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超弦理論とインフレーショ ン 向山信治 （東大理） 第１回「超弦理論と宇宙」研究会＠尾 道

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String Theory? The Cosmic Uroboros by Sheldon Glashow Three mysteries: Inflation, Dark Energy & Dark Matter

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String theory until 2002 No 4-dimensional de Sitter solution with stabilized moduli. No-go theorem! Contradict with inflation and dark energy? No way to reconcile with cosmology??? Bad thing ? String Theory? The Cosmic Uroboros does not close? Three mysteries: Inflation, Dark Energy & Dark Matter

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Anti-D-branes (KKLT) Recent Progress In 2003, a 4-dimensional de Sitter solution was finally found! Kachru, Kallosh, Linde and Trivedi (KKLT) In the previous no-go theorem, non-perturbative effects and branes were not taken into account. 4D AdS6D Compactification (GPK) Warped throat （ KS) Fluxes Volume stabilization (KKLT) R-R NS-NS dS

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3 models of stringy brane inflation Wrapped DBI inflation arXiv:0708.4285 [hep-th] with T.Kobayashi and S.Kinoshita Conformal rapid-roll inflation arXiv:0709.1952 [hep-th] with L.Kofman Chaotic brane inflation work in progress with L.Kofman

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Conformal Rapid-roll Inflation arXiv:0709.1952 [hep-th] with L.Kofman

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The KKLMMT model Kachru, Kallosh, Linde, Maldacena, McAllister, and Trivedi 2003 D3 anti-D3 However, inflation with almost scale-invariant spectrum of perturbations requires This can be achieved by considering -dependent W and fine-tuning it. inflaton The inflaton gets the mass = brane inflation (Dvali&Tye 1998) in KKLT

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KKLMMT fine-tuning m 2 = 2H 2 would stop inflation. This is due to the conformal coupling -R 2 /12. However, people have not yet looked at modification of Einstein equation. We should take it into account! [Kofman&Mukohyama 2007]

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Scalar field with non-minimal coupling to curvature Looks like an additional mass term… Actually, there are more terms!

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Inflation without the KKLMMT fine-tuning! Note that this is NOT a slow roll! RAPID ROLL INFLATION!!!

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Attractor behavior de Sitter attractor !!!

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Inflation with V( ) Starting with: Goal: (1) (3) (1’) (3’) (2’) Definitions: (2)

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Consistency condition I Starting with: Goal: (1) (1’) (3’) (2’) Definitions: (1) to (1’)

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Consistency condition II Starting with: Goal: (1’) (3’) (2’) Definitions: (2) (2) to (2’)

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Consistency condition III Starting with: Goal: (1’) (3’) (2’) Definitions: (3) to (3’)

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Condition for inflation with conformal coupling Usual slow roll condition + additional conditions The 3rd condition is not satisfied by power- law potentials. The D/anti-D potential satisfies it!

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Chaotic Brane Inflation Work in progress with L.Kofman

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Chaotic Inflation driven by brane motion Large motion of anti-D3-brane In 4D, V~ 4 in progress, with L.Kofman 4D universe 6D space Distance to the bottom = Inflaton Anti-D3-brane

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Phase portrait for an anti-D3-brane without non-rel. approximation Chaotic Inflation!

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Length of the throat Can we have ? For stack of anti-D3s, the answer is NO. Better for stack of wrapped D5s and D7s.

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The Cosmic Uroboros by Sheldon Glashow String theorists & Cosmologists must talk to each other!

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質問 1.Warped conifold 内のコンパクトな 4- cycle で、角度方向に対して安定なもの は？ 2.D5 と D3 の bound state （橋本さん＆今村 さん＠昨日の飲み会）で、 D5 の枚数 をどこまで増やせるか？ 3.Conformal coupling (m 2 =2H 2 ) を、対称 性（ AdS?) で protect することは可能 か？

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Wrapped DBI inflation arXiv:0708.4285 [hep-th] with T.Kobayashi and S.Kinoshita

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The KKLMMT model Kachru, Kallosh, Linde, Maldacena, McAllister, and Trivedi 2003 D3 anti-D3 However, inflation with almost scale-invariant spectrum of perturbations requires This can be achieved by considering -dependent W and fine-tuning it. inflaton The inflaton gets the mass = brane inflation (Dvali&Tye 1998) in KKLT

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KKLMMT fine-tuning m 2 = 2H 2 would stop inflation. This is based on dynamics of a scalar with canonical kinetic term. However, the brane position is described by nonlinear DBI kinetic action. We should take it into account! [Silberstein&Tong 2003]

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DBI inflation: model description Mobile D3-brane with relativistic speed Action Energy density & Pressure DBI part : radial position of the brane

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DBI inflation: good things A kind of k-inflation with general sound speed: a new model of stringy inflation! No need for slow-roll: a remedy to the η problem (KKLMMT fine- tuning)? Large non-Gaussianity: signature of stringy inflation?

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DBI inflation: bad thing (UV) DBI inflation with large non-Gaussianity seems inconsistent with WMAP data. Can be consistent only in the limit when it goes back to the slow-roll KKLMMT inflation. The reason: large but not too large |f NL | (say, 20<|f NL |<300) large r large /M Pl i) large long throat large V 6 ii) not large M Pl not large V 6 confliction Baumann&Mcllister 2006; Lidsey&Huston 2007

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Useful equations to derive constraints

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Our attempt: wrapped DBI The essential reason for the inconsistency of DBI inflation with WMAP data: large long throat For D3, this is inevitable: For a wrapped D5 or D7, we can get larger from the same throat! This significantly ameliorates the confliction! Kobayashi, Mukohyama and Kinoshita 2007 large volume of 2- or 4-cycle

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More stringent bound on wrapped DBI inflation Wrapped DBI inflation with large non- Gaussianity still requires a long throat. (Not as long as for D3 but still long.) Known Calabi-Yau manifold cannot sustain such a long throat, (let alone for D3). long throat large background charge large Euler number of CY, exceeding the known maximal value = 1820448 [Klemm,Lian,Roan&Yau 1997]

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Summary of wrapped DBI inflation Wrapping D5 or D7 over a cycle changes the relation between the brane position and the inflaton field. This significantly ameliorates the confliction between (UV) DBI inflation and WMAP data. However, successful wrapped (UV) DBI inflation requires Euler number larger than the known maximal value.

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e-foldings & mass hierarchy e-foldings: a ~ const. N ~ ln ( i / e ) Mass hierarchy a la Randall-Sundrum : M / M pl ~ e -N Enough inflation vs TeV gravity:Enough inflation vs TeV gravity: N ~ 62 + ln ( M / 10 16 GeV ) M ~ TeV These conditions are equivalent!

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Summary of conformal rapid-roll inflation Conformal coupling does NOT necessarily spoil inflation. Brane / anti-brane inflation may work without severe fine-tuning. E-foldings & mass hierarchy are related. Modulated reheating can generate scale- invariant density perturbation.

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Summary of this talk It seems that we can really enjoy cosmology in the framework of string theory. Model I: Wrapping D5 or D7 over a cycle ameliorates the confliction between the DBI inflation and WMAP data. However, a successful DBI inflation requires large Euler number of CY manifold. Model II: Conformal rapid-roll inflation is possible without the KKLLMT fine-tuning. The mass hierarchy and e-foldings are related! Model III: Chaotic brane inflation may be possible with wrapped D7.

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