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Eutherian Mammals – formerly belonging to the order Endata.

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1 Eutherian Mammals – formerly belonging to the order Endata.
The Order Zenarthra Anteaters Armadillos Sloths Eutherian Mammals – formerly belonging to the order Endata. By Gerri Jesse ANIMALS IN THIS GROUP WERE AND STILL ARE OFTEN REFERRED TO AS ENDENTATES (WORD MEANS TOOTHLESS). ORDER ENDATA IS LISTED WITH SUPER-ORDER OR SUB-ORDER IN FRONT OF XENARTHRA.

2 Members of the mammalian order Edentata include:
31 living species of armadillos, true anteaters, and tree sloths. 8 families of extinct ground sloths, and armadillo-like animals. Both groups together make up the sub-order Xenarthra. Xenarthrans are a small group of insectivores and herbivores. Body size is small to medium, up to 60 kg (about 132 lbs). Used to be much more diverse and numerous. XENARTHRANS ARE A SMALL GROUP OF INSECTIVORES AND HERBIVORES WITH A SMALL TO MEDIUM BODY-SIZE INCLUDING ARMADILLOS, TRUE ANTEATERS AND TREE SLOTHS. GROUPS OF BOTH LIVING AND EXTINCT FAMILIES MAKE UP THE XENARTHRA. THEY USED TO BE MUCH MORE DIVERSE AND NUMEROUS.

3 Giant Anteater, Myrmecophaga tridactyla
LARGEST SPECIES OF ANTEATER. only species in the genus Myrmecophaga. ANTEATERS ARE INDEED TOOTHLESS. Endata means without teeth. USE SPECIALIZED 2 FOOT LONG TONGUE EATING UP TO 30,000 ANTS & TERMITES A DAY - RELIABLE FOOD SOURCE. TONGUE LIKE A STRAND OF SPAGHETTI WITH TEENY, BACKWARD POINTING SPINES, COVERED WITH STICKY SALIVA WHEN FEEDING.

4 Giant Anteater Classification & Facts
Scientific Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Endata Suborder: Xenarthra Family: Myrmecophagidae Genus:MyrmecophagaLinnaeus, 1758 Species: M. tridactyla Facts: Body length: 40 – 48 inches. Height: 28 – 35 inches. Weight: 60 – 140 pounds. Life span: 15 years/wild, Up to 26 years in a zoo. SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION FOR GIANT ANTEATER IS ON THE LEFT. (POINT OUT ORDER AND SUBORDER) LARGE SIZED AROUND 4 FEET LONG AND ALMOST 3 FEET IN HEIGHT, WEIGHING 60 – 140 LBS. MALES ARE HEAVIER THAN FEMALES. LIFE SPAN IS 15 YRS. IN WILD & UP TO 26 YRS. IN CAPTIVITY.

5 With and without the fur coat.
LONG TAIL USED LIKE A BICYCLE STAND TO BALANCE ON TWO LEGS, DOES DURING BIRTH ALSO. ALONG WITH THEIR CLAWS, ITS USED FOR FENDING OFF OR KILLING MAIN PREDATORS, JAGUARS AND PUMAS. LONG BUSHY HAIR FEELS LIKE STRAW, USED TO CURL OVER THEM WHEN COOL (HAIR ON TAILS GROWS UP TO 16 “ LONG). Genus Myrmecophaga Giant Anteater Anteater skeleton

6 Pup loves piggyback rides from Mom.
ANTEATER WITH YOUNG CLINGING ON HER BACK, NEW PUPS HAVE FULL HAIR & LOOK LIKE MOTHER. BLEND IN LOOK LARGER TO PREDATORS. USUALLY HAVE ONE AT BIRTH, TWINS ARE RARE, ABOUT 3 LBS., MATURE AND LEAVE MOTHER AROUND AGE 2 TO 3 YEARS. ALTHOUGH SOLITARY MAMMALS, GIANT ANTEATERS COME TOGETHER TO MATE & RAISE YOUNG.

7 Species name of the Giant Anteater is:
tridactyla which means “three fingers.” HAS FIVE DIGITS ON EACH FOOT, BUT 3 MIDDLE DIGITS ON FRONT FEET HAVE EXTRA-LONG CLAWS. THEIR CLAWS ARE SHARPENED BY THE ANTEATERS SHUFFLING WALK AND ARE USED TO DIG INTO ANT MOUNDS AND FOR DEFENSE AGAINST PREDATORS.

8 Geographic Giant Anteater Range
The IUCN classification is vulnerable (lower risk). South America hosts the majority of today’s surviving groups of Xenarthrans. San Diego zoo. 5,000 Giant Anteaters left in wild, hunting and habitat loss. ABOUT 5000 GIANT ANTEATERS found iN CENTRAL & S. AMERICA . FOSSIL REMAINS HAVE BEEN FOUND AS FAR NORTH AS MEXICO. Xenarthrans radiated into about a dozen families in south america. SAN DIEGO HOUSES ALL THREE MAMMALS IN THEIR ZOO.

9 TAMANDUA – Lesser Anteater - Tamandua tetradactyla
SILKY – or Pygmy Anteater – Cyclopes didactylus GIANT ANTEATER IS THE LARGEST OF 3 SPECIES. LESSER ANTEATER IS MUCH SMALLER, MORE ACTIVE AT NIGHT. ALTHO’ POOR VISION, GREAT SENSE OF SMELL & FOR DEFENSE CAN SPRAY 4 X MORE POWERFULLY THAN SKUNK. SILKY HAS 2 VERY ENLARGED CLAWS FOR HANGING/CLIMBING. THEY’RE THE SMALLEST MEMBER, ARE NOCTURNAL WEIGHS LESS THAN A POUND – RANGE EXTREME LOWER MEXICO TO BRAZIL/PARAGUAY. Also know as “stinkers of the forest.”

10 Armadillos THOUGH MOST ARMADILLOS LOOK HAIRLESS, MOST HAVE WIRY HAIRS ON SIDES AND BELLY. CAN BE RATHER LONG ON SOME SPECIES. KNOWN AS “CURB FEELERS” THEY CAN FEEL THEIR WAY AROUND AT NIGHT USING HAIRS. KIND OF ROLY-POLY SHELL WITH ARMORED BANDS - NUMBER OF BANDS DEPENDS ON SPECIES,

11 Armadillos Classification and Facts
Class: Mammalia Order: Cingulata Family: Dasypodidae Genus: 8 genera Species: 20 species Body length: smallest inches, largest 39 inches. Weight: 8 ounces to 132 pounds. Life span: 4 – 30 years. Gestation: 60 – 150 days. Pups: 1 – 12 in litter. Maturity: 9 – 12 months of age. Studies show within Xenarthra, sloths and anteaters are united, with the suborder Pilosa as a sister group to armadillos. PART OF FAMILY NAME DESYPUS IS GREEK FOR RABBIT. THE SIZE OF BODY IS COMPARED BETWEEN THE LARGEST, GIANT AND THE SM. PINK FAIRY ARMADILLO. LIFE SPAN AND NUMBER OF PUPS IS SPECIES DEPENDENT. ARMADILLOS ARE WARM-BLOODED BUT HAVE A LOWER BODY TEMP. AND NOT MUCH FAT.

12 Pink Fairy Armadillo – Genus Chlamyphorus.
Nine-banded or Long-nosed Armadillo - Genus Dasypus. Pink Fairy Armadillo – Genus Chlamyphorus. HERE’S A Nine-Banded Armadillo SHOWING its body covered by overlapping bony scutes and horny plates. They have very strong claws for digging.  PINK FAIRY MOSTLY FURRY, VERY LITTLE SHELL. LOOKS LIKE A MOLE WITH A HEADDRESS AND CAPE.  THE NINE-BANDED HAS FOUR IDENTICAL PUPS IN EVERY LITTER. PUPS ARE WEANED FROM MOTHER’S MILK AT 2 – 4 MOS. OLD, AND MATURE AT 9 – 12 MOS. The only armadillo found in the United States – six species. The smallest armadillo - one species.

13 ONLY 3 BANDED CAN ACHIEVE THIS BALL.

14 Armadillos are the only living mammals that wear this shell of bony plates.
THE PLEATED LOOK OF MOST ARMADILLOS IS MADE OF HARDENED, OVERLAPPING SECTIONS. THE BANDS ARE TOUGH LIKE FINGERNAILS, BUT THE SHELL IS FLEXIBLE, WITH SOFTER SKIN THAT EXPANDS AND CONTRACTS BETWEEN THE BANDS. PUPS ARE BORN WITH A SOFT SHELL THAT HARDENS IN A FEW DAYS.

15 Armadillo Skeleton THE LONG CLAWS ARE FOR DIGGING AND FORAGING FOR FOOD.

16 Hairy Armadillo Skull PEG SHAPED TEETH DON’T HAVE ENAMEL. EASILY CRUNCH THROUGH INSECTS THEIR FAVORITE FOOD. ARMADILLOS MAY NEGATIVELY IMPACT NATIVE FAUNA. THEY ARE STUDIED WITH TELEMETRY TO BETTER UNDERSTAND THEIR VARIED DISTRIBUTION.

17 BODY SIZE & FOOD SOURCE VARIES – SO DOES HABITAT AND HOME RANGE.
OF THE 20 SPECIES OF ARMADILLOS, ALL ARE FOUND IN THE AMERICAS, MOST LIVE IN CENTRAL OR SOUTH AMERICA. Giant Armadillo Genus Priodontes: The largest armadillo - One species. Hairy Armadillos Genus Chaetophractus -Three species. (Screaming Hairy!) Six-banded Armadillo Genus Euphractus - One species. Greater Fairy Armadillo Genus Calyptophractus - One species. Three-banded Armadillos Genus Tolypeutes: The only armadillos that can roll up in a ball - Two species. Naked-tailed Armadillos Genus Cabassous - Four species. Pichi or Dwarf Armadillo Genus Zaedyus - One species. BODY SIZE & FOOD SOURCE VARIES – SO DOES HABITAT AND HOME RANGE. TYPICALLY LIKE WETLANDS, THICK SHADE & SANDY SOIL, BUT ARE ALSO FOUND IN THORNY SCRUB, GRASSLANDS, AND WOODED AREAS. ARMADILLOS BURROW IN GRASS, HOLLOW LOGS AND SOMETIMES UNDERGROUND. BECAUSE OF THEIR THING SHELL, BOTH SEXES WILL HUDDLE TOGETHER FOR WARMTH IN THEIR BURROWS. 9-BANDED ARMADILLOS HAVE HAD A DRAMATIC RANGE EXPANSION WITHIN THE LAST 150 YEARS. STUDIES ARE UNDERWAY TO UNDERSTAND THE ECOLOGY AND ESTIMATES OF FUTURE DISTRIBUTION - SEEMS THEY DON’T HAVE A PREFERENCE FOR A HOME RANGE, BUT DO SELECT DIFFERENT HABITAT FOR DIFFERENT USES. ALL BUT 9-BANDED ARE DECREASING IN POPULATION NUMBERS. THREATS ARE HUMAN - EXTERMINATION FROM GARDENS, HIT BY CARS, BEING CONSUMED AND USE OF SHELL FOR PURSES, AND HABITAT LOSS. SCREAMING HAIRY HAS BEEN SEEN KILLING SMALL SNAKES BY THROWING ITSELF ON TOP OF THE SNAKE AND CUTTING WITH ITS SHELL.

18 Sloths THOUSAND OF YEARS AGO LARGE GROUND SLOTHS ROAMED THE U.S.
SIZE RANGE WAS FROM AN AVERAGE-SIZED DOG TO THAT OF AN ELEPHANT. TODAY WE HAVE MUCH SMALLER SLOTHS WHO LIVE IN TREES.

19 Sloth Classification Class: Mammalia Order: Pilosa
Family: Megalonychidae Genus: Choloepus Species: hoffmanni (Hoffman’s) didactylus ( Linnaeus’) THE INFRA-ORDER PILOSA IS UNDER XENARTHRA. 2 SPECIES ALIVE TODAY ARE HOFFMANI AND DIDACTYLUS.

20 FUN FACTS Grooved hair allows water to run off & algae to grow there.
Camouflages in forest. Sloths nibble on algae for added greens. Does everything hanging upside down. Comes to ground once a week to use the bathroom. DOES EVERYTHING UPSIDE DOWN - EATING, SLEEPING, MATING AND GIVING BIRTH. THEY HAVE A LOW ENERGY DIET OF LEAVES AND OCCASIONAL FRUIT & EAT MANY DIFFERENT TYPES OF LEAVES. SLOTHS MOVE SLOWLY TO CONSERVE ENERGY, FOR EXAMPLE IT TAKES A FULL MINUTE TO CLIMB 6 – 8 FEET.

21 3 Claws on front and back feet.
Sloths are: Slow-moving. Solitary. Arboreal, forest-dwelling. Nocturnal. Herbivores. Great swimmers, doing the breaststroke. Found asleep in a ball in the fork of a tree. SHARP 3 – 4 INCH CLAWS HELP THEM HANG EASILY, MAKES WALKING ON GROUND AWKWARD. HAVE MUSCLE MASS OF ONLY 25% (MOST MAMMALS HAVE TWICE THAT). THEY CANNOT SHIVER WHEN COLD. SLOW BODY PROCESSES, SLOW MOVEMENT AND SLEEPING 15 – 18 HRS/DAY IS WHAT SAVES THEIR ENERGY. 3-Toed Sloth 3 Claws on front and back feet.

22 IUCN Range Maps of the Sloth Both listed as Least Concern/Vulnerable
Hoffman’s Linnaeus’ THE HOFFMAN’ species has two distinct populations. The northernmost population ranges from Nicaragua south into western Venezuela. The southern population is found from north-central Peru through extreme south-western Brazil (south-western Amazonas and probably Acre states) to central Bolivia.

23 Matsés Tribe & the Pelejo
The Two-toed Sloth (pelejo, in Spanish) is a familiar pet in the homes. Often hunted and part of their cuisine.  Important during the Ceremony of Comoc (the singers) and Ceremony of Mariwin.  The Matsés Indians ARE generally referred to as Mayorunas in Brazil. more than 2200 Matsés residE in the Yavarí Valley of Peru and Brazil. The Matsés are a panoan-speaking Amazon native tribe.

24 Babies hang on to mom for a few months.
SLOTHS ARE NOT OFTEN ON THE GROUND, THIS OPENS THEM UP TO MORE DANGER. HABITAT DESTRUCTION, LOGGING TRUCKS AND POACHING ARE HUMAN PREDATOR EFFECTS. NATURAL PREDATORS INCLUDE THE JAGUAR AND OCELET. Babies hang on to mom for a few months. Dangers to sloths include habitat destruction, logging trucks, and poaching.

25 (2 suborders, 2 infraorders, 12+ families, 17+ genera, 36+ species)
Order Edentata (2 suborders, 2 infraorders, 12+ families, 17+ genera, 36+ species) Anteaters, Armadillos Suborder Palaeanodonta (2+ families) Family Mertacheiromyidae Genus Metacheiromys Family Epoicotheriidae Suborder Xenarthra (3 infraorders, 9+ families, 16+ genera, 35+ species) Infraorder Loricata THESE NEXT SLIDES ARE THE SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION UNDER THE ORDER ENDATA, WHERE XENARTHRANS ARE LISTED AS A SUBORDER AS POINTED OUT EARLIER. ANY QUESTIONS??

26 Armadillo Genus Burmeisteria Burmeisteria retusa
Armadillo Genus Burmeisteria Burmeisteria retusa. Burmeister's Armadillo Genus Chaetophractus Chaetophractus villosus Hairy Armadillo or Peludo Genus Chlamyphorus Chlamyphorus truncatus Pink Fairy Armadillo Genus Tolypeutes Three-banded Armadillos Genus EuphractusGenus Dasypus Nine-banded Armadillos Dasypus novemcinctus Genus Priodontes Priodontes Giganteus Giant Armadillo Genus Zaedyus Zaedyus pichi Pichi Family Peltephilidae Family Glyptodontidae Glyptodonts Genus Doedicurus Doedicurus clavicaudatus Genus Glyptodon

27 Pilosa Family Orophodontidae Family Megalonychidae 
Ground Sloths Family Megatherlidae 
Ground Sloths Family Mylodontidae 
Ground Sloths Family Bradypodidae (6 species) 
Tree Sloth Genus Bradypus (4 species) 
Three-toed Sloths Genus Choloepus (2 species) 
Two-toed Sloth Infraorder Vermilingua Family Myrmecophagidae (4 species) 
Anteater Genus Myrmecophaga Myrmecophaga tridactyla 
Giant Anteater Genus Tamandua 
Lesser Anteater Genus Cyclopes Cyclopes didactylus 
Two-toed Anteater

28 Works Cited 17 Mar 16 Mar Banded-Armadillo.htm. 16 Mar 16 Mar 10 Mar 10 Mar 17 Mar %2Fimages.search.yahoo.com%2Fsearch%2Fimages%3FpArmadillo skeleton drawing. 10 Mar

29 Works Cited 17 Mar 10 Mar did= &sid=5&Fmt=6&clientId=35813&RQT=309&VName=PQD 10 Mar **http%3a//animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/enlarge/two-toed-sloth_image.html. 17 Mar

30 Works Cited **http%3a//funkman.org/animal/mammal/twotoedsloth.html. .17 Mar **http%3a//www.amazon-indians.org/matses/02-Rio-Galvez-Matses-Sloth-121.html 17 Mar. 2011 17 Mar 10 March 2011.

31 Works Cited 16 Mar 16 Mar 17 Mar Mar 17 Mar https://www.msu.edu/~nixonjos/armadillo/armadillos.html. 10 Mar 15 Mar 15 Mar 15 Mar 16 Mar

32 Works Cited 08 Mar 10 Mar 16 Mar "Successful in spite of themselves. " Natural History  103.4 (1994): 50-53. Research Library, ProQuest. Web.  10 Mar William J Murphy, Eduardo Eizirik, Warren E Johnson, Ya Ping Zhang, and et al. "Molecular phylogenetics and the origins of placental mammals. " Nature   (2001): 614. Research Library, ProQuest. Web.  10 Mar


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