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NATIVE SOVEREIGNTY IN THE AMERICAS Dr. Zoltan Grossman Faculty member in Geography and Native American Studies, The Evergreen State College, Olympia, Washington.

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Presentation on theme: "NATIVE SOVEREIGNTY IN THE AMERICAS Dr. Zoltan Grossman Faculty member in Geography and Native American Studies, The Evergreen State College, Olympia, Washington."— Presentation transcript:

1 NATIVE SOVEREIGNTY IN THE AMERICAS Dr. Zoltan Grossman Faculty member in Geography and Native American Studies, The Evergreen State College, Olympia, Washington

2 Canadian Treaties 1,200 tiny reserves today

3 xxxxx

4 Inuit (Eskimo) territory of Nunavut Canada 1999 Inuit fully control 18% of new territory; What will happen to Dené region of NWT?

5 Near-Secession of Quebec, 1995 Near-Secession of Quebec, 1995 Most French-speakers (blue) for independence from Canada English-speakers and immigrants voted “No” First nations against dams, etc. Cree & Inuit vote to stay Canada Cree Inuit English 50.6%49.4% Mohawk Innu Nunavik Eeyou Astchee Nitassinan

6 Hydropower dams on Quebec Cree lands Huge diversions of rivers Hunting lands flooded Mercury contamination of fish Shorelines inaccessible NY, VT consumers objected, delayed

7 Some tribes, individuals did not accept the U.S. Citizenship Act or Canadian citizenship. Indigenous passports have been honored by some countries. “Trappings” of full sovereignty

8 Greenland Eskimo (Inuit) territory of Denmark Achieved Home Rule as Kalaallit Nunaat, 1981 Separated from EU; minority favors independence Kalaallit Nunaat

9 Kuna Yala (Panama) Kuna Yala Kuna Indians along San Blas Islands coast Autonomy since 1920s Strengthened since 1989 U.S. invasion

10 Northern Atlantic Autonomous Region, Nicaragua Misikto, Sumu and Rama Indians War with Sandinista government, 1980s; won autonomy Conflicts with right-wing gov’ts, miners, 1990s R.A.A.N.

11 Zapatista revolt in Mexico Began in Chiapas (Mayan state) when NAFTA implemented, January 1994

12 Guatemala Mayan majority CIA overthrows civilian government, 1954 Civil war between government & leftist rebels, Military & death squads genocide vs. 200,000 Indigenous Rigoberta Mench ú, Nobel Peace Prize recipient, 1992

13 Venezuela President Hugo Chavez backed by many Indigenous Oil, timber, mining industries trample Amazon Natives New promises of land returns, representation in Senate

14 Brazilian Amazon Native peoples minority concentrated in \rainforest Lands coveted for gold, timber, cattle. “Wild West” Violence against Indigenous Indian movement has little support; Lands “safety valve” for urban poor Yanomami Reservation often invaded for resources

15 Civil War in Colombia Civil war between rightist government/ paramilitaries and leftist rebels Indigenous peoples caught in middle; both sides want resources, oppose land rights

16 U’wa vs. Oxy in Colombia U’wa oppose oil drilling by Occidental Oil Support protests in L.A. Tribal members repressed by military, also rebels 3 Native supporters killed in 1999

17 Oil in Ecuador Ecuador 2nd largest S. America producer –70% of exports Drilling in Amazon rainforest

18 Opposition to oil companies Construction of roads, pipelines on Indian lands Displacement of Indians, deforestation Oil leaks into rivers larger than Valdez spill

19 Ecuador Native occupations Texaco withdrew 1992, Arco met demands Lawsuit against Texaco in U.S. courts, 1999

20 Ecuador coups Flag of the Indigenous Alliance, with Native leader Rumiñahui junta includes indigenous leader New president ousted 2005

21 “Water War” in Bolivia Cochabamba residents protesting Bechtel privatization of municipal water system, 1999

22 Bolivian election President Evo Morales victory symbolizes majority indigenous rule, 2005 Quechua and Aymara, including miners Conflict with U.S. over coca eradication Nationalized gas industry; activists in charge of water and mining ministries


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