5Cropping systemThe cropping pattern used on a farm and its interactions with farm resources, other farm enterprises, and available technology which determine their makeup.
6Introduction OF Cropping Patterns Agronomic cropping patters ormodules begin toexplore the complexity inherent inmodern farming. In many countries,farmers are dealing decisions aboutcrop and animal husbandry,purchasing and stock management,labor coordination, financing, graintrading, environmental/climate variability &uncertainty, etc.
7Choice of Cropping Pattern depend upon 1. Timing of Rainfall2. Costs of Production3. Commodity Prices4. Anticipated Gross Margins5. Disease, Insect and WeedManagement6. Crop Rotation Considerations7. Sustainability Objectives
8Local Considerations for Cropping Patterns 1.Which crops are well-suited to the soil and climatic factors prevailing in the region,2.What crops are practicable with the present pest and disease control methods,3.What influence does each crop have on the other and is the combination of crops profitable for the farmer,Cont…
9Local Considerations for Cropping Patterns 4.How can land, climatic and input resources be put to the best use in the short and long term,5.How do operational factors affect the size and method of cropping, and6.The management skills of the farmer, his health and age.
10Mixed farmingCropping pattern which involve the raising of crops, animals and or trees.
12RatooningOne of the important methods of intensive cropping, allowing the stubbles of the original crop to strike again after harvesting and to raise another crop.
13Live mulch systemLive mulch crop production involves planting a food crop directly into a living cover of an established cover crop without tillage or the destruction of the fallow vegetation.
14Mixed croppingGrowing of two or more crops simultaneously and intermingled without row arrangements, where there is significant amount of intercrop competition.
15IntercroppingGrowing of two or more crops simultaneously in alternate rows or otherwise in the same area, where there is significant amount of inter crop competition.
16Advantages of Intercropping a) greater stability of yield overdifferent seasons,b) better use of growth resources,c) better control of weeds, pests anddiseases,Cont…
17Advantages of Intercropping d) one crop provides physical supportto the other crop,e) one crop provides shelter to theother crop,f) erosion control through providingcontinuous leaf cover over the groundsurface, and g) it is the small farmers oflimited means who is most likely tobenefit.
18Disadvantages of Intercropping a) yield decrease because of adversecompetition effect,b) allelopathic effect,c) creates obstruction in the free use of machines for intercultural operations andd) large farmers with adequate resources may likely to get less benefit out of intercropping.
19Relay plantingIt is inter planting or inter sowing of seeds/seedlings of thefollowing crop in thepreceding/maturing crop.
28Other Terms Related to Multiple Cropping Sole cropping-One crop variety grown alone inpure stands at normal density.Also known as solid planting.Monoculture-The repetitive growing of the samesole crop on the same land.Double cropping-Refers to the practice of growing two crops in a yearCrop rotation-The repetitive cultivation of an orderedsuccession of crops or crops andfallow on the same land.
29Principles of Crop Rotation Crops with tap roots should be followed by crops with a fibrous root system as this helps in the proper and uniform use of nutrients from the soil. In addition, roots do not compete with each other for the uptake of nutrients, Legumes should be grown after non legumes as they fix atmospheric nitrogen into the soil and add more organic matter to the soil,
30Principles of Crop Rotation Exhaustive crops (crops which need more inputs like more fertilizer, irrigation, insecticide etc.), should be followed by less exhaustive crops, which require less care (i.e., Potato or Maize should be followed by leguminous crops), Selection of crop should be demand-based (that is, crops needed by the market should be chosen as it can be sold at a higher price), and Crop selection also depends on land type, irrigation facilities, soil and climatic considerations. Financial constraints of the farmer should also be kept in mind
31Depending on the country other considerations The use of different herbicides to control a range of weeds throughout the crop rotation Minimization of disease and pest build up Diversification of risk Spread of in-season farming operations, and Other benefits (e.g. soil fumigation from canola or mustard)
32Advantage of Crop Rotation Agricultural operations can be done on time, for all the crops because of less competition, Soil fertility is restored by fixing atmospheric nitrogen, encouraging microbial activity. Weeds, disease and insects can often be more easily managed Proper utilization of all resources and inputs is made as the farmer, his labour, power, equipment and machines are well employed throughout the year, As a result of crop demand, the farmer gets a better price for his produce, and Growing crops of different nature ensures best utilization of residual moisture, fertility and organic residues. It also improves percolation, soil structure and reduces chances of creation of hard pan in sub-soil zone.
33Sources and LinksDepartment of Primary Industries, Victoria, Australia. Available online at: The University of Minnesota Extension Service. Available online at:
34Sources and Links Australian Natural Resources Atlas: Land. Available online at: New South Wales Department of Agriculture. Available online at: Wikipedia. Available online at: