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L/O/G/O Vitamins By Dr. Batoul Izzularab 4 3.

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Presentation on theme: "L/O/G/O Vitamins By Dr. Batoul Izzularab 4 3."— Presentation transcript:

1 L/O/G/O Vitamins

2 By Dr. Batoul Izzularab 4 3

3 Vitamins Vitamins are organic compounds having the following characters: Not synthesized in our bodies except some vitamins as nicotinic acid which synthesized from tryptophan Need in small amounts

4 Vitamins Synthesized in the plants Their presences in the diet are essential for normal growth, health, reproduction and protection against many diseases The deficiency of one or more vitamins leads to specific disease The vitamins are classified into two groups which are: Water soluble vitamins Fat soluble vitamins

5 water soluble vitamins The group of water soluble vitamins characterized by following: They are soluble in water They are synthesized by the plant They are present in plants, legumes, leafy green vegetables, yeast

6 water soluble vitamins They are easily absorbed in the intestine Easley excreted by the kidney Not accumulated and not stored in our bodies except Vit B12 that can be stored for several years in the liver They must be supplied continuously in the diet otherwise deficiency occurs All water soluble vitamins acts as co enzymes except Vit c Water soluble vitamins are B complex and vitamin C

7 Thiamine (Vit B1) anti beri –beri factor : Chemically: thiamine is formed of substituted pyrimidine joined by Methlene Bridge to substituted thiazol

8 Sources: present in the unrefined cereal grains and meat Absorption: Easley absorbed easily excreted The active form: i.e. the coenzyme form in cellular cytoplasm thiamine is converted into thiamine pyrophosphate by the action of thiamine pyrophosphate kinase (TPP) Biochemical important of (TPP): Play an important role in carbohydrate metabolism Important in nerve impulse transmission Thiamine (Vit B1) anti beri –beri factor :

9 Thiamine deficiency: Thiamine deficiency occur in case of Poor diet Deficient of absorption as in cases of alcoholism Deficiency of TPP- kinase Thiamine deficiency leads to metabolic disturbance TPP deficiency leads to beri-beri syndrome

10 Riboflavin vit B2 Chemically: Riboflavin is formed of heterocyclic isoalloxazinering attached to ribitol

11 Riboflavin vit B2 Sources: Riboflavin is present in meat, milk and plants along with thiamine, can be synthesized by the bacteria in large intestine Absorption: Easly absorbed and Easley excreted The active form i.e. the coenzyme derivatives of riboflavin Riboflavin provides the body by two coenzymes: FMN: flavin mononucleotides FAD: flavin adenine dinucleotides Both co enzymes are essential in: Process of oxidation-reduction Energy production

12 Riboflavin vit B2 Deficiency of riboflavin leads to: Stomatitis i.e. fussers and inflammation of the angle of the mouth Glossitis Vascularization of cornea

13 Nicotinic acids (antipellagra factor) Chemically: Niacin or nicotinic acid is pyridine derivative

14 Nicotinic acids (antipellagra factor Sources: unrefined grains, cereal, green vegetables, milk, meat and yeast Nicotinic acids is synthesis in animals including human tissue and plants from essential amino acids (tryptophan) Absorption: Easley absorbed and Easley excreted

15 Nicotinic acids (antipellagra factor) The active form or coenzyme provides from niacin NAD, NADP The two coenzyme play vital role in the process of oxidation –reduction NAD acts as hydrogen carrier for anaerobic dehydrogenase especially in the mitochondria electron electron transport system The reduced NADPH acts as hydrogen donor in many synthetic pathway and acts as antioxidant Deficiency of niacin: Caused pellagra syndrome

16 Pyridoxine Vit B6 Chemically: pyridoxine is formed of three related pyridine derivatives those are: pyridoxine and pyrodoxamine

17 Sources: present in the seeds, grains, liver, green vegetable, milk and egg Absorption: Easley absorbed and Easley excreted Active form or coenzyme form of Vit B6: The coenzymes forms is phophorolated from pyridoxol phosphate and pridoxamine phosphates are the only active coenzymes Pyridoxal phosphates and pyridoxamine phosphate act as coenzyme that play important role in amino acids metabolism Deficiency of pyridoxal: Disturbance in amino acids and proteins metabolism Pyridoxine Vit B6

18 Pantothenic acids Vit B5 Chemically: pantothenic acid is formed of pantoic acids and b-alanine

19 Pantothenic acids Vit B5 Sources: pantathonic acids is widely distributed in food as animal tissue whole grain, cereals and legumes Absorption: Easley absorbed and Easley excreted Activation into coenzymes forms in cellular cytoplasm pantothenic acids is converted into coash (co-enzymes a)

20 Pantothenic acids Vit B5 Biochemical function Coash is essential of formation of active compounds e.g activation of keton body activation of fatty acids Coash is a compound of acyl carrier protein important in cytoplasmic fatty acids synthesis Coash is a component of α keto acid dehydrogenase

21 Pantothenic acids Vit B5 Deficiency of pantothenic acids Deficiency of pantothenic acids is rarely occur due to it's widely distributed in natural food.but its deficiency lead to Gastritis, enteritis and diarrhea Hemorrhage and necrosis of adrenal cortex with prostration and dehydration

22 Biotin Chemically: is immedazol derivative

23 Biotin Source: widely distributed in food e.g. egg yolk, animal tissue, tomato, yeast, wheat, and bean Biochemical function The active form is carboxylase enzyme which is important in the process of CO 2 fixation Deficiency of Biotin: Biotin deficiency leads to accumulation of all substrate or metabolites that require carboxylase enzyme in the course of their metabolic pathway. Biotin deficiency leads to Dermatitis Alopecia Retarded growth Loss of mucular control

24 Cyanocobalamine = antipernicious anemia (Vit B12) Chemically : cyanotobalamine is formed of four rings surrounding one cobalt ion which is joined to cyanide group the cyanide group must be removed before the vitamins is converted into an active form The structure of Vit B12 is similar to that of perphyrin of hemoglobin

25 Cyanocobalamine = antipernicious anemia (Vit B12) Sources: Vit B12 present only as animals' source e.g. meat organs as liver, kidney and muscle tissues Vitamin B12 can be synthesized in the large intestine by bacteria flora VitaminB12 is heat stable

26 Cyanocobalamine = antipernicious anemia (Vit B12) Biochemical functions of Vit B12 Vit B12 acts as co-homocystein methyltransferase i.e. converting homocystien to methionine and prevents homocystinenuria Methionine is essential amino acids important in the process of transmethylation reactions and phospholipids synthesis, integrity of myelin sheath and erythropoiesis Vit B12 prevents methylmalonic aciduria

27 Cyanocobalamine = antipernicious anemia (Vit B12) Deficiency of Vit B12 Homocystinuria Methyl malonic aciduria Megaloblastic anemia Neurological disturbance in the form of sensory and motor losses

28 Folic acids (folate, folacin antipernicious animia) Chemically: folic acid is formed of heterocyclic pteridine p.amino benzoic acid and glutamic acids

29 Folic acids (folate, folacin antipernicious animia) Sources: plant, and bacteria can synthesized folic acids but animals cells could not Folic acid is present in yeast, liver, kidney, and green vegetables Function of Folic acids: Provides H4F (tetrahydrofolic acids) which act as a carrier for the one carbon atom Deficiency of Folic acids Megaloblastic anemia (macrocytic hyperchromic) glossitis and gastrointestinal deficiency

30 Vit C or (ascorbic acid) Chemically: Vit C is monoscarides hexose derivative. It is synthesized from glucose in animal and plant Vit C cannot be synthesized in humans and guinea pig tissue

31 Vit C or (ascorbic acid) Sources: Vit C is present in fresh vegetables, fruits, citreus fruits, berries, melons, tomato, and leafy green vegetables Biochemical function of Vit C Vit C is essential in the process of protein hydroxylation i.e. essential of integrity of connective tissue Vit C essential for maintaining normal intracellular matrix Vit C essential for integry of bone, teeth, and cartilage Vit C essential for integrity of capillary walls Vit C essential for iron absorption Vit C play an important in reduction of glutathione,cytochrome and metahemoglobin Vit C deficiency: Vit C deficiency leads to disease known as scurvy.

32 II-Fat soluble vitamins Fat soluble vitamins characterized by: are soluble in fat as the name implies the absorption of fat soluble vitamins require normal or proper fat digestion and adsorption the absorbed fat soluble Vit are carried to liver via chylomicrons (lipid coated protein particles) fat soluble vitamins are store in the body e.g. Vit A,K, and D are stored in the liver wile Vit E is stored in adipose tissue fat soluble vitamins are transported in the blood to the target organ by specific protein carrier fat soluble vitamins insoluble in the water i.e. cannot be excreted via kidney as the fat sol.vit are stored in the body, therefore excessive intake leads to specific toxicity Fat sol. Vit. are Vit A, Vit D, Vit E and Vit K

33 Vit D ant rickets(antiosteomalacia) Chemically: Vit D is steroid in nature Source: animal source in egg yolk, liver, fish cod liver oil are source of Vit D3 Plant source in the form of ergosterol Vit D2: Cholesterol and 7- dehydrocholesterol under skin by the action of ultra violet ray will be converted into vit D3 Vit D2 &VitD3 have the same activities on the target organs the difference only in chemical structure of the side chain

34 Vit D ant rickets(antiosteomalacia)

35 Vit D ant rickets Adsorption, transport and storage: Dietary Vit D are mixed with the dietary fat and absorbed incorporated with cholymichrons (or assiated with cholimichrons) to the liver In the liver.Vit D3 will be hrdroxylated act C25 and stored in that form in liver 25 hydroxy D3 will be transported to the kidney where it will be hydroxylated in C1 forming 1, 25 dihydroxy D3 and this is an active form

36 Biochemical function of Vit D3 Maintain normal calcium and phosphorus blood level by increased their absorption in intestine and renal tubules Stimulates the synthesis of osteocalcin of bone and so maintain or affects mineralization of bone Prevent muopathy

37 Deficiency of Vit D In infants and childhood due to inadequate Vit D intake (dietary deficiency) or insuffient exposure to sun light. This lead to deficient bone minerlization and consequently occurrence of rickets In adult due to poor diet, diet restriction and repeated pregnancy espially among poor people (increased demand for calcium) this lead to demineralization of bone and cyst formation consequently easily factorability of bone this is known as osteomalacia

38 Vitamin K Chemically: Vit K is 1, 4 naphthoquinone derivative Sources: naturally occurring Vit K are Vit K1 and Vit K2 Those are fat soluble forms. Vit K: present in vegetable, oils, green vegetable, wheat bran, tomatoes, Spanish, cheese and liver Vit K2: synthesized by bacteria in the large intestine Vit K3: synthetic form of Vit K it is water soluble form (menadione)

39 Vitamin K Absorption: Vit K3 is readily absorbed in the intestine even in cases of biliary obstruction Vit K1 and Vit K2 are fat soluble they require proper fat digestion and absorption Vit K stored in liver

40 Function of vit K: Vit K play important role in the activation of blood clotting factors II, VII, IX and X by converting glutamate residues of these portion factors in gama carboxyglutamate, the later chelates calcium, it is example of covalent protein modification Vit K acts as antidote for the toxicity by 4- hydroxydieomarin( anticoagulant) Deficiency of Vit k Vit K deficiency leads to hypoprothrombinemia and bleeding

41 Vitamin A (Retinoids) Chemistry and source: Derivatives of carotiene or caritinoid which are the colored pigment present in carrots, tomatoes, apricots, and sweet potato Vit A source as animal sources present in liver, egg, milk, and cod liver oil

42 Function of Vit A: Support growth and health Necessary for vision Necessary for mucous glandular secretion Necessary for epithelial cells health and differentiation Deficiency of Vit A Relarded growth Night blindness

43 Vit E (tochopherol) antisterility factor Chemically: vit E is an organic compound contain chroman ring Sources: present in ittus, cotton seed oil, wheat and rice germ

44 Function of vit E: Protect the plasma membranes against the harmful effect H 2 O 2 i.e. antioxidants. Vit E used in treatment of some circulating disturbances Vit E given to pregnant and lactating fermatas to prevent the occurrence of premature infants Vit E is added to the stored fats and fats and oils for prevention of rancidity

45 L/O/G/O Thank You!

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