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Nutritional deficiency diseases Small ruminants Dr Abd Elghany Hefnawy.

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Presentation on theme: "Nutritional deficiency diseases Small ruminants Dr Abd Elghany Hefnawy."— Presentation transcript:


2 Nutritional deficiency diseases Small ruminants Dr Abd Elghany Hefnawy

3 Nutritional elements Vitamins B- Complex Non-B complex A Fat soluble (stored in the tissue) Water soluble (not stored in tissues must have Constant supple) K E D B-1(thiamin) B-2 (riboflavin) B-12(cobalamin) Folic acid Polioencepha- lomalecia Skin lesions Anaemia Megaloblast anaemia C (Ascorbic acid) Scurvy Night blindness Hypoprothrombinaemia NMD or WMD Rickets or osteomalecia Trace elements SeCu Zn Cobalt Iodine Iron Electrolytes K+K+ Na + Cl - Minerals P Ca Mg Hypokalemia Hyponatremia Hypocholermia Hemoglobinueria Parturient paresis Lactation tetany Goiter WLD WMD Falling disease Swyback Enzootic ataxia Anemia Parakeratosis Wool eating Anemia Nutritional elements and its deficiency

4 Vit.& Minerals Facts 1-Vit. are essential organic nutrients. 2-Minerals are essential inorganic nutrients 2-Required in small amounts. 3-Vit. cannot be synthesized by the body. 4-Vit. Must be obtained by outside sources like diet, rumen bacteria & sun. 5-Required for growth, maintenance, reproduction and lactation.

5 Vitamin-D Deficiency Dr/ Abd Elghany Hefnawy “Osteodystrophic diseases” “Rickets or osteomalecia

6 Etiology Primary cause Deficient vit-D in food intake Secondary cause increase caroten intake Insufficient solar irradiation Toxicity of melybodnum or copper chlorid Heavy infestation with GIT. Nematodes

7 Pathogenesis Etiology and predisposing factors Clinical findings

8 Vit-D3 (cholecalceferol) 7-dehydro-cholesterol Mammalian skin Natural irradiation with ultreavoilet light. Sun-cured hay Vit-D2 Why Vitamin D? Fish oil Vit-D4-D5

9 Skin Diet 25-hydroxy CC (DHCC) Alphahydroxylase 1,25 DHCC (Active form of vit D Vit-D [cholicalciferol CC] 24, 25 DHCC

10 Vitamin D from UV exposure Active Vit D 3


12 So any deficiency of vit. D leading to disturbance in calcium and phosphorus absorption and metabolism (Osteoporosis). 1,25 DHCC (Active form of vit D Transportation and absorption of intestinal calcium Regulation of phosphorous absorption and metabolism specially it’s loss from the kidney Mineralization of bone. Vitamin-D may have a role in the immune sysytem

13 Types of osteoporosis Matrix osteoporosis (bony atrophy) Rickets Osteomalicia Stunted bone growth

14 Matrix osteoporosis (bony atrophy) Adult and young Low amount of protienetious Substances (Matrix)of the bone Good mineralization Rickets Young or growing Defect in the mineralizationMatrix is present normally Osteomalicia Simillar to rickets but affect adult animals Stunted bone growth Defect in the mineralization &matrix of the bone Young

15 Clinical Signs -Reduced the productivity & reproductive of the animal. -Decrease in appetite and food utilization -Lameness which is more common in the forelegs accompanied in young animals by bending of long bone and enlargement of the joints. -Dyspnoea if chest bone affected -Arching of back. -Curvature of long bone. -Decrease the fertility

16 Diagnosis -History and clinical signs. -Laboratory diagnosis -low calcium and phosphorous level. -low level -of vit D -High level of alkalin phosphatase 5.7units (N-2.5) Fecal analysis (GI. Parasitism)

17 Treatment and control Administration of vit.D Supplementation of calcium and phosphorous in the diet Exposure to the sunlight Fish liver oil is good source of vit-D (4,5) Sun-dried hay is good source of vit-D2 Dry yeast is probably simple and cheap source of vitamin D

18 Vitamin D – Requirements ( IU/kg Feed DM) - Growing lambs185 - Gestating ewes216 - Lactating ewes148

19 50Kg BWt. Protection for 3 months -Single IM injection at a dose of 6000 Iu/kg body weight 2 months prelambing Protection of newborn lambs


21 وسائل التواصل Facebook abdelghany hefnawy د. عبد الغني حفناوي Web site to download lectures (Courses) Tel

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