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Notation SOP and POS Forms

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SOP Given a Table of Combinations What is the SOP form for the following 3 input / 1 output digital device? SABf

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Computing the SOP (2) This SOP has 4 minterms: f = S'AB' + S'AB + SA'B + SAB SABfminterm name 0101m2m2 0111m3m3 1011m5m5 1111m7m7

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Canonical SOP Boolean functions can use shorthand notation when in SOP form: f = S'AB' + S'AB + SA'B + SAB f(S,A,B) = (m 2,m 3,m 5,m 7 ) or f(S,A,B) = m(2,3,5,7)

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Canonical SOP Example f(x 1,x 2,x 3 ) = m(1,4,5,6) f = mintermx1x1 x2x2 x3x3 f x1'x2'x3 + x1x2'x3' + x1x2'x3 + x1x2x3'

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Product of Sums Form An alternate canonical “two-level” format “Product of sums” POS Two levels OR level followed by AND level Again, NOT doesn’t count as a level Not a common as SOP, but can be useful in some situations Which ones?

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Computing the POS Identify rows with “0” on output (f = 0) Represent the input for each 0 row as a maxterm A logical “sum” of the input bits which guarantees that term will be “0” (sum of literals) ABf

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Canonical POS Example f(x 1,x 2,x 3 ) = ( M 0,M 2,M 3,M 7 ) = M(0,2,3,7) f = maxtermx1x1 x2x2 x3x3 f (x1+x2+x3)(x1+x2'+x3)(x1+x2'+x3')(x1'+x2'+x3')

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Example: 3 Way Light Control L(A,B,C) = m(5,6) or L(A,B,C) = M(0,1,2,3,4,7) SOP: L = POS: L = ABCL (A B' C)+(A B C') (A+B+C)(A+B+C') (A+B'+C)(A+B'+C') (A'+B+C)(A'+B'+C')

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Question: Under what conditions would POS form be better? (assuming we aren’t doing further reductions)

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Inverters in Two-Level Circuits Inverters are not always required for two-level logic This is why we do not always count them among the cost of a circuit Later, we will see that many variables will be available to us in both normal and inverted form don't need to invert them We show them only for completeness at this point

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NAND/NOR Circuits

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Completeness of NAND Any Boolean function can be implemented using just NAND gates. Why? Need AND, OR, and NOT NOT: 1-input NAND (or 2-input NAND with inputs tied together) AND: NAND followed by NOT OR: NAND preceded by NOTs Likewise for NOR

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Using NAND as Universal Logic NOT AND OR

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SOP Using NORs & POS Using NANDs NANDs are natural for SOP networks You can extend this idea to multi-level circuits as long as the levels alternate AND/OR/AND/OR ending with OR You can implement an SOP circuit using only NOR gates All gates become NORs; just add an extra “inverter” following the final NOR NORs are natural for POS networks You can extend this idea to multi-level circuits as long as the levels alternate OR/AND/OR/AND ending with AND You can implement a POS circuit using only NAND gates All gates become NANDs; just add an extra inverter following the final NAND

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SOP Using NAND Networks SOP can be implemented with just NAND gates “pushing the bubbles” Every gate just becomes a NAND!

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2x1 MUX Using NANDs Implement f = S'A + SB with NAND gates only This one is complicated by the inverter on S!

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POS Using NOR Networks POS can be implemented with just NOR gates Every gate just becomes a NOR

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Schematics of DeMorgan’s Laws (x ∙ y)' = x' + y' (x + y)' = x' ∙ y'

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Universal Logic Families Any logic function can be designed using only: AND, OR, NOT NAND NOR These are called “universal logic families” Actual components are often designed using either NAND or NOR gates only NAND and NOR require fewer transistors to build Just having a single gate design is simpler than having 3!

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AND/OR Networks NAND/NAND Convert multi-level AND/OR net NAND/NAND

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And Again … But Be Careful conserve the polarity of the input/output signals

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Some Useful Circuits

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Decoders and Multiplexors Decoder: Popular combinational logic building block, in addition to logic gates Converts input binary number to one high output 2-input decoder: four possible input binary numbers So has four outputs, one for each possible input binary number Internal design AND gate for each output to detect input combination Decoder with enable e Outputs all 0 if e=0 Regular behavior if e=1 n-input decoder: 2 n outputs i0 i1 d0 d1 d2 d i0 i1 d0 d1 d2 d i0 i1 d0 d1 d2 d3 i0 i1 d0 d1 d2 d i0 d0 d1 d2 d3 i1 i0 i1 d0 d1 d2 d3 e e i0 i1 d0 d1 d2 d i1’i0’ i1’i0 i1i0’ i1i0

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Multiplexor (Mux) Mux: Another popular combinational building block Routes one of its N data inputs to its one output, based on binary value of select inputs 4 input mux needs 2 select inputs to indicate which input to route through 8 input mux 3 select inputs N inputs log 2 (N) selects Like a railyard switch

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Mux Internal Design s0 d i0 i1 2 × 1 i0 s0 1 d 2 × 1 i1 i0 s0 0 d 2 × 1 i1 i0 s0 d 0 i0 (1*i0=i0) i0 (0+i0=i0) 1 0 2x1 mux i0 4 1 i2 i1 i3 s1s0 d d i0 i1 i2 i3 s1 4x1 mux 0 a

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Muxes Commonly Together -- N-bit Mux Ex: Two 4-bit inputs: A (a3 a2 a1 a0) and B (b3 b2 b1 b0) 4-bit 2x1 mux (just four 2x1 muxes sharing a select line) can select between A or B i0 s0 i1 2 1 d i0 s0 i1 2 1 d i0 s0 i1 2 1 d i0 s0 i1 2 1 d a3 b3 I0 s0 I1 4-bit 2x1 DC A B a2 b2 a1 b1 a0 b0 s0 4 C c3 c2 c1 c0 is short for Simplifying notation:

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N-bit Mux Example Four possible display items Temperature (T), Average miles-per-gallon (A), Instantaneous mpg (I), and Miles remaining (M) -- each is 8-bits wide Choose which to display using two inputs x and y Use 8-bit 4x1 mux

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