Modes of action Mild pain killers (aspirin, paracetamol)- prevents the synthesisof a specific enzyme in the body. The enzyme cause fever and swelling. Strong pain killers (morphine)- interact with receptor sites in the brain so the pain signals are blocked
Found in willow tree bark 1899 Bayer Company introduced the etanoate ”Aspirin” Which functional groups? Aspirin is less irritating for the stomach than salicylic acid Salicylic acid ethanoic ester-aspirin
Aspirin, cont. Anti inflammatory- may be used for artritis and rheumatism Prevents blood clotting- prevents strokes and heart attacks Side effects include internal bleeding, ulceration Reye’s syndrome in children, a potentially fatal liver and brain disorder Too high dose may rise the pH in the blood- acidosis
Salicylic acid methyl ester- methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen) Has a characteristic smell Used in liniments to rub into the skin- antiinflammatory Which functional groups? Reaction mechanism?
Paracetamol- acetaminophen Preferred for children- have less problematic side effects compared to aspirin May cause liver failure if ingested in high amounts Functional groups?
Pro and contra for aspirin and paracetamol? Aspirin Paracetamol
Ibuprofen, ipren For headaches- in Sweden and elswhere?
Opiates Morphine, codeine and diamorphin (heroin) Interact with receptor sites in the brain so the pain signals are blocked Differences in functional groups? Can they be transferred into each other?
Naturally occurring In opium- poppy seeds Morphine and codeine Also contain papaverin, fentanyl, oxymorphone, hydromorphone Opiates are used as painkillers, but are also highly addictive
Synthesis of heroin from morphin
Water solubility Which does most easily pass through cell membranes? morphine codeine heroine