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Chapter 5.  Integument/Integument system: Debated as to whether or not your skin is an organ or organ system  Accounts for 16% of body weight  2 Major.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5.  Integument/Integument system: Debated as to whether or not your skin is an organ or organ system  Accounts for 16% of body weight  2 Major."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5

2  Integument/Integument system: Debated as to whether or not your skin is an organ or organ system  Accounts for 16% of body weight  2 Major Components:  1-Skin or Cutaneous Membrane Epidermis Dermis Hypodermis  2-Accessory Structures Nails Exocrine glands

3  Protection  Excretion (salts, water, organic wastes)  Maintenance of body temp  Synthesis of vitamin D3  Storage of nutrients (adipocytes)  Detection of touch, pressure, pain, etc.

4  Skin  Epidermis (superficial)  Dermis  Hypodermis (deep)

5  Thin skin=made of 4 layers of stratified Squamous tissue  Most of body  Thick skin=made of 5 layers  Hands and feet

6 Made of Stratified Squamous epithelium  Stratum Corneum (superficial)  Stratum Lucidum  Stratum Granulosum  Stratum Spinosum  Stratum Basale or Germinativum (deep)  Cells eventually pass through all layers or can eventually be found

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8  Surface skin (most superficial)  Highly keratinized: thick, interwoven  days to get from stratum basale to stratum corneum  Stay at stratum corneum for 2 weeks b/f shed  Loose 500 mL (1 pint) water a day through skin  Blisters: water retention between dermis/epidermis under high stress

9  Found in thick skin  Glassy, tough  Filled with keratin Fibrous proteins—make up your hair and nails  Layer missing in “thin” areas

10  “Grainy Layer”  3-5 layers  Have stopped dividing at this time  High in keratin Makes cells flatter and thinner

11  “Spiny Layer”  8-10 layers  Langerhans Cells =participate in immune response

12  Innermost  Closest to basement membrane  Sends projections into dermis (below basement membrane)  Called epidermal ridges  Give skin the whorls of fingertips  Basal cells =stem cells to make more skin  Merkel Cells =sense touch where no hair is present  Melanocytes =skin tone

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14  Due to interaction of Epidermal Pigmentation and Dermal Circulation

15  2 Pigments that control your skin color  1-Carotene (orange-yellow) Found in stratum corneum  2-Melanin (brown, yellow-brown, black) Found in stratum basale protects us from UV radiation Melanocytes produce Dark skin = increased amount of Melanin production not increased amount of individual Melanocytes

16  Gives pale or flushed look  Better circulation =flushed  Reduced circulation=pale

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18  Damages DNA of the cell, causing mutations and promoting cancer development  Read bottom of 147(Melanocytes-Dermal Circulation)

19  When exposed to sun, epidermal cells make D3, then the liver converts D3, and the kidney makes calcitriol.  Calcitriol=ability to absorb calcium and phosphorous (no calcitriol=impaired bone maintenance and growth)

20  Freckles  Areas where melanocytes are producing a higher than normal rate of melanin.  Birthmarks  Non-vascular Overgrowth of melanocytes  Tattoo’s

21 1. Papillary Layer  Areolar tissue, capillaries, sensory neurons  Supplies epidermis 2. Reticular Layer  Collagen and elastic fiber

22  Collagen fibers=strong, resists stretching BUT bend easily  Elastic fibers=stretch and return =flexible, elastic dermis  Aging, hormones, and excess UV = weakened fibers  Wrinkles  Excessive stretching past fibers capabilities lead to damaged fibers=stretch marks Caused by: pregnancy, major weight loss/gain  SOLUTION: Retin-A from vitamin A increases blood flow to dermis which increases chances for repair

23  5 million hairs  98% not on head  Hair Follicle=organ when hair is grown  Hair Root=anchors hair to skin  Hair Shaft=part you see

24  Is hair living?  No-Comprised of non-living cells  Hair follicles are  How is color determined?  Pigment produced by melanocytes  The biochemistry of these structures is affected by DNA  Hormonal/Environmental affects

25  Protection (eye lashes, head, sensory, ears, nose)  Root hair plexus=sensory nerve around each hair follicle  Arrector Pilli-smooth muscle attached to hair follicle=when stimulated, contracts, causes “goose bumps”  Stimulated by emotional states, response to cold

26  Hair growth cycle=2-5 years .33mm/day  Hair loss occurs when the follicle becomes inactive and shrinks  Over time, the connection breaks=hair loss  The old hole sheds, new one forms

27  Male Pattern Baldness  Decrease in hormones circulating in the blood  Alopecia  1 in every 100,000  Complete hair loss all over body  Genetic  Causes death of hair follicles

28  Sebaceous (Oil Glands-Holocrine)  Share a duct with hair  Waxy, oil secretions  Apocrine Sweat Glands (armpits, around the nipples, groin)  Odorous, sticky  Through hair follicle  Begin at puberty  Merocrine Sweat Glands (all other sweat)  2-5 million  High numbers in palms/soles

29  Provides protection to finger  Nail Body cover nail bed  Production at nail root  Lunala is pale=lack of blood vessels  Is dead, tightly compressed keratin packed cells

30  Not part of integument but important for stabilization  Areolar/Adipose tissue  Elastic  Area for injections


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