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Harold Edgerton & World War II. The Edgerton Team 6.933 The Structure of Engineering Revolutions Fall 2000 Roozbeh Ghaffari Ozge Nadia Gozum Katherine.

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Presentation on theme: "Harold Edgerton & World War II. The Edgerton Team 6.933 The Structure of Engineering Revolutions Fall 2000 Roozbeh Ghaffari Ozge Nadia Gozum Katherine."— Presentation transcript:

1 Harold Edgerton & World War II

2 The Edgerton Team 6.933 The Structure of Engineering Revolutions Fall 2000 Roozbeh Ghaffari Ozge Nadia Gozum Katherine Koch Amy Ng Hua Fung Teh Peter Yang

3 Harold E. Edgerton

4 The Bullets

5 The Famous Milk Drop

6 Sports Photography

7 We Researched! MIT Archives Laboratory Notebooks Published Articles, Speeches Correspondences, Conversations MIT Museum and The Strobe Alley Dean Kim Vandiver, Dr. Jim Bales Books by Edgerton and Killian Books about MIT History Harold E. Edgerton (HEE)

8 Harold E. Edgerton (1903-1990) ‘03 Born in Nebraska ‘27‘39‘47 ’25 BS in EE U. of Nebraska Enters MIT ’31 PhD ’32 Asst Prof. ’38 Assoc Prof. Starts WWII work EG&G ’48 Prof. ‘53‘73‘90‘68 Joins J. Cousteau Mary Rose USS Monitor ’66 Inst Prof. ‘75 Leave EG&G Died Faculty Club ’68 Prof Emrt CousteauBaibiHEE

9 Timeline Focus: Examine the influence of World War II on Harold Edgerton’s research. 1927196319471939 Pre-World War II World War II Post-World War II

10 Roadmap Pre-War MIT Work & Research Role during World War II– Aerial Photography Influences of the War A. Work Environment B. Scale & Magnitude C. Broadening of Applications D. New Areas of Research

11 Pre-War Work & Research at MIT

12 His Main Technology : Basic Control Mechanism

13 Edgerton Encounters The Strobe ‘27‘63‘47‘39 WWII

14 MIT when Edgerton Started 1920: Save MIT from being a “trouble-shooting agency for the industry.” 1929: The Depression and consulting for the industry continued. ‘27‘63‘47‘39 WWII Karl Compton

15 Use of the Stroboscope Overcome our inherent inability to “see” and therefore study fast motions as they occur Electronic Control of flash duration made this possible to be run at 14,400 rpm.

16 Sample Applications

17 Pictures taken by Edgerton during His Industrial Work ‘27‘63‘47‘39 WWII

18 Educational Uses of The Stroboscope ‘27‘63‘47‘39 WWII

19 Edgerton’s Cognitive Style Meticulous nature and incessant work ethic Creative and innovative thinker Demonstrations and press coverage ‘27‘63‘47‘39 WWII

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21 Edgerton’s Cognitive Style ‘27‘63‘47‘39 WWII Meticulous nature, and incessant work ethic Creative and innovative thinker Demonstrations and press coverage Meticulous nature, and incessant work ethic Creative and innovative thinker Demonstrations and press coverage

22 Role during World War II– Aerial Photography

23 Prime Candidate for War Research Widely recognized for his pre-war work in photography Research at a leading technological Institution– MIT Expertise in Electronic Flash Technology ‘27‘63‘47‘39 WWII

24 Airplanes took pictures of enemy territory Enemy movements occurred at mainly at night Need for advanced nighttime aerial photography Aerial Reconnaissance in a Nutshell

25 Old System: Flash Bomb Aerial Photography

26 Flash Bomb Aerial Photography Disadvantages Explosive Bomb number limited per flight Fixed altitude Not effective in bad weather

27 Goddard Commissions Edgerton One Saturday afternoon we were down in the lab working, and a fella came in and said ‘Where is that blinking light I keep hearing about,’’ and I said, ‘ It’s right here.’ “ - HEE ‘27‘63‘47‘39 WWII Major Goddard

28 Solution: Electronic Flash Unit

29 Electronic Flash Technology Advantages: - Non-explosive - Any altitude - Reusable Disadvantages: - Heavy - No shadows - “Fogging” of pictures ‘27‘63‘47‘39 WWII

30 Architecture of Pre-War Flash

31 System Architecture of Aerial Flash Unit ‘27‘63‘47‘39 WWII

32 Black Box: Attention to System Usability 3 steps to operation: - Turn on power - Charge Capacitors - Take photograph Abstracted flash system to “black box” for use by military personnel. ‘27‘63‘47‘39 WWII

33 Technology Timeline Quickly adapted existing technology to new, war-driven application First test: End of 1939 (1/4 scale) Full scale test: April of 1941 Used in Europe & the Pacific ‘27‘63‘47‘39 WWII

34 Technology Timeline Six models produced by end of war D1: 1000 ft, 150 lb D2: 5000 ft, 500 lb D3: 20,000 ft, 5400+ lb D4, D5, D6 modified versions of D2: D4: low altitude ops D5: used standardized components D6: high-speed ‘27‘63‘47‘39 WWII '39 '40 '41 '42 '43 '44 '45 '46 '47 '48 '49 '50 '51 '52 '53 Development and Operation Years of Different Models D1 D5 D6 D4 D3 D2

35 Crucial Role in D-Day Invasion

36 Complete Unit ‘27‘63‘47‘39 WWII

37 Influences of War A. Work Environment B. Scale & Magnitude C. Broadening of Applications D. Post-War Nuclear Research and EG&G, Inc.

38 Before : Controlled Experiments

39 Before: Access to Resources

40 Field Tests Wright Field, Ohio (‘39-’43) Italy and England (‘44) Nature of the experiments: Uncontrolled conditions Lack of resources Each experiment cost time and money ‘27‘63‘47‘39 WWII

41 Part of the Army - Not an isolated engineer “ Doc was a man of action and always got the job done with distinction. The men at Chalgrove, England marveled at his unbounding energy as they saw him in coveralls clinging in and out of airplanes and dashing to his machine shop and about the field on personnel training schedules.” Major Goddard ‘27‘63‘47‘39 WWII

42 Influences of War A. Work Environment B. Scale & Magnitude C. Broadening of Applications D. New Areas of Reseach

43 Change of Focus From getting the detail and a close up picture… To long range photography… ‘27‘63‘47‘39 WWII

44 From Milk Drop to Stonehenge ‘27‘63‘47‘39 WWII

45 Change of Scale for Edgerton ‘27‘63‘47‘39 WWII

46 How powerful?

47 Change of Scale for Edgerton ‘27‘63‘47‘39 WWII 12 lb5400+ lb500 lb150 lb

48 Influences of War A. Work Environment B. Scale & Magnitude C. Broadening of Applications D. New Areas of Research

49 Ballistics Photography ‘27‘63‘47‘39 WWII

50 Ballistics Photography ‘27‘63‘47‘39 WWII

51 Aircraft Beacons Both Edgerton and Air Corps saw need for landing beacons New, non-photographic application for strobe technology ‘27‘63‘47‘39 WWII

52 Influences of War A. Work Environment B. Scale & Magnitude C. Broadening of Applications D. New Areas of Research

53 What is EG&G, Inc.? Key government contractor for multitude of projects, usually involving weapons technology Company co-founded by Edgerton in 1947 Started out doing nuclear testing Nothing like what Edgerton had done before

54 From Hummingbirds to Atomic Bombs?

55 Early roots of EG&G, Inc. Other 2 founders: Kenneth Germeshausen and Herb Grier Thesis students under Edgerton Consultants / Troubleshooters for industry Used stroboscopic means to observe machinery

56 War Effort Splits Partners up DRAPER LAB RADIATION LAB AERIAL STROBE

57 Vital Link: The Raytheon Connection AERIAL STROBE LOS ALAMOS RAYTHEON Edgerton Grier Oppenheimer

58 Continued Involvement After The War Atomic Energy Commission saw a need for continued nuclear research MIT wanted to shift focus away from military-funded research Group moved out and formed EG&G, Inc. to continue the work ‘27‘63‘47‘39 WWII

59 Result: Lateral Expansion of Research New Research scope Clientele / Cause Security considerations

60 Concluding Remarks… What was the influence of World War II on Harold Edgerton’s research? 1927196319471939 Pre-World War II World War II Post-World War II

61 Influences of War: Change of Work Environment

62 Influences of War: Change of Scale & Magnitude

63 Influences of War: Broadening of Applications

64 Influences of War: New Areas of Research

65 MIT web.mit.edu/6.933/www/edgerton/www


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