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Curriculum, components, development and evaluation Dr. Farzana Mahdi Professor Department of Biochemistry

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Presentation on theme: "Curriculum, components, development and evaluation Dr. Farzana Mahdi Professor Department of Biochemistry"— Presentation transcript:

1 Curriculum, components, development and evaluation Dr. Farzana Mahdi Professor Department of Biochemistry

2 Curriculum After this interaction, learner should be able to- -- Define and explain the concept of curriculum -- Enumerate curriculum foundations and components -- Explain the curriculum in his/her own subject area -- Discuss the importance and need for curriculum evaluation Learning Objectives

3 Definition “ Curriculum is a plan of action which incorporates the learning outcomes to be attained over a period of time by exposing the learner to various learning experiences”

4 What is a Curriculum? ? A statement of learning objectives ? A statement of learning experiences ? A statement of learning outcomes ? A listing of the subject matter (syllabus)

5 WHAT IS CURRICULUM? CURRICULUM Intended aims & objectives, content, experiences, outcomes and processes of the educational programme Education structure Entry requirements Assessment system Flexibilities Programme organisation Length Expected methods of learning, teaching, feedback and supervision. Syllabus content: Knowledge, skills, attitudes, expertise to be achieved.

6 Curriculum Latin word means “ Race- course” What it denotes?

7 It denotes Path to be followed Frame within which it has to be followed

8 ? Curriculum Provides direction to both teachers as well as students Assists in selection of appropriate learning resource material Helps to adopt appropriate teaching-learning activities Helps in designing appropriate assessment tools Ultimately helps designing relevant and efficient educational programme

9 Curriculum Student What to learn *Content What to learn *Content How to learn *Educational strategy Teaching Learning tools Assessment Educational Enviornment Learning Outcome

10 Curriculum Development

11 Models of curriculum Development The Tyler model The Taba Model The Saylor and Alexander Model The Goodlad Model The Hunkins Model The Miller and Seller Model The Zais Model

12 Zais Model Needs knowledge of – A – Curriculum foundations B – Curriculum components

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14 Curriculum foundations Answer of four basic questions give desired shape to curriculum Why a subject is being taught? Who is being taught? MBBS/BDS How a subject will be taught? face to face or distance mode What is to be achieved Learning outcome

15 Why is anatomy being taught? Students understand the Inter- relationship of various structures of human body in better way Students score better in AIPGME/ state PGME/ USMLE Emphasis on basics Emphasis on recent advances

16 Curricular Components Educational Objectives what will the learner be able to do at the end of instructions. Educational Materials learning resources like books, manuals, models, A - V aids etc. Educational Methods denote the way the materials will be used e. g. lectures, practicals, group discussions, self study, field visits etc. Evaluation to certify the attainment of stipulated proficiency; and to provide a feedback to the learner and the teacher

17 Which is correct ? A Objectives Materials Methods Assessment planning Assessment B Objectives Assessment planning Materials Methods Assessment

18 “Begin with the end in mind”

19 Which is correct ? A Objectives Materials Methods Assessment planning Assessment B Objectives Assessment planning Materials Methods Assessment √

20 Curriculum development Curriculum planning should be flexible (example of communication skill) Same learning objective could be achieved by using different teaching methodology.

21 Curriculum development Approaches Subject centered Learner centered Problem solving

22 Subject centered approach Emphasis to complete subject matter Number of lectures / number of topics / number of hours are assigned (Contemporary MBBS curriculum)

23 DISCIPLINE BASED O & GSURGMEDPED FMPATHMICRPHARMCM ANATPHYSIOBIO CH. BIOPHYMATHCHEMCOMPG.K.

24 Learner centered approach Emphasis on fulfilling the needs of learner. Students will be active and responsible participants in their own learning. Strengthens student motivation, promotes peer communication, builds student ‐ teacher relationships and promotes active learning. (Learner’s intent to crack PGME/USMLE/ NEET) Approach es Subject centered Learner centered Problem solving

25 BE LEARNER ORIENTED STUDENT DECIDES ON Learning objectives Course contents Methods to be used to achieve objectives Learning resources Sequence and pace of learning. Time of Assessment

26 Problem solving approach Emphasis on ability of learner to solve a given problem Involves subject as well as learner centered approach Approach es Subject centered Learner centered Problem solving

27 None of the approaches are entirely satisfactory

28 SPICES model of Medical curriculum (Harden et al 1984) Modern SystemTraditional System Student-centered-Teacher-centered Problem-based-Information-gathering Integrated-Discipline-based Community-based-Hospital-based Electives-Standard-program Systematic-Apprenticeship-based (More the curriculum is on left side, the better it is )

29 INEGRATION HORIZONTOL VERTICAL SPIRAL

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31 INTEGRATED Anatomy Biochemistry

32 Advantages of Integration Reduces fragmentation of medical course. Improves education effectiveness of teaching. Promotes staff communication and collaboration. Advantages of subject based Omission of topics is avoided. Content of discipline is not neglected. Less costly. Teacher friendly. Provides a career choice.

33 Curriculum Designs S tudent oriented Teacher oriented P roblem Based Information Gathering I ntegrated Discipline based C ommunity Oriented Hospital based E lective Uniform S ystematic Apprenticeship/ Opportunistic THE IDEAL MODEL?

34 Ideal Curriculum NATIONAL HEALTH POLICY

35 Ideal Curriculum STATE HEALTH POLICY NATIONAL HEALTH POLICY

36 Ideal Curriculum UNIVERSITY GOALS STATE HEALTH POLICY NATIONAL HEALTH POLICY

37 Curriculum Goals Department Goals Objectives - Assessments & Teaching Strategies Ideal Curriculum UNIVERSITY GOALS STATE HEALTH POLICY NATIONAL HEALTH POLICY

38 Curriculum Goals Department Goals Objectives - Assessments & Teaching Strategies Assignments D1DnD6D5D4D3D2 Ideal Curriculum UNIVERSITY GOALS STATE HEALTH POLICY NATIONAL HEALTH POLICY

39 Curriculum Goals Department Goals Objectives - Assessments & Teaching Strategies Assignments D1DnD6D5D4D3D2 Present situation of medical education NATIONAL HEALTH POLICY STATE HEALTH POLICY UNIV. GOAL

40 Curricular determinants National health objectives Institutional Objectives Departmental Objectives Subject Content Learning experiences Assessment plan

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42 Curriculum Development: A Six Step Approach David E Kern

43 Contents Step 1 Problem Identification and General Needs Assessment Step 2 Targeted Needs Assessment Step 3 Goals and Objectives Step 4 Educational Strategies Step 5 Implementation Step 6 Evaluation and Feedback

44 CURRICULUM IS TOO IMPORTANT NOT TO BE EVALUATED

45 WHAT CAN EVALUATION ADDRESS? EVALUATION structure process content relevance intentions vs achievement: curriculum in practice qualities of graduates teaching learning professional induction cost-benefit the unexpected But almost never, cause and effect outcomes & effects

46 THE EVALUATION SYSTEM PURPOSE CONTEXT METHOD OUTCOME Decision Communicatio n Curriculum change & development

47 APPROACH There is no one ‘correct’ approach Your evaluation MUST be based on your defined objectives. Remember: Evaluation is part of a change management process for curriculum renewal

48 "Curriculum is in the air. No matter what the problem in medical education, curriculum is looked to as the solution“ R M Harden


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