Presentation on theme: "“CITES-2005” Novosibirsk, Russia, March 13-19, 2005"— Presentation transcript:
1“CITES-2005” Novosibirsk, Russia, March 13-19, 2005 Lectures course “Meteorology applied to Urban Air Pollution Problems” Alexander Baklanov, Danish Meteorological InstituteYoung Scientists School on Computational Information Technologies for Environmental Sciences:“CITES-2005” Novosibirsk, Russia, March 13-19, 2005
2Meteorology applied to Urban Air Pollution Problems: Lecture schedule Четверг. 17 марта 2005 года 11:00 – 13:00 Лекционные курсы (К/З ИВМиМГ) 2. Meteorology applied to Urban Air Pollution Problems. Alexander Baklanov (Danish Meteorological Institute, Denmark) 13:00 – 14:30 – Обед 14:30 – 15:30 - Лекционные курсы 3. Meteorology applied to Urban Air Pollution Problems. Alexander Baklanov (Danish Meteorological Institute, Denmark) 15:30 - Практические занятия (компьютерные классы ИВМиМГ, ИВТ СО РАН) Пятница. 18 марта 2005 года 9:00 – 13:15 Лекционные курсы (К/З ИВМиМГ) 1. Meteorology applied to Urban Air Pollution Problems. Alexander Baklanov (Danish Meteorological Institute, Denmark) 11:00 – 11:15 - Перерыв 2. Meteorology applied to Urban Air Pollution Problems. Alexander Baklanov (Danish Meteorological Institute, Denmark) 13:15 – 14:30 – Обед Посещение РЦ ПОД Отчеты групп о выполнении практических заданий
3Structure of the Lectures Introduction to European research (COST Actions 710, 715, 728, 732, SATURN/EUROTRAC, CLEAR cluster, ACCENT, etc.)Structure of the urban boundary layerModification of flow and turbulence structure over urban areasThe surface energy balance in urban areasThe mixing height and inversions in urban areasEvaluation and analysis of European peak pollution episodesEuropean urban experiments (Copenhagen, ESCOMPTE, BUBBLE, etc.)Preparation of meteorological input data for urban air pollution modelsIntegrated modelling : Forecasting Urban Meteorology, Air Pollution and Population EXposure (FUMAPEX) and COST 728Summary of achievements, gaps in knowledge, recommendations for further research
4Why Urban Meteorology Now? Erik Bødtker, Danmarks Meteorologiske Institut11/04/2017Why Urban Meteorology Now?Technological AdvancesRemote sensing and other platformsComputer modelsHomeland SecurityAtmospheric Transport and Diffusion (ATD) modelsHealth and SafetyHigh impact weatherAir qualityTechnology Advances - computing power, data collections, communications capabilities, better understanding of the science, and support for these programs are now availableH.S attacks pointed to our vulnerability and our urban areas are where people congregate and are a target for terrorist. This has brought back to our attention again the need for ATD models. These our building off our experience in the Cold War and for supporting activities in Dept. of Energy with our Nuclear Power Plants.Health and Safety - we are just now beginning to understand the health hazards of bad air. As people congregate in urban areas, this is also were a lot of the chemicals made by man collect – air pollution. There is a use for additional air quality information to help mitigate health impactsHigh Impact Weather – includes heat waves are major killers for urban areas, hurricanes, tornadoes, severe thunderstorms, winter weather with its ice storms, snow, wind and cold outbreaks.
5Erik Bødtker, Danmarks Meteorologiske Institut 11/04/2017Why do we have to consider the urban effects?What kind of effects?
6Urban BL features:Local-scale inhomogeneties, sharp changes of roughness and heat fluxes,Wind velocity reduce effect due to buildings,Redistribution of eddies due to buildings, large => small,Trapping of radiation in street canyons,Effect of urban soil structure, diffusivities heat and water vapour,Anthropogenic heat fluxes, urban heat island,Internal urban boundary layers (IBL), urban Mixing Height,Effects of pollutants (aerosols) on urban meteorology and climate,Urban effects on clouds, precipitation and thunderstorms.
7Erik Bødtker, Danmarks Meteorologiske Institut 11/04/2017A city can be considered as a protect area for meso scale atmospheric events :Urban heat island has a positive influence in the winter outdoor thermal comfort and the energy consumptionUrban roughness mitigates wind speed actions on tall buildings above the mean roof levelButAt small scale in the urban canopy, the built environment can induce negative effects:over speed area around buildingslow diffusion of pollutants in street canyonLack of ventilation for indoor and outdoor comfort
8Erik Bødtker, Danmarks Meteorologiske Institut 11/04/2017Example: effects of storm Lothar (1999)Buildings located downwind of small roughness (sea and open country) had more damages on structureWind effects on structure% of damagesseaOpen countryurbansuburbs
9The Urban System (EU 5FP City of Tomorrow) Interactions between the city, human environment and biophysical environmentINPUTSEnergy MoneyFood InformationWater Raw MaterialsManufactured goodsHUMAN THE CITY BIOPHYSICALENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTPeople Physical Structure Atmosphere & Energy FlowsEthnicity Building Type Hydrological CyclePolitics Layout Soils, Vegetation, FaunaTechnology Geology & LandformsOUTPUTSWastes EmploymentLiquids WealthSolids Manufactured GoodsGases Degraded EnergyLINKS TO Urban Systems OTHER Rural SystemsRegionsTransport CommunicationFrom Bridgman et al. (1996)
10Introduction to European research COST Actions 710, 715, 728, 732,SATURN/EUROTRAC/TRAPOS,CLEAR cluster,FUMAPEX project,ACCENT Network of Excellence,WMO GURME projectUS EPA/NOAA projects
11Erik Bødtker, Danmarks Meteorologiske Institut 11/04/2017COST - European Co-operation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research (http://cost.cordis.lu/src/domain_detail.cfm?domain=7) Domain: MeteorologyHarmonisation in the pre-processing of meteorological data for dispersion models – COST710In the framework of COST, there has been an international action, COST 710, aimed at Harmonisation in the pre-processing of meteorological data for dispersion models.COST 710 has been followed by a related action, COST 715, concerning Urban Meteorology applied to Air Pollution Problems.A somewhat related action, COST 732, will be carried out from 2005 onwards. COST 732 is entitled Quality Assurance and Improvement of Microscale Meteorological Models.Meteorology applied to Urban Air Pollution Problems - COST 715In the framework of COST, an international action has been conducted aimed at increasing knowledge of, and the accessibility to, the main meteorological parameters which determine urban pollution levels. The action was designated initiated COST 715.COST 715 follows a previous action, COST 710.
12Erik Bødtker, Danmarks Meteorologiske Institut 11/04/2017Meteorology applied to Urban Air Pollution Problems - COST 715 (1998 – 2004) Working Group 1: Urban wind field Working Group 2: Energy Budget and the Mixing height in Urban AreasWorking Group 3: Meteorology during peak pollution episodesWorking Group 4: Input Data for Urban Air Pollution Models
13Working Group 1: Urban wind field Erik Bødtker, Danmarks Meteorologiske Institut11/04/2017Working Group 1: Urban wind fieldGoalsReview and evaluate methods to describe and parameterise the wind field over urban areas from routine meteorological observations:near-surface conditions (roughness sublayer)profile throughout the UBL possibly:distinction between different locations within a cityrecommendations on what /how Met. Services (and others) should measure in urban areasMethodsReview existing methods (theories) for the specific goals aboveidentify existing data sets for the specific goals aboveidentify new data setsdevelop general semi-empirical relationships for the description of the UWF and related parametersPlansIn the longer term, seeking new directions for developing a theory for the urban wind profileEvaluation of the role of alternative tools such as numerical models or remote sensing techniques
14Erik Bødtker, Danmarks Meteorologiske Institut 11/04/2017Working Group 2: The Surface Energy Budget and the Mixing height in Urban AreasBackgroundUrban pollution meteorology is characterised by a number of fundamental parameters and their evolution in time, which all have specific problems as to their monitoring, representativeness, parameterisation and modelling. Within COST-715, WG2 addresses the specific problems in describing the surface energy balance and the mixing height. The surface energy balance and the surface temperature and heat fluxes determine the hydrostatic stability conditions in the lower atmosphere and regulate its strength for mixing pollutants, the mixing height parameter determines the available volume for pollutants mixing. The activities of WG2:To review theoretical concepts of the structure of the urban boundary layer.To review and assess pre-processors, schemes and models for determining the mixing height, the surface energy budget and the stability that are available to the participants. Cases of strong stability and/or windless conditions are of special interest.To review theoretical models together with available field measurements and LES for calculation of the minimum friction velocity and the heat transfer coefficient. Conditions of shear free convection over high roughness are of main importanceTo identify and review suitable data sets within and outside the group that could be used to test and validate the pre-processors and models.To carry out intercomparisons and to summarise comparisons of different schemes against each other and against data under specific conditions.To assess the influence of the model outputs of certain specific effects such as complex topography, strong heterogeneity, slope effects and canopy trapping on radiative fluxes.To assess the suitability of remote sensing tools to estimate canopy characteristics and surface fluxes.To provide recommendations for the improvement of existing pre-processors and models and for the development of new schemes.To provide recommendations for planning and conducting field campaigns in order to fill the important existing gaps for empirical data of key parameters for urban air pollution.To promote co-ordination of related activities in Europe of presently scattered works, objectives, and responsibilities.
15Erik Bødtker, Danmarks Meteorologiske Institut 11/04/2017Working Group 3: Meteorology during peak pollution episodesDuring air pollution episodes pollutant concentrations are highest, and the related adverse health impact on the public should therefore be reliably evaluated. The meteorological conditions prevailing in the course of episodes are at the same time commonly the most difficult to model with the computing tools presently available.European Union nevertheless requires practical measures to be taken, if air quality limit values are exceeded.
16CLEAR Cluster of European Air Quality Research Coordinator: Prof. Ranjeet S SokhiAtmospheric Science Research Group (ASRG)University of Hertfordshire, UKScientific Officer: Viorel VulturescuEuropean Commission, DG ResearchLaunched: December 2002
17Aim of CLEAR Threefold aim: To improve our scientific understanding of atmospheric processes, composition and pollution variabilities on local to regional scalesTo provide next generation tools for end users and stakeholders for managing air pollution and responding to its impactTo help create a critical mass of expertise and ambition to address future research needs in the areas of air pollution, its impact and response strategies.
18Eleven Participating Projects FP5, EESD, City of Tomorrow ATREUS (Coordinator: Dr Agis Papadopoulos, University of Thessaloniki) – Human Potential Research network- Advanced Tools for Rational Energy Use towards Sustainability with emphasis on microclimatic issues in urban applicationsOSCAR (Coordinator: Professor Ranjeet S Sokhi, University of Hertfordshire)- Optimised Expert System for Conducting Environmental Assessment of Urban Road TrafficFUMAPEX (Coordinator: Dr Alexander Baklanov, DMI)Integrated Systems for Forecasting Urban Meteorology, Air Pollution and Population ExposureISHTAR (Prof Emanuele Negrenti, ENEA)- Integrated Software for Health, Transport efficiency andArtistic heritage Recovery
19Eleven Participating Projects FP5, EESD, City of Tomorrow SAPPHIRE (Coordinator: Dr Stuart Harrad, University of Birmingham)- Source Apportionment of Airborne Particulate Matter and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Urban Regions of EuropeURBAN AEROSOL (Professor Mihalis Lazaridis, Technical University of Crete)Characterisation of Urban Air Quality Indoor/Outdoor Particulate Matter Chemical Characteristics and Source-to-Inhaled Dose RelationshipsURBAN EXPOSURE (Dr Trond Bohler, NILU)Integrated Exposure Management Tool Characterising Air Pollution Relevant Human Exposure in Urban Environment
20Eleven Participating Projects FP5, EESD, City of Tomorrow BOND (Coordinator: Professor John Bartzis, NCSRD)Biogenic Aerosols and Air Quality in the Mediterranean AreaMERLIN (Coordinator: Professor Rainer Friedrich, University of Stuttgart)Multi-pollutant, Multi-Effect Assessment of European Air Pollution Control Strategies: an Integrated ApproachAIR4EU (Coordinator: Professor Peter Biltjes, TNO) – FP6 ProjectAir Quality Assessment for Europe: Local to Continental ScalesINTEGAIRE (Coordinator: Dr Eva Banos, EUROCITIES)- Integrated Urban Governance and Air Quality Management inEurope
22FUMAPEX: Integrated Systems for Forecasting Urban Meteorology, Air Pollution and Population Exposure Project objectives:the improvement of meteorological forecasts for urban areas,the connection of NWP models to urban air quality (UAQ) and population exposure (PE) models,the building of improved Urban Air Quality Information and Forecasting Systems (UAQIFS), andtheir application in cities in various European climates.
23UAQIFS:Scheme of the suggested improvements of meteorological forecasts (NWP) in urban areas, interfaces to and integration with UAP and PE models
24FUMAPEX target cities for improved UAQIFS implementation #1 – Oslo, Norway#2 – Turin, Italy#3 – Helsinki, Finland#4 – Valencia/Castellon, Spain#5 – Bologna, Italy#6 – Copenhagen, DenmarkDifferent ways of the UAQIFS implementation:urban air quality forecasting mode,urban management and planning mode,public health assessment and exposure prediction mode,urban emergency preparedness system.
26Erik Bødtker, Danmarks Meteorologiske Institut 11/04/2017COST 728: Enhancing meso-scale meteorological modelling capabilities for air pollution and dispersion applications( )The Action will encourage the advance of the science in terms of parametrisation schemes, integration methodologies/strategies, air pollution and other dispersion applications as well as developing model evaluation methods. In terms of air pollution applications it is recognised that chemical mechanisms and emissions pre-processing are vital components.Four working groups (WG):WG1 Meteorological parameterisation/applicationsWG2 Integrated systems of MetM and CTM: strategy, interfaces and module unificationWG3 Mesoscale models for air pollution and dispersion applicationsWG4 Development of evaluation tools and methodologies
27WG2: Integrated systems of MetM and CTM/ADM: strategy, interfaces and module unification The overall aim of WG2 will be to identify the requirements for the unification of MetM and CTM/ADM modules and to propose recommendations for a European strategy for integrated mesoscale modelling capability.WG2 activities will include:Forecasting modelsAssessment models
28Meteorology and Air Pollution: as a joint problem Meteorology is a main source of uncertainty in APMs => needs for NWP model improvementsComplex & combined effects of meteo- and pollution components (e.g., Paris, Summer 2003)Effects of pollutants/aerosols on meteo&climate (precipitation, thunderstorms, etc)Three main stones for Atmospheric Environment modelling:Meteorology / ABL,Chemistry, => Integrated ApproachAerosol/pollutant dynamics (“chemical weather forecasting”)Effects and Feedbacks
29Why we need to build the European integration strategy? NWP models are not primarily developed for CTM/ADMs and there is no tradition for strong co-operation between the groups for meso/local-scalethe conventional concepts of meso- and urban-scale AQ forecasting need revision along the lines of integration of MetM and CTMUS example (The models 3, WRF-Chem)A number of European models …A universal modelling system (like ECMWF in EU or WRF-Chem in US) ???an open integrated system with fixed architecture (module interface structure)European mesoscale MetM/NWP communities:ECMWFHIRLAMCOSMOALADIN/AROMEUMWRFMM5RAMSEuropean CTM/ADMs:a big numberproblem orientednot harmonised (??)…..
30Erik Bødtker, Danmarks Meteorologiske Institut 11/04/2017ACCENT's goals are to promote a common European strategy for research on atmospheric composition change, to develop and maintain durable means of communication and collaboration within the European scientific community, to facilitate this research and to optimise two-way interaction with policy-makers and the general public.Changes in atmospheric composition directly affect many aspects of life, determining climate, air quality and atmospheric inputs to ecosystems. In turn, these changes affect the fundamental necessities for human existence: human health, food production, ecosystem health and water. Atmospheric composition change research is therefore fundamental for the future orientation of Europe's Sustainable Development strategy.
32Part II: Structure of the urban boundary layer Vertical structureHorizontal non-homogeneityTemporal variability
33The atmospheric boundary layer Lowest layer of the atmosphereInteractions with the earth’s surface are importantDiurnal evolution is complicatedTurbulence generation by shear and buoyancy is importantFluxes of energy, momentum, and moisture to/from the surface
34Problems in defining the boundary layer Complicated vertical structureSub-layers grow and decay over the diurnal cycleTurbulence is often intermittent, complicating the classification of stabilityBoundary layer top is not necessarily at inversion
35The structure of the urban boundary layer - meteorological view after T. Oke (1988)
40Boundary layer characteristics Daytime:Deep mixed layer from surface heatingTurbulent eddies on the scale of BL depthThermally driven flows can develop from spatial variations in surface heatingNighttime:Surface inversion develops from radiational coolingMixed layer can persist above inversionTurbulence can be intermittent and mix down faster and warmer air
47Two approaches to parameterise the urban canopy effect: Modifying the existing non-urban (e.g. MOST) approaches for urban areas by finding proper values for the effective roughness lengths, displacement height, and heat fluxes (adding the anthropogenic heat flux, heat storage capacity and albedo change). In this case, the lowest model level is close to the top of the urban canopy (displacement height), and a new analytical model is suggested for the Urban Roughness Sublayer which is a critical region where pollutants are emitted and where people live.Alternatively, source and sink terms are added in the momentum, energy and turbulent kinetic energy equation to take into account the buildings. Different parameterizations (Masson, 2000; Kusaka et al., 2001; Martilli et al., 2002) had been developed to estimate the radiation balance (shading and trapping effect of the buildings), the heat, the momentum and the turbulent fluxes inside the urban canopy, taking into account a simple geometry of buildings and streets (3 surface types: roof, wall and road).
50Erik Bødtker, Danmarks Meteorologiske Institut 11/04/2017Review: theories relating to urban wind profiles (WG1 COS715)Theories will be required for various aspects of the UWF:Roughness sublayer (RS):profile of Reynolds stress & local scaling within RS è wind profileno theory, but good results; parameterisation exists for Reynolds stress profile (to be extended to more data sets)Required: friction velocity of inertial sublayer (IS), ; z* and dStability effects? (profile of sensible heat flux? à WG2)Urban canopy (part of RS)Little variation within canopy [height and position]Sharp transition from canopy to above roof regionSimilar to plant canopies:Theory? (Raupach et al., 1996)Possible approach: match the canopy and the RS profiles for 0<z<z*Alternative: sinh formulation (instead of exp): Gayev (??)UBLUrban mixed layer: ‘normal‘ BL scaling regimes and approaches? (e.g. Sorbjan, 1986). Any evidence for this? [à data from Barcelona, LIDAR and RaSo may be used: CS]; effects of sea/topography?Urban stable boundary Layer: see above: UML; data?rural - urban transition:(e.g. information (data) from an airport sampling station, but required knowledge in the city centre)required parameters: scaling velocity / temperature ‘urban‘ and rural. Which level? (see above: RS)theory? (e.g. ; Bottema, 1995)Model for ‘surface‘ heat flux: based on Oke’s data, empiricalAlternative: approach for heat flux (based on the notion that this quantity is very much like over rural surfaces even for urban surfaces, see Rotach, 1994)spatial inhomogeneity: city ‘regions‘internal BL growth [thermal – mechanical]: growth rate ‘as usual‘? à test on Barcelona datacity regions (down town, city, residential....): back to IBL?
511: Analytical urban parameterisations Displacement height,Effective roughness and flux aggregation,Effects of stratification on the roughness,Different roughness for momentum, heat, and moisture;Calculation of anthropogenic and storage urban heat fluxes for NWP models;Prognostic MH parameterisations for SBL;Parameterisation of wind and eddy profiles in canopy layer.
52The effect of stratification of the surface resistance over very rough surfaces S. Zilitinkevich and A. Baklanov (2003)The roughness length depends on the atmospheric temperature stratification.New parameterisations for the effect of stratification on the surface resistance over very rough surfaces are suggested:Stable stratification:Unstable stratification:
53A simple model of turbulent mixing and wind profile within urban canopy S. Zilitinkevich and A. Baklanov (2004)=the vertical profiles of the velocity:where.the horizontal diffusivity:the vertical eddy diffusivity:==
54Erik Bødtker, Danmarks Meteorologiske Institut 11/04/20172 (BEP model): Urban effects in the Martilli et al. (2002) parameterization:RoofWallStreetMomentumTurbulenceHeatDragWake diffusionRadiation
55BEP Model: parameterization of Martilli et al. (2002) Horizontal surfacesStreet and RoofMOST (Louis formulation)Vertical surfacesWallMomentum HeatImprovement of the BEP model by Hamdi and Schayes (2004)
57Schematic representation of the numerical grid in the urban module
58Verification of the BEP model versus the BUBBLE experiment Vertical profiles of wind velocity (left), friction velocity (middle), and potential temperature (right) measured (points), simulated with MOST (dashed line) and with the urban parameterization of Martilli et al. (2002) (solid line).
59Characteristics of urban surfaces Altered albedo – can be higher or lowerHigher heat capacityLower moisture flux to atmosphereLarger roughness elementsIncreased surface areaSource of anthropogenic heat and emissionsImpermeable to waterDecreased net longwave raditaion loss
60Part IV: Energy budget in urban areas The radiation budget does not differ significantly for urban and rural surfaces, as the increased loss of net thermal longwave radiation is partly compensated by a gain in net shortwave radiation due to a lower albedo.The turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat, as well as their ratio (β=H/LvE, the Bowen ratio) are variable, depending in particular on the amount of rainfall that fell during the preceding period. However, the impermeability of urban surfaces generally reduces the availability of soil moisture for evaporation after a few rainless days, generally leading to high values of the Bowen ratio.The storage heat flux usually is significantly higher in urban areas compared to densely vegetated surfaces. This cannot be explained entirely by a higher thermal inertia, as this quantity is only slightly higher for urban as compared to rural environments. Other factors of importance are the low moisture availability and the extremely low roughness length for heat fluxes. OHM model (Grimmond et al., 1991).The anthropogenic heat flux is a most typical urban energy component as it is absent over rural or natural surfaces.
61Energy budget and additional sources of energy need to be considered for cities Q* = K - K + L - L = QH + LvE + QG + QFthe fluxes of heat due to combustion of fuels (QF) by:the traffic, at ground level,the domestic heating, through wall heat transfers and direct release from chimneys,the similar heat releases by small dispersed industries,elevated point sources of warm discharges (high stacks).
62Variability in Morphology Implications, across & between cities, for:Wind flowDispersionFlux partitioningBL heightAir qualitySurface runoffSolar accessRadiative coolingGrimmond & Oke, 1999; JAM
63Urban Fabric Classification – Method Database: BD Topo (IGN):Building altitudesBuilding surfacesRoad surfacesVegetation surfacesHydrographic surfacesDFMap softwareMorphology parameters:Average heightVolumePerimeterCompactnessSpace between buildingsCover Modes:Surface density (SD) of buildingsSD of vegetationSD of hydrographySD of roadsNumber of buildingsAerodynamic parameters:Roughness lengthDisplacement heightFrontal & lateral SDGIS
64Erik Bødtker, Danmarks Meteorologiske Institut Belle VueS29 TowerSomgandeVariability Across a CityErik Bødtker, Danmarks Meteorologiske Institut11/04/2017DOWNTOWN.210 (.020)SECTOR 29.249 (.024)RURAL.276 (.023)313 (.8)309 (1.6)312 (.6)AlbedoSurface Temperature (K)Offerle et al. 2004
65(after Grimmond and Oke, in COST-715, 2001) Ranges of average daily maximum values of net radiation and fluxes in North American cities(after Grimmond and Oke, in COST-715, 2001)ParameterRange (W m-2)Net all-wave radiation Q*<Latent heat flux LESensible heat flux HStorage heat flux GAverage daytime Bowen ratios H/LE: Residential sites During irrigation ban Vancouver Light industrial site Downtown(Dimensionless) ~ 2.8 ~ 4.4 ~ 9.8
66Roughness for momentum, heat, and moisture The roughnesses are different for urban areas, but they are considered as equal in NWP models.Several possible parameterisations for the scalar roughness length for urban areas can be recommended to improve urban-scale NWP models:1) Brutsaert (1982) and Brutsaert and Sugita (1996):2) Hasager et al. (2002):They need to be verified and improved.
68Urban anthropogenic heat flux calculation based on an assumption of dependency/proportionality to other urban characteristics, e.g.:Population density maps with a high resolution in urban areas.Satellite images of the night lightness over urban areas. Difficulties to use for industrial and developing countries (should be corrected).Land-use classification as a percentage of urban classes (central part, urban, sub-urban, industrial, etc.)Emission inventory for specific pollutants, which are typical for urban areas (e.g., due to traffic emission: NOx, …).Monitoring or simulation fields of air pollution concentration for the specific pollutants, which are typical for urban areas (see above #4).Reference values W/m2
69Module 3: SM2-U model (Mestayer et al., 2003) Within each cell SM2-U computes the energy budget of each of the 5 cover modes according to their coverage percentage, balancing the net radiation with the heat fluxes, accounting for the transfers to soil layers. The buildings/roofs cover mode receives a special modeling for canopy. The model output is the cell-averaged temperature (plus the heat fluxes).SMU2-U Energy Budget
70SM2-U WATER BUDGETWithin each cell SM2-U computes the water budget of each of the 5 cover modes according to their coverage percentage, balancing precipitation with surface evaporation and vegetation transpiration, accounting for the water transfers between the surfaces and the soil. The model output is the cell-averaged specific humidity (plus vapour and drainage fluxes)
73Urban classes presentation in SM2-U for DMI-HIRLAM for the Copenhagen region SM2-U classes: 1: veg on nat soil, 2: veg on art soil, 3: nat soil veg, 4: art soil veg, 5: bare soil, 6: buildings, 7: waterFUMAPEX - SM2 U :106: bat - buildings-1 Magenta 14.60%0 Yellow 75.86%FUMAPEX - SM2 U : DOMINATING CLASS 1-7-1 Magenta 14.60%; 1 Green 2.74%; 2 White 0.08%; 3 Black 1.83%; 4 White 0.12%; 5 Yellow 21.79%; 6 Red 2.25%; 7 Blue 56.58%
74Improved urban surface parameters based on the morphologic methods Residential District (RD)Industrial Commercial District (ICD)City Center (CC)/ High Building District (HBD)
75Energy budgets over four urban districts (CC: city centre; RD: residential district; ICD: industrial-commercial district; HBD: high building district) simulated by SM2-U for an average diurnal cycle in July (FUMAPEX D4.1, 2004)(—–): net radiation flux;(----): latent heat flux;(–·–·–): sensible heat flux;(–··–··–): storage heat flux
76SUBMESO CLIMA RUNS FOR COPENHAGEN TEMPERATURE OF THE SURFACE
77Sensitivity Study on City Representation SA : Detailed city SB : Homogeneous mean citySC : Mineral city (used in LSM, no buildings, dry bare soil)Mean fluxes(whole urban area)Temperature profiles(above districts)ALL : Different behaviorSC vs SA :stores & releases less energy (no radiative trapping) ;Rn is weaker (higher albedo)SA : at 00h neutral stratification above CC & HBD, stable - others.Urban Heat Island is seen (Surface air temperature above the city higher than on the rural area).SC : Stable stratification & temperature homogeneity for all.Importance of urban surface characteristics description
79Urban effects on air pollution in Mediterranean region
80Urban BL features for MH estimation (i) internal urban boundary layer (IBL),(ii) elevated nocturnal inversion layer,(iii) strong horizontal inhomogeneity and temporal non-stationarity,(iv) so-called ‘urban roughness island’, zero-level of urban canopy, and z0u z0T z0q,(v) anthropogenic heat fluxes from street to city scale,(vi) downwind ‘urban plume’ and scale of urban effects in space and time,(vii) calm weather situation simulation,(viii) non-local character of urban MH formation,(ix) urban soil, albedo, effect of the water vapour fluxes.