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Slide 1 of 22ESCWG Field co-ordinators training workshop | 23rd - 25th April 2007 | Chavannes-de-Bogis D3/AM1 1. Introduction 2. Experience 3. Context.

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Presentation on theme: "Slide 1 of 22ESCWG Field co-ordinators training workshop | 23rd - 25th April 2007 | Chavannes-de-Bogis D3/AM1 1. Introduction 2. Experience 3. Context."— Presentation transcript:

1 slide 1 of 22ESCWG Field co-ordinators training workshop | 23rd - 25th April 2007 | Chavannes-de-Bogis D3/AM1 1. Introduction 2. Experience 3. Context 4. Application 5. Limitations standards 6. Agreed standards 7. Summary Emergency shelter technical issues: 45 minutes 1.Introduction 2.Experience 3.Context 4.Application 5.Limitations 6.Agreed standards 7.Summary Tom Corsellis Antonella Vitale

2 slide 2 of 22ESCWG Field co-ordinators training workshop | 23rd - 25th April 2007 | Chavannes-de-Bogis D3/AM1 1. Introduction: scope and context 1. Introduction 3. Context 4. Application 2. Experience Standards session objective: a sound appreciation of relevant technical standards and their application in coordination 7. Summary 5. Limitations 6. Agreed standards International response standards relevant to the shelter needs of those affected by conflict and natural disaster reconstruction for non- displacement populations reconstruction on new location reconstruction on existing site repatriated reconstruction Standards and laws should be used for each option transitional settlement for displaced populations

3 slide 3 of 22ESCWG Field co-ordinators training workshop | 23rd - 25th April 2007 | Chavannes-de-Bogis D3/AM1 2. Experience: discussion session 1. Introduction 3. Context 4. Application 2. Experience What has been your experience with legal frameworks and standards? 7. Summary 5. Limitations 6. Agreed standards Do donors ask your organisation to integrate the use of standards into your programmes? How useful have standards been to you when responding to a disaster? Are standards useful benchmarks to gauge your organisation’s response? What has been your experience with legal frameworks and standards? Do you find other organisations and government officials receptive to standards as a lobbying tool?

4 slide 4 of 22ESCWG Field co-ordinators training workshop | 23rd - 25th April 2007 | Chavannes-de-Bogis D3/AM1 3. Context: the legal context to standards 1. Introduction 3. Context 4. Application 2. Experience The gap left by legal frameworks is filled by agreed standards for response 7. Summary 5. Limitations 6. Agreed standards After conflicts and natural disasters, the international framework of law, principles and standards fills the gap in the normative legal framework Legal framework Constitutional law Statutory law Religious law Customary law Standards for response Agreed standards providing benchmarks for response Standards made on site to suit a specific event Principles for response Agreed principles providing guidance on legal and technical shelter issues Support protection and rights International framework 1.International humanitarian law 2.International human rights law 3.International refugee law ‘Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement’

5 slide 5 of 22ESCWG Field co-ordinators training workshop | 23rd - 25th April 2007 | Chavannes-de-Bogis D3/AM1 3. Context: protection 1. Introduction 3. Context 4. Assessment 2. Experience 7. Summary 5. Limitations 6. Impact security of person: “everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person” privacy: “no one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence” peaceful enjoyment of possession: “everyone has the right to own property… no one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property” adequate housing: “everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family” The ‘Universal Declaration of Human Rights’ provides the basis for the use of standards in emergency shelter These need to be implemented through understandings of age, gender and diversity download from un.org/rights

6 slide 6 of 22ESCWG Field co-ordinators training workshop | 23rd - 25th April 2007 | Chavannes-de-Bogis D3/AM1 4. Application: strategic coordination 1. Introduction 3. Context 4. Application 2. Experience 7. Summary 5. Limitations 6. Agreed standards How can standards be applied affectively? The primary purpose of standards in emergency shelter is to inform and support the development and implementation, with all stakeholders, of an integrated consensus strategy for transitional settlement and reconstruction The effective use of standards will simplify greatly the coordination of operations, when understood as being part of the wider legal framework

7 slide 7 of 22ESCWG Field co-ordinators training workshop | 23rd - 25th April 2007 | Chavannes-de-Bogis D3/AM1 4. Application: effective use of standards 1. Introduction 3. Context 4. Application 2. Experience 7. Summary 5. Limitations 6. Agreed standards How can standards be applied effectively? Four rules for the effective use of standards Standards are only useful if they are: 1.appropriate to the situation and to all stakeholders 2.agreed amongst all stakeholders 3.achievable with available capacity and materials 4.enforceable by all stakeholders

8 slide 8 of 22ESCWG Field co-ordinators training workshop | 23rd - 25th April 2007 | Chavannes-de-Bogis D3/AM1 5. Limitations: scope of standards 1. Introduction 3. Context 4. Application 2. Experience 7. Summary 5. Limitations 6. Agreed standards Standards for response focus mainly on collective centres and planned camps Standards are not comprehensive Transitional settlement for displaced populations Reconstruction for non-displaced populations host families rural self- settlement urban self- settlement collective centres self-settled camps planned camps repair on site site adjacent near to house but not on site

9 slide 9 of 22ESCWG Field co-ordinators training workshop | 23rd - 25th April 2007 | Chavannes-de-Bogis D3/AM1 6. Main publications 1. Introduction 3. Context 4. Application 2. Experience 7. Summary 5. Limitations 6. Main publications Additional principles and standards exist, for example on good donorship and housing rights ‘Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response’ (The Sphere Project, 2004) ‘Handbook for Emergencies’ (UNHCR, 2007) ‘Shelter After Disaster: Guidelines for Assistance' (UNDRO, 1982) ‘The Pinheiro Principles’ (COHRE, 2005) Most relevant agreed principles Most relevant agreed standards for response ‘Housing and Property Restitution for Refugees and Displaced Persons: Implementing the Pinheiro Principles’ (currently at press) ‘Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement’ (United Nations, 2004)

10 slide 10 of 22ESCWG Field co-ordinators training workshop | 23rd - 25th April 2007 | Chavannes-de-Bogis D3/AM1 6. Main publications 1. Introduction 3. Context 4. Application 2. Experience 7. Summary 5. Limitations 6. Main publications ‘Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement’ (United Nations, 2004) also called Deng’s Principles Aims: to identify the rights and guarantees relevant to protection of the internally displaced in all phases of displacement to provide valuable practical guidance to governments, other competent authorities, intergovernmental organisations and NGOs in their work with internally displaced persons Guiding principles that fill the gaps in international law relating to the rights of internally displaced persons download from reliefweb.int

11 slide 11 of 22ESCWG Field co-ordinators training workshop | 23rd - 25th April 2007 | Chavannes-de-Bogis D3/AM1 6. Main publications 1. Introduction 3. Context 4. Application 2. Experience 7. Summary 5. Limitations 6. Main publications The handbook provides practical guidance to all those working on housing and property restitution issues (currently at press) Aims: to strengthen the protection of restitution rights to provide guidance on the international standards governing implementation of housing, land and property restitution programmes to promote durable solutions for internally displaced persons and refugees ‘Housing and Property Restitution for Refugees and displaced persons: Implementing the Pinheiro Principles’ (collaborators: OCHA, OHCHR, UN-Habitat, UNHCR, FAO, NRC)

12 slide 12 of 22ESCWG Field co-ordinators training workshop | 23rd - 25th April 2007 | Chavannes-de-Bogis D3/AM1 6. Main publications 1. Introduction 3. Context 4. Application 2. Experience 7. Summary 5. Limitations 6. Main publications Aims: to provide policy and programme guidelines for the provision of shelter after disaster to assist in finding solutions to shelter issues which reflect the specific needs of the affected population A series of applicable, practical principles are included in this publication download from ochaonline.un.org ‘Shelter After Disaster: Guidelines for assistance’ (UNDRO, 1982)

13 slide 13 of 22ESCWG Field co-ordinators training workshop | 23rd - 25th April 2007 | Chavannes-de-Bogis D3/AM1 6. Agreed standards 1. Introduction 3. Context 4. Application 2. Experience 7. Summary 5. Limitations 6. Agreed standards Aims: to guide and inform decisions at all levels of response in a humanitarian emergency improve the quality of assistance enhance the accountability of implementing agencies to both beneficiaries and programme donors Practical guidance notes and checklists are included in this publication download from sphereproject.org ‘Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response’ (The Sphere Project, 2004)

14 slide 14 of 22ESCWG Field co-ordinators training workshop | 23rd - 25th April 2007 | Chavannes-de-Bogis D3/AM1 6. Agreed standards 1. Introduction 3. Context 4. Application 2. Experience 7. Summary 5. Limitations 6. Agreed standards 1: the Charter outlines the core principles of humanitarian action 3: technical chapters offer specific standards and indicators 2: the common standards apply to all sectors 4: the annexes include legal instruments and the IFRC code of conduct The four components of the ‘Sphere standards’ download from sphereproject.org

15 slide 15 of 22ESCWG Field co-ordinators training workshop | 23rd - 25th April 2007 | Chavannes-de-Bogis D3/AM1 6. Agreed standards 1. Introduction 3. Context 4. Application 2. Experience 7. Summary 5. Limitations 6. Agreed standards Refer to Handout 2 for more details

16 slide 16 of 22ESCWG Field co-ordinators training workshop | 23rd - 25th April 2007 | Chavannes-de-Bogis D3/AM1 6. Agreed standards 1. Introduction 3. Context 4. Application 2. Experience 7. Summary 5. Limitations 6. Agreed standards ‘Handbook for Emergencies’ (UNHCR, 2007) Aims: provide guidelines for the provision of protection to those covered by the mandate of UNHCR meet the shelter-related and settlement-related needs of persons who are of concern to UNHCR ensure that the necessary assistance reaches the affected population in good time Practical guidance notes and checklists are included in this publication download from unhcr.org

17 slide 17 of 22ESCWG Field co-ordinators training workshop | 23rd - 25th April 2007 | Chavannes-de-Bogis D3/AM1 6. Agreed standards 1. Introduction 3. Context 4. Application 2. Experience 7. Summary 5. Limitations 6. Agreed standards Section 1: aims and principles of emergency response Section 2: covers all vital sectors and problems areas, including site selection, planning and shelter Section 3: support in field operations, administration and planning Appendices: ‘toolbox’ of standards, indicators and references used throughout the book download from unhcr.org

18 slide 18 of 22ESCWG Field co-ordinators training workshop | 23rd - 25th April 2007 | Chavannes-de-Bogis D3/AM1 6. Agreed standards 1. Introduction 3. Context 4. Application 2. Experience 7. Summary 5. Limitations 6. Agreed standards Terms used vary between agreed standards Standards: determined by UNHCR, governments and partners, often quantitative in form Standards: based on right to dignified life, qualitative in form and universally applicable to all operational environments Indicators: qualitative or quantitative tools for measuring the appropriateness and impact of applied standards The term ‘standard’ is used in different ways by the two leading texts

19 slide 19 of 22ESCWG Field co-ordinators training workshop | 23rd - 25th April 2007 | Chavannes-de-Bogis D3/AM1 6. Agreed standards: comparison 1. Introduction 3. Context 4. Application 2. Experience 7. Actions 5. Limitations 6. Agreed standards Comparison of key texts with respect to camp & settlement planning & shelter specific standards Water supplythe Sphere Project (2004)UNHCR (2007) minimum quantity of water available (litres per person per day) people per tap-standmaximum tap per 200 people not further than 100 m from user accommodations distance from dwellings to tapsmaximum 500 m maximum 100 m or a few minutes’ walk Sanitationthe Sphere Project (2004)UNHCR (2007) maximum people per latrine 20 people (if sex-segregated public toilets) in order of preference: (1) family (5-10 people) (2) 20 people distance from dwelling to toilet (sited to pose minimum threats to users especially at nights) maximum 50m or one minute walk6-50m minimum distance between latrines and soak-aways and ground-water source 30 m distance from bottom of pit to water table minimum 1.5 m

20 slide 20 of 22ESCWG Field co-ordinators training workshop | 23rd - 25th April 2007 | Chavannes-de-Bogis D3/AM1 6. Agreed standards: comparison 1. Introduction 3. Context 4. Application 2. Experience 7. Summary 5. Limitations 6. Agreed standards Space requiredthe Sphere project (2004)UNHCR (2007) minimum surface area of camp per person 45 m 2, including infrastructure45 m 2 per person recommended minimum covered floor area per person 3.5 – 4.5 m m 2 in warm climate 4.5 – 5.5 m 2 in cold climate or urban area Fire breakthe Sphere project (2004)UNHCR (2007) minimum distance between buildings The planning guidance of 45 m 2 per person includes firebreaks Minimum twice structure height, 3 – 4 times structure height if highly flammable minimum distance between blocks of clusters of dwellings 30 m per built-up 300 m Refusethe Sphere project (2004)UNHCR (2007) distance from dwellings to refuse disposal <100 m to communal pit people per 100-litre refuse container maximum 10 families50 people per 2mx5mx2m communal refuse pit 500 Comparison of key texts with respect to camp & settlement planning & shelter specific standards

21 slide 21 of 22ESCWG Field co-ordinators training workshop | 23rd - 25th April 2007 | Chavannes-de-Bogis D3/AM1 7. Summary: session review 1. Introduction 3. Context 4. Application 2. Experience 7. Summary 5. Limitations 6. Agreed standards International response standards relevant to the shelter needs Rules for the effective use of standards How standards and principles fit into a wider legal framework What have you learnt from the session? Variations between standards and indicators ‘Universal Declaration of Human Rights’

22 slide 22 of 22ESCWG Field co-ordinators training workshop | 23rd - 25th April 2007 | Chavannes-de-Bogis D3/AM1 7. Summary: lessons learnt 1. Introduction 3. Context 4. Application 2. Experience 7. Summary 5. Limitations 6. Agreed standards What have you learnt from the session? understandings of standards, principles, and legal frameworks must be integrated into strategic planning that agreed standards and principles form a small component of the larger legal framework that standards are not comprehensive four rules for the effective use of standards how standards and indicators are seen in two different ways by the two leading texts that standards must often be adapted to suit the specific context of the response Key learning points


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