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Concept Presentation by Rebecca Lowe.  Background: What is DNA?  Grade 12 Molecular Genetics Curriculum Expectations  Lesson Sequence  Examples of.

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Presentation on theme: "Concept Presentation by Rebecca Lowe.  Background: What is DNA?  Grade 12 Molecular Genetics Curriculum Expectations  Lesson Sequence  Examples of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Concept Presentation by Rebecca Lowe

2  Background: What is DNA?  Grade 12 Molecular Genetics Curriculum Expectations  Lesson Sequence  Examples of 3-part lesson plans  Teaching Strategies  Differentiated instruction  Assessments  **Inquiry Activity  Common Misconceptions & Their Solutions  Societal Implications & STEM  Foundations of Professional Practice

3  Today you will…  Understand the role of DNA structure & replication in the Ontario Secondary Curriculum for grade 12 science at the university level  Become familiar with various teaching strategies to accommodate multiple learning styles in the classroom  Recognize common misconceptions within the classroom regarding DNA, and resolve these issues using various techniques  Participate in an inquiry-based activity focused on DNA replication and genetic mutations

4  Genetics: the study of heredity and variation of living organisms and how genetic information is passed from one generation to the next  DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) : a double-stranded polymer of nucleotides (each consisting of a deoxyribose sugar, a phosphate, and four nitrogenous bases) that carries the genetic information of an organism  DNA contains genes, which carry instructions necessary for growth and development of an organism  DNA replication the process of producing two identical DNA molecules from an original, parent DNA molecule

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6  D1. analyse some of the social, ethical, and legal issues associated with genetic research and biotechnology D1.1 analyse, on the basis of research, some of the social, ethical, and legal implications of biotechnology  D2. investigate, through laboratory activities, the structures of cell components and their roles in processes that occur within the cell D2.1 use appropriate terminology related to molecular genetics D2.2 analyse a simulated strand of DNA to determine the genetic code and base pairing of DNA D2.3 conduct an investigation to extract DNA from a specimen of plant or animal protein

7  D3. demonstrate an understanding of concepts related to molecular genetics, and how genetic modification is applied in industry and agriculture D3.1 explain the current model of DNA replication, and describe the different repair mechanisms that can correct mistakes in DNA sequencing D3.2 compare the structures and functions of RNA and DNA, and explain their roles in the process of protein synthesis D3.5 describe some examples of genetic modification and explain how it is applied in industry and agriculture D3.6 describe the functions of some of the cell components used in biotechnology D3.7 describe, on the basis of research, some of the historical scientific contributions that have advanced our understanding of molecular genetics

8 1. Intro: DNA as the hereditary material 2. The chemical structure of DNA 3. Genetic material of prokaryotes vs. eukaryotes 4. DNA replication 5. Mutations: Correcting replication errors

9  Curriculum Expectations:  D1. analyse some of the social, ethical, and legal issues associated with genetic research and biotechnology D1.1 analyse, on the basis of research, some of the social, ethical, and legal implications of biotechnology  D3. demonstrate an understanding of concepts related to molecular genetics, and how genetic modification is applied in industry and agriculture D3.6 describe the functions of some of the cell components used in biotechnology D3.7 describe, on the basis of research, some of the historical scientific contributions that have advanced our understanding of molecular genetics

10  Hook: “What role does DNA evidence play in solving crimes?”:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dXYztbkMXw U http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dXYztbkMXw U  Action:  PowerPoint (images, videos) Griffith’s Transformation Experiment Hershey-Chase Virus Experiment  Spongelab: Introduction to DNA Barcoding simulation  Consolidation: Physical characteristics of the class– survey game  Assessments: diagnostic word-association game, KWL chart, class discussion

11  Additional ideas:  Traits Activities: http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/inheritance/a ctivities/ Inherited Human Traits, A Recipe for Traits, Traits Bingo, A Tree of Genetic Traits  DNA & RNA Activities, Labs, Links http://www.nclark.net/DNA_RNA  STSE  Case Study Projects (GMOs, GM animals etc.)

12  Curriculum Expectations:  D2. investigate, through laboratory activities, the structures of cell components and their roles in processes that occur within the cell D2.1 use appropriate terminology related to molecular genetics D2.2 analyse a simulated strand of DNA to determine the genetic code and base pairing of DNA  D3. demonstrate an understanding of concepts related to molecular genetics, and how genetic modification is applied in industry and agriculture D3.7 describe, on the basis of research, some of the historical scientific contributions that have advanced our understanding of molecular genetics

13  Hook: Online Interactive “What Coloured Eyes Would Your Children Have?”  http://genetics.thetech.org/online-exhibits/what-color- eyes-will-your-children-have http://genetics.thetech.org/online-exhibits/what-color- eyes-will-your-children-have  Action:  PowerPoint (images, videos) Structure of nucleotides, DNA, RNA Watson & Crick: double helix structure Chargaff’s rule: base pairing  Activity: Model candy DNA helices (CSI murder mystery) “Have Your DNA and Eat It Too” http://teach.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/dna/Have%20Yo ur%20DNA%20and%20Eat%20It%20Too.pdf http://teach.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/dna/Have%20Yo ur%20DNA%20and%20Eat%20It%20Too.pdf  Consolidation: Exit cards (Assessment for learning)  Assessments: class participation, discussion, DNA models, exit cards

14  http://teach.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/dna/Have% 20Your%20DNA%20and%20Eat%20It%20Too.pdf http://teach.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/dna/Have% 20Your%20DNA%20and%20Eat%20It%20Too.pdf

15  Additional ideas:  DNA activities: Origami DNA, Function Finder, Sequence Bracelets, Yummy Gummy DNA http://www.yourgenome.org/downloads/activities.sht ml  Genomic activities, labs, activities http://www.nclark.net/Genetics

16  Curriculum Expectations  D2. investigate, through laboratory activities, the structures of cell components and their roles in processes that occur within the cell D2.1 use appropriate terminology related to molecular genetics D2.3 conduct an investigation to extract DNA from a specimen of plant or animal protein

17  Hook: Recap on Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes properties (sticky note activity)  Action: PowerPoint (images, videos)  Prokaryote DNA vs. Eukaryote DNA  Online Interactive DNA Extraction http://www.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/biot09.biote ch.tools.extraction/dna-extraction/  Review DNA structure  Additional ideas:  Spongelab: “DNAZip!” Video game  Consolidation: Think-Pair-Share - Venn Diagram Comparison  Assessments: class discussion, DNA extraction performance, Venn-diagram

18  Curriculum Expectations  D2. investigate, through laboratory activities, the structures of cell components and their roles in processes that occur within the cell D2.1 use appropriate terminology related to molecular genetics D2.2 analyse a simulated strand of DNA to determine the genetic code and base pairing of DNA  D3. demonstrate an understanding of concepts related to molecular genetics, and how genetic modification is applied in industry and agriculture D3.1 explain the current model of DNA replication, and describe the different repair mechanisms that can correct mistakes in DNA sequencing D3.6 describe the functions of some of the cell components used in biotechnology

19  Hook: YouTube – How Special Are Your Physical Traits? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9SdCoNpDzqw http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9SdCoNpDzqw  Action:  PowerPoint presentation (images, videos) 3 proposed models The molecular events of DNA replication: Initiation Elongation Termination  Spongelab: Transcription hero – Arcade Version Play the role of RNA Polymerase & transcribe genes  Consolidation:  DNA Replication Fork (Video) http://highered.mcgraw- hill.com/sites/0072556781/student_view0/chapter11/animation_qui z_2.html  Assessments: class discussion, review quiz (https://download.elearningontario.ca/repository/128335 0000/SNC4MPU05A07/content.html)https://download.elearningontario.ca/repository/128335 0000/SNC4MPU05A07/content.html

20  Additional ideas:  DNA – The Double Helix Game http://www.nobelprize.org/educational/medicine/dn a_double_helix/dnahelix.html  Narrated animation “How DNA Replicates” http://www.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/tdc02.sci.life.gen.dnaanimation/how-dna-replicates/  STSE  Virtual Lab: DNA Extraction http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/labs/extracti on/

21  Allows students to apply their knowledge about base pairing in the DNA helix  Interesting facts about the genome of other organisms  Any volunteers?

22  Curriculum Expectations  D2. investigate, through laboratory activities, the structures of cell components and their roles in processes that occur within the cell D2.1 use appropriate terminology related to molecular genetics D2.2 analyse a simulated strand of DNA to determine the genetic code and base pairing of DNA  D3. demonstrate an understanding of concepts related to molecular genetics, and how genetic modification is applied in industry and agriculture D3.1 explain the current model of DNA replication, and describe the different repair mechanisms that can correct mistakes in DNA sequencing D3.4 explain how mutagens, such as radiation and chemicals, can cause mutations by changing the genetic material in cells

23  Hook: DNA Chain Letter Activity  http://www.successlink.org/gti/lesson_unit- viewer.asp?lid=2716 http://www.successlink.org/gti/lesson_unit- viewer.asp?lid=2716  Action:  Concept Map of DNA Mutations http://www.concord.org/~btinker/molo/molo_concept_ maps/Mutations.pdf  Online Interactive Model “Mutations: Changing the Genetic Code” http://molo.concord.org/database/activities/102.html  Consolidation:  Online research for a genetic disorder  Assessments: class discussion, participation, concept map, research project

24  Teacher instructs the reader to make 2 handwritten copies of his/her letter and to pass them along to 2 different individuals  Even if a word is misspelled in the text, the student must copy the error within their reproductions  This chain letter model mimics DNA replication and the inheritance of mutations  Some mistakes are simple misspelled words (substitution mutations), or involve the addition of previously unwritten words (insertion mutations), or perhaps entail the removal of a word (deletion mutations.

25  Additional ideas:  Interactive Model Organisms http://www.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/hew06.sc i.life.gen.modelorg/model-organisms/  STSE:  Animation: How Cancer Grows http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/cancer/grow_flash.ht ml  Finding Disease Genes http://www.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/tdc02.sci.life.gen.findingdisease/finding-disease-genes/

26  Videos  “18 things you should know about genetics”: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bVk0twJYL6Y http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bVk0twJYL6Y  “What is DNA?” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zwibgNGe4aYhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zwibgNGe4aY  “What role does DNA evidence play in solving crimes?”http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dXYztbkMXwUhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dXYztbkMXwU  “How Special Are Your Physical Traits?” “http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9SdCoNpDzqw “http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9SdCoNpDzqw  DNA Replication Fork http://highered.mcgraw- hill.com/sites/0072556781/student_view0/chapter11/animation_quiz_2.html  Narrated animation “How DNA Replicates” http://www.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/tdc02.sci.life.gen.dnaanimation/how-dna- replicates/  Solving misconceptions and untruths about genetics: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zYLFAOeCDuQ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zYLFAOeCDuQ  YouTube Video: “DNA – Episode 1 of 5: The Secret of Life – PBS Documentary” (53 min) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d7ET4bbkTm0 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d7ET4bbkTm0  YouTube Video: “DNA Mysteries – The Search for Adam – National Geographic Documentary” (1 hour 17 minutes) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=azWJPHypAeghttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=azWJPHypAeg

27  Classroom Activities  DNA activities: Origami DNA, Function Finder, Sequence Bracelets, Yummy Gummy DNA http://www.yourgenome.org/downloads/activities.shtml  Genomic activities, labs, activities http://www.nclark.net/Genetics  Traits Activities http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/inheritance/activities/http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/inheritance/activities/ Inherited Human Traits, A Recipe for Traits, Traits Bingo, A Tree of Genetic Traits  DNA & RNA Activities, Labs, Links http://www.nclark.net/DNA_RNA Model candy DNA helices (CSI murder mystery) “Have Your DNA and Eat It Too” http://teach.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/dna/Have%20Your%20DNA%20and%2 0Eat%20It%20Too.pdf http://teach.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/dna/Have%20Your%20DNA%20and%2 0Eat%20It%20Too.pdf  DNA Chain Letter Activity http://www.successlink.org/gti/lesson_unit- viewer.asp?lid=2716http://www.successlink.org/gti/lesson_unit- viewer.asp?lid=2716  Concept Map of DNA Mutations http://www.concord.org/~btinker/molo/molo_concept_maps/Mutations.pdf http://www.concord.org/~btinker/molo/molo_concept_maps/Mutations.pdf  Finding Disease Genes http://www.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/tdc02.sci.life.gen.findingdisease/findi ng-disease-genes/  Debate - Dealing with DNA controversy: issues, arguments, and ethics http://www.dnai.org/teacherguide/pdf/ss_DNA_controversy.pdf http://www.dnai.org/teacherguide/pdf/ss_DNA_controversy.pdf

28  Interactive Online Activities  Spongelab: Introduction to DNA Barcoding simulation  Online Interactive “What Coloured Eyes Would Your Children Have?” http://genetics.thetech.org/online-exhibits/what-color-eyes-will-your-children- have http://genetics.thetech.org/online-exhibits/what-color-eyes-will-your-children- have  DNA – The Double Helix Game http://www.nobelprize.org/educational/medicine/dna_double_helix/dnahelix.html  Spongelab: An Origin of Species game See how local pressures shape the phenotypical traits observed in species  Online Interactive DNA Extraction http://www.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/biot09.biotech.tools.extraction/dna- extraction/  Spongelab: “DNAZip!” Video game  Spongelab: Transcription hero – Arcade Version  Online Interactive Model “Mutations: Changing the Genetic Code” http://molo.concord.org/database/activities/102.html  Interactive Model Organisms http://www.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/hew06.sci.life.gen.modelorg/model- organisms/  Animation: How Cancer Grows http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/cancer/grow_flash.html

29  YouTube Video: “DNA – Episode 1 of 5: The Secret of Life – PBS Documentary” (53 min)  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d7ET4bbkTm0 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d7ET4bbkTm0  YouTube Video: “DNA Mysteries – The Search for Adam – National Geographic Documentary” (1 hour 17 minutes)  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=azWJPHypAeg http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=azWJPHypAeg  Human Genome Project:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VJycRYBNtwY http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VJycRYBNtwY  Genome Canada: http://www.genomecanada.ca/http://www.genomecanada.ca/  Create a DNA Timeline  http://www.dnai.org/timeline/ http://www.dnai.org/timeline/

30  Word walls for basic concepts or vocabulary  Visual timeline of DNA discoveries using photographs, diagrams, key words etc.  DNA in the media (newspapers, articles, magazines, ads, tv shows etc.)  3D Model of a DNA strand in the classroom  Online interactive programs  Monitored debates in class (cloning, GMOs)  Flash cards for definitions  Flowchart to outline the process of DNA replication  Role-play the process of DNA replication

31  Formative  Participation  During lessons, group work, debates, discussions, labs etc.  Questioning  Ability to ask and answer questions  Diagnostic Tools  KWL, Diagnostic Quiz  Exit cards  What have you learned? What are you confused about? What do you want to learn?  Two stars and a wish  Homework completion

32  Summative  Labs & Performance Tasks  Construct DNA models, simulate DNA replication & mutations  Assignments  Family Trees (hereditary traits)  Case studies  Biotechnology  GMOs, cloning, designer babies  Genetic disorders  Debates  Controversy in societal applications  STEM project  Design application to determine probability of inheriting particular traits  Build models of DNA  Quizzes  Review quiz (https://download.elearningontario.ca/repository/1283350000/SNC4MPU05A0 7/content.html)https://download.elearningontario.ca/repository/1283350000/SNC4MPU05A0 7/content.html  Chapter Tests  Unit Test

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34 1. DNA analysis in forensic investigations examines the entirety of a person’s DNA, not small sections of that genome  Clarify that segments of a genome are compared in order to match DNA to a crime scene http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZxWXCT 9wVoI (5:27) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZxWXCT 9wVoI 2. Students forget that “A”, “U”, “G”, “T” &“C” are symbols of nucleotides  Frequently refer to a 3D model of DNA and indicate the structure of the nucleotides

35  Example of lungfish having 40x more DNA than humans, only some of the DNA codes for proteins http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/eukaryotic-genome- complexity-437# http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/eukaryotic-genome- complexity-437# 3. More complexity = more DNA in the genome

36 4. DNA replication occurs during mitosis or meiosis 5. Students may lose sight of the purpose of DNA replication  Recall Grade 11 Cell Cycle (Interphase)  Reference the significance of this process before mitosis or meiosis occurs

37  The unique property of DNA can be applied in forensic science  Test DNA samples left at the scene of a crime  Exonerate wrongfully-convicted victims  Identify victims  Because DNA is hereditary, it can be used to construct family trees & evolutionary trees  Paternity tests  Pedigrees  Family history of disease  Study of evolution

38  MTV show  16 children, one anonymous sperm donor

39  Due to technological advances in genetic research, scientists have the ability to intervene with the natural properties of DNA structure & replication  Stem cell research  Detection of genetic mutations  In vitro fertilization (test-tube babies)  Designer babies  Animal testing (Vacanti mouse)  Many of these scientific advances are controversial and violate religious & cultural values

40  Research a genetic disorder and its current forms of treatment. Develop a new solution to improve quality of life  Device, service, health care system  Create an interactive game to teach DNA structure or DNA replication  Board game, puzzle, online game, mystery game etc.  Design an application that determines the probability of inheriting particular traits

41  They outline the principles of ethical behaviour, professional practice and ongoing learning for the teaching profession in Ontario.

42  Positively influence students to maximize their learning potential using compassion and empathy when discussing controversial aspects of genetic advances  Honour human dignity and emotional wellness especially when discussing delicate matters of DNA testing. During our teachings, we must respect the diversity of spiritual and cultural values that are found in our classrooms  It is important to maintain a relationship with the students that is based on trust. This will encourage students to approach this concept with an open- mind and unlimited curiosity  The students are relying on us to teach them this concept to the best of our ability. We must be honest in our teachings, particularly regarding societal implications of the study of DNA, and be aware of our tremendous influence we have on our students

43  We must be vigilant as teachers and use assessment strategies: for & as, in order to monitor our students’ learning. Differentiated instruction is essential to influence individual student learning  We must continue to practice self-directed learning through research and collaboration in order to stay up to date with genetic research and DNA applications in our society  As leaders, we have to create a safe learning environment for our students, especially surrounding difficult topics of genetic research, forensics, and genetically modified organisms  Through inquiry and reflection, we use differentiated learning approaches in order to assess and evaluate our students. Technology and various methods of teaching should be incorporated in our lesson plans  As science educators, we have to remain up-to-date with our scientific knowledge in a world where technological advances are exponentially increasing.

44  Examples:  Academic programs  Mentoring & networking (cooperative planning and problem solving, study groups)  Research activities (educational research)  Learning through practice (try new strategies)  Technology & Learning (increase competency, integrate technology in lessons)

45  By the end of this lesson sequence, students should be able to… 1. Analyse some of the social, ethical, and legal issues associated with genetic research and biotechnology 2. Investigate, through laboratory activities, the structures of cell components and their roles in processes that occur within the cell 3. Demonstrate an understanding of concepts related to molecular genetics, and how genetic modification is applied in industry and agriculture

46 Protein Synthesis Biotechnology Genetic Code

47  www.pptbackgrounds.net/dna-backgrounds.html www.pptbackgrounds.net/dna-backgrounds.html  http://www.phoenix5.org/glossary/DNA.html http://www.phoenix5.org/glossary/DNA.html  http://www.nextmovie.com/blog/realistic-movie-relatives/ http://www.nextmovie.com/blog/realistic-movie-relatives/  http://legacy.owensboro.kctcs.edu/gcaplan/anat/notes/API%20Notes%20 D%20%20DNA.htm http://legacy.owensboro.kctcs.edu/gcaplan/anat/notes/API%20Notes%20 D%20%20DNA.htm  http://www.getting-in.com/guide/a-level-biology-organism-variation- mutations-prokaryotes-eukaryotes/ http://www.getting-in.com/guide/a-level-biology-organism-variation- mutations-prokaryotes-eukaryotes/  http://library.thinkquest.org/18617/data/replication/replication.html http://library.thinkquest.org/18617/data/replication/replication.html  http://www.councilforresponsiblegenetics.org/blog/post/Calls-for- inquiry-into-astonishing-DNA-error.aspx http://www.councilforresponsiblegenetics.org/blog/post/Calls-for- inquiry-into-astonishing-DNA-error.aspx  http://www.littletree.com.au/dna.htm http://www.littletree.com.au/dna.htm  http://www.geek.com/science/scientists-discover-a-second-genetic- code-except-not-really-1579496/ http://www.geek.com/science/scientists-discover-a-second-genetic- code-except-not-really-1579496/  http://poster.4teachers.org/worksheet/view.php?id=152876 http://poster.4teachers.org/worksheet/view.php?id=152876  http://faculty.cbu.ca/cglogowski/2008%20BIOL101%20LAB5%20DNA.htm http://faculty.cbu.ca/cglogowski/2008%20BIOL101%20LAB5%20DNA.htm  http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/healthnews/9565451/Danish-sperm- donor-passes-severe-genetic-disorder-to-five-children.html http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/healthnews/9565451/Danish-sperm- donor-passes-severe-genetic-disorder-to-five-children.html  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vacanti_mouse http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vacanti_mouse


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