); d0 = fl(d0, 4); d1 = fl(d1, 5); d1 = fl(d1, 5); d1 = d1 ^ fo(d0, 4); d1 = d1 ^ fo(d0, 4); // round 5 // round 5 d0 = d0 ^ fo(d1, 5); d0 = d0 ^ fo(d1, 5); // round 6 // round 6 d0 = fl(d0, 6); d0 = fl(d0, 6); d1 = fl(d1, 7); d1 = fl(d1, 7); d1 = d1 ^ fo(d0, 6); d1 = d1 ^ fo(d0, 6);

11 Execution Time and Speedup Description Time Speedup Slow / Initial 0m23.093s Unroll Rounds 0m21.573s Unroll D0/D1 Init 0m20.750s Shift and AND 0m18.978s Unroll Packing 0m18.135s Make EK Global 0m17.902s Inline F0/FI/FL 0m15.921s Enable O1 0m4.308s Enable O2 0m4.276s Enable O3 0m4.155s Architecture Flags 0m4.128s

12 Building and Testing the Optimized Implementation gcc misty_fast.c -o fast gcc misty_fast.c -o fast gcc misty_fast.c -o fast -O1 gcc misty_fast.c -o fast -O1 gcc misty_fast.c -o fast -O2 gcc misty_fast.c -o fast -O2 gcc misty_fast.c -o fast -O3 gcc misty_fast.c -o fast -O3 gcc misty_fast.c -o fast -O3 -march=core2 gcc misty_fast.c -o fast -O3 -march=core2 Fastest execution time: real 0m4.128s user 0m4.117s sys 0m0.007s Fastest execution time: real 0m4.128s user 0m4.117s sys 0m0.007s 10 million iterations, 413 ns per iteration 10 million iterations, 413 ns per iteration

13 Execution Time and Speedup

14 Final Design GPROF Profile % cumulative self self total time seconds seconds calls ns/call ns/call name decrypt_block encrypt_block main print_hex_data parse_hex_arg Most function calls inlined, only decrypt_block and encrypt_block remain Most function calls inlined, only decrypt_block and encrypt_block remain

15 What was Learned? Original implementation may not have been implemented all that badly (~1.5 speedup from manual implementations) Original implementation may not have been implemented all that badly (~1.5 speedup from manual implementations) Larger benefit from instruction level optimization (gcc) Larger benefit from instruction level optimization (gcc) Profile first, then optimize in places where it actually matters Profile first, then optimize in places where it actually matters Bit-wise AND operator lower precedence than modulus: Bit-wise AND operator lower precedence than modulus: x % y + z → (x % y) + z x % y + z → (x % y) + z x & y + z → x & (y + z) x & y + z → x & (y + z) All optimizations add up to a significant amount of savings All optimizations add up to a significant amount of savings

16 Future Work Use of SSE vector instructions for parallel operations Use of SSE vector instructions for parallel operations Data types such as uint8_t/uint16_t converted to natural integer size for better memory alignment and access performance Data types such as uint8_t/uint16_t converted to natural integer size for better memory alignment and access performance Use of a union to replace packing and unpacking of data from array to D0/D1 Use of a union to replace packing and unpacking of data from array to D0/D1 Written directly in optimized assembly Written directly in optimized assembly Dedicated hardware implementation (ASIC/FPGA) for MISTY1 (originally designed to be implemented in hardware) Dedicated hardware implementation (ASIC/FPGA) for MISTY1 (originally designed to be implemented in hardware)

17 Questions? ?


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