# 8-D Improvement Initiatives presents TEAM-ORIENTED PROBLEM SOLVING

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8-D Improvement Initiatives presents TEAM-ORIENTED PROBLEM SOLVING
A SYSTEMATIC PROBLEM SOLVING PROCESS 8-D What is problem solving? It is a technique to identify root causes of problems> Strictly fact based Uses all the problem solving tools: Creative thinking Rational thinking Decision Analysis Risk Analysis The Seven Statistical Tools Check Sheets Pareto Diagrams Process Flow Diagrams Cause and Effect Diagrams Histograms Scatter plots Control Charts Advanced Statistical and Data Analysis Tools Simulation Regression Analysis Designed Experiments ***Follows the DMAIC process*** freeleansite.com

Problems take longer to solve than to prevent.
If there’s no time to do it right the first time, you will have to find the time to do it over… and over.… and over.... USE THE 8-D PROBLEM SOLVING DISCIPLINE ONLY WHEN THE CAUSE IS UNKNOWN If you don’t know why a problem happened, all your corrective actions are guesses, not fixes. 85% of problem are system oriented. Only 15% are local causes. Knowledge of the entire system is essential. Addresses Complicated Problems The team approach works best when the problem, and its associated information is complicated and beyond what one member is reasonably capable of knowing. Problems that are Special Cause The 8-D process was designed to work best with special cause problems Uses Cross functional Inputs Working in a cross functional team means that each problem solver no longer needs to know all the technical details about how thins work. Necessary information is available from a variety of team members. Promotes Standardization A team approach to problem solving leads to a common language. This promotes effectiveness, consistency, time savings, and change control. Problems with root cause unknown The problem solving process is used to identify root causes of problems and provide corrective actions. freeleansite.com

Problem solving problems:
Problem is described incorrectly or inadequately Some of the 8-D steps are skipped or ‘sluffed off’ Poor team make up or poor participation Lack of team technical expertise and skills Incorrect or incomplete root cause was identified Preconceived notions clouded the problem solving process Problem Described incorrectly A clear, thorough description of the problem is necessary. A problem must be adequately described and be narrow enough in scope for the team to handle the problem effectively. Problem Solving Effort Expedited Problem solving steps are skipped in order to obtain a quick solution. Poor team Participation Not all team members participate effectively, so the team fails to consider all the causes of the problem. No logical Thought process The team lacks a disciplined system to analyzing problems. Lack of Technical Skills Team members are not adequately trained. Management’s Impatience Management’s lack of knowledge of the problem solving process makes all levels of management demand to know exactly when a problem will be solved. This pressure often results in inadequate analysis. Potential Cause Misidentified as Root Cause Sometimes a potential cause is quickly identified as a root cause, and the problem investigation is concluded. However, the problem often reoccurs because the root cause was not eliminated. Permanent Corrective Actions Not Implemented A root cause may be identified, but no action is taken to implement a permanent corrective action. Permanent actions require management to approve the costs and implement actions. freeleansite.com

The Chosen Many problem solving methods exist:
Ford typically uses a method called 8D GM typically uses a method called 5P Chrysler typically uses a method called 7D Many companies use a 4S We have chosen to use the 8D process as it incorporates the other methods freeleansite.com

Document a procedure for problem solving
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The initial event is that you BECOME AWARE OF A PROBLEM
You can ignore it - and it will bite you again even harder Or you can begin the process to eliminate its cause The 8D process consists of 8 specific problem solving disciplines. D1. USE TEAM APPROACH D2. DESCRIBE THE PROBLEM D3. IMPLEMENT AND VERIFY INTERIM (CONTAINMENT) ACTIONS D4. DEFINE AND VERIFY ROOT CAUSES D5. VERIFY CORRECTIVE ACTIONS D6. IMPLEMENT PERMANENT CORRECTIVE ACTIONS D7. PREVENT RECURRENCE D8. CONGRATULATE YOUR TEAM freeleansite.com

D3. IMPLEMENT AND VERIFY INTERIM (CONTAINMENT) ACTIONS
D1. USE TEAM APPROACH Establish a small group of people with the: process/product knowledge, allocated time, authority, and skill in the required technical disciplines to solve the problem and implement corrective actions. The group must have an actively interested designated champion. D2. DESCRIBE THE PROBLEM Specify the internal/external customer problem by identifying in quantifiable terms the who, what, when, where, why, how, how many (5W2H) for the problem. D3. IMPLEMENT AND VERIFY INTERIM (CONTAINMENT) ACTIONS Define and implement containment actions to isolate the effect of problem from any internal / external customer until corrective action is implemented. Verify the effectiveness of the containment action. D4. DEFINE AND VERIFY ROOT CAUSES Identify all potential causes which could explain why the problem occurred. Isolate and verify the root cause by testing each potential cause against the problem description and test data. Identify alternative corrective actions to eliminate root cause. D5. VERIFY CORRECTIVE ACTIONS Through pre-production test programs quantitatively confirm that the selected corrective actions will resolve the problem for the customer, and will not cause undesirable side effects. Define contingency actions, if necessary, based on risk assessment. D6. IMPLEMENT PERMANENT CORRECTIVE ACTIONS Define and implement the best permanent corrective actions. Choose on-going controls to ensure the root cause is eliminated. Once in production, monitor the long-term effects and implement contingency actions, if necessary. D7. PREVENT RECURRENCE Modify the management systems, operating systems, practices, and procedures to prevent recurrence of this and all similar problems. D8. CONGRATULATE YOUR TEAM Recognize the collective efforts of the team. freeleansite.com

DISCIPLINE #1 - (D1) Team members must be: Willing to contribute
Capable of intelligently diagnosing problems Trainable - willing to learn: New improvement methods From each other New problem solving methods Team players Trusting team members Willing to do their part, bringing their expertise and skills to bear on the problem Basic team principles Focus on the situation issue or behavior, not other persons Maintain the self-confidence and self-esteem of others Maintain constructive relationships with your team members and support personnel Take initiative to make things better Lead by example Good team members will Encourage and be spontaneous Accept and give consideration ‘off the wall’ ideas and ‘out of the box’ thinking and suggestions - Overcome preconceived notions - Never reject a possibility just because ‘we looked at that last year’ De-emphasize rank Not engage in ‘brown nosing’ or ‘power pushing’ freeleansite.com

DISCIPLINE #2 - (D2) Define the problem specifically and clearly
Determine the extent of the problem Narrow the focus of the problem solving Summarize ALL the known FACTS In defining the problem: Truth is separated from fiction Opinion is separated from fact Emotion is separated from reality Frequently the wrong problem is solved and the issue that caused the customer complaint is not addressed. It is imperative the customer complaint be clearly understood. The only method to ensure this is to have direct customer contact. It is not unusual for a complaint to be misrepresented by someone who is reporting it rather than experiencing it. Reporting systems and tally sheets are often used that mis-classify problems in prearranged but incorrect standard categories. Part of the 5W2H problem definition is to state the customer complaint clearly and accurately. freeleansite.com

5W2H HELPS CHARACTERIZE THE PROBLEM FOR FURTHER ANALYSIS.
WHO. Identify individuals associated with the problem. Characterize customers who are complaining. Who is having difficulty? WHAT. Describe the problem adequately. Does the severity of the problem vary? Are operational definitions clear (e.g., defects)? Is the measurement system repeatable and accurate? WHERE. If a defect occurs on a part, where is the defect located? What is the geographic distribution of customer complaints? Where the difficulties being detected? WHEN. Identify the time the problem started and its prevalence in earlier time periods. Do all production shifts experience the same frequencies of the problem? What time of the year does the problem occur? WHY. Any known explanation contributing to the problem should be stated. HOW. In what mode of operation did the problem occur? What procedures were used? HOW MANY. What is the extent of the problem? Is the process in statistical control? (e.g., P chart) freeleansite.com

What the problem IS - and - What the problem IS NOT
In addition to the 5W2H analysis, it is often useful to identify: What the problem IS - and - What the problem IS NOT A PROBLEM SOLVING WORKSHEET THAT COMBINES 5W2H AND IS/IS NOT ANALYSIS CAN BE A GOOD TOOL TO ENSURE ALL ASPECTS OF DEFINING THE PROBLEM HAVE BEEN CONSIDERED freeleansite.com

5W2H Questions CUSTOMER TERMS/SYMPTOMS: 1. Who is the customer?
2. What customer first observed the defect? 3. To whom was it reported? 4. What is the problem definition in customer terms? 5. What is the problem definition in our terms? 6. Have we verified the problem with on-site visits with the customer? Have we seen it for ourselves? WHO, WHAT, WHEN, WHERE, WHY, HOW, HOW MANY: 1. What is the magnitude of the problem? 2. Has the problem been increasing, decreasing, or remaining constant? 3. Is the process stable? 4. What indicators are available to quantify the problem? 5. Can you determine the severity of the problem? Can you determine the various "costs" of the problem? Can you express the cost in percentages, dollars, pieces, etc.? 6. Do we have the physical evidence on the problem in hand? 7. Have all sources of problem indicators been used? 8. Have failed parts been analyzed in detail? 9. Is there an action plan to collect additional information? freeleansite.com

Isolate the customer from
DISCIPLINE #3 - (D3) Isolate the customer from reoccurrences of the problem Immediate gathering, quarantine, and lock-up of all suspect product Stop production from known problem sources / contributors Examine DATA - FACTUAL EVIDENCE to help determine what to contain and who to stop Verify by experimentation and data tracking and collection that the problem has been contained CONTAINMENT ACTIONS ARE NOT AND NEVER SHOULD BE CONSIDERED PERMANENT SOLUTIONS TO A PROBLEM. freeleansite.com

D3-IMPLEMENT INTERIM (CONTAINMENT) ACTIONS
OBJECTIVE: Define and implement containment actions to isolate the effect of the problem from any internal or external customer until corrective action is implemented. Verify the effectiveness of the containment actions. State all containment actions and when they will be implemented. Perform tests to evaluate the effectiveness. State the results. State the procedures for on-going evaluation of the effectiveness (e.g., control charts, check sheets, etc.). Coordinate an action plan for implementing interim actions. The search for root cause should proceed concurrently with the implementation of containment actions. ASSESSING QUESTIONS: You are prepared for a review when you can answer these questions: VERIFICATION 1. Have all alternative actions been evaluated? 2. Are responsibilities for correct actions clear? 3. Is the required support available? 4. When will the actions be completed? 5. Does the containment action protect the customer from the effects of the problem? CONTAINMENT ACTIONS 1. What containment actions have been identified? 2. Have you ensured that implementation of the interim solution will not create other problems? 3. Will all interim actions last until long-range actions can be implemented? 4. Have you coordinated the action plan with the customer? CONFIRMATION ACTIONS 1. Have tests been done to evaluate the effectiveness of the interim actions? 2. Can you conduct controlled experiments to predict the outcome of the actions? 3. Can you try out the actions on a small scale to test if they will be effective? 4. Is data being collected to ensure actions will remain effective? freeleansite.com

COLLECT AND ANALYZE DATA
Collect data to determine importance of potential causes. Several potential causes may need to be analyzed through data. Six steps in investigating a potential cause 1) How could the potential cause have resulted in the problem? 2) What type of data should be collected to prove it? 3) Prepare the materials to conduct the study 4) Collect the data 5) Analyze statistically 6) State conclusions freeleansite.com

COLLECT AND ANALYZE DATA TO DETERMINE IF A POTENTIAL CAUSE IS A ROOT CAUSE
After cause-and-effect diagrams have been completed, data needs to be collected to determine which potential causes are important. Pareto diagrams and check sheets are very effective in establishing the importance of the potential causes. It is a mistaken belief that data oriented problem solving can be accomplished by collecting relevant data on a problem, analyzing the results, and deciding the correct solution. Once data is collected and analyzed, new questions often arise, so another data collection and analysis iteration is necessary. Many problems can have more than one root cause. Data collected investigating one potential cause may not address other important potential causes. Several potential causes may need to be studied using the data collection and analysis process. Once a potential cause has been selected for investigation, the following steps are required: State how the potential cause could have resulted in the described problem. Establish what type of data can most easily prove or disprove the potential cause. Develop a plan on how the study will be conducted. Identify the actions on an action plan. Organize and prepare the required materials to conduct the study. Collect the required data. Use appropriate statistical tools emphasizing graphical illustrations of the data. Outline conclusions from the study. Does the data establish the potential cause as being the reason for the problem or does the data point to another potential cause that needs to be investigated also? Data collection may be as simple as check sheets or as sophisticated as design of experiments. By using graphical tools, quick comprehension by all participants as well as accurately communicated information will result. freeleansite.com

The important thing here is to be sure you have Identified and tested
DISCIPLINE #4 - (D4) DEFINE AND VERIFY ROOT CAUSES The important thing here is to be sure you have Identified and tested ALL potential causes Once you have satisfied yourself you have identified the root cause(s), retest and verify all data pointing to the suspected root cause(s) - Make the problem come and go! freeleansite.com

D4 - DEFINE AND VERIFY ROOT CAUSES
OBJECTIVE: Identify all potential causes which could explain why this problem occurred. Isolate and verify the root cause by testing each potential cause against the problem description and test data. Identify alternative corrective actions to eliminate root causes. Identify Potential Causes Define the "effects" for a Cause-&-Effect diagram clearly. Prepare a 5M, Process, or Stratification Cause-&-Effect diagram for each effect. You may choose to use a combination. Team members should each assume their activity causes the problem. Each should ask themselves "How could what I do possibly generate the problem?". Prepare a Time Line Analysis if the problem was not always present. Identify "what changed, when"? Perform a Comparative Analysis to determine if the same or a similar problem existed in related products or processes. Identify past solutions and root causes which may be appropriate for the current problem. Check the Lessons Learned data and similar product DFMEA / PFMEA’s Identify several potential causes. Develop a plan for investigating each cause, and update the Action Plan. Evaluate a potential cause against the problem description. freeleansite.com

Cause and Effect Diagrams
D4 - DEFINE AND VERIFY ROOT CAUSES Analyze Potential Causes Use the iterative process to analyze each potential cause: Hypothesis Generation: How does the potential cause result in the problem? Design: What type of data can most easily prove or disprove the hypothesis? Preparation: Obtain materials and prepare a check sheet. Data Collection: Collect the data. Analysis: Use simple, graphical methods to display data. Interpretation: Is the hypothesis true? Investigate several potential causes independently. Use an Action Plan to manage the analysis process for each potential cause being studied. Problem Solving Tools - Root cause identification and verification Flow Charting Cause and Effect Diagrams Scatter Diagrams Histograms Check Sheets Pareto Charts Run Charts Control Charts Brainstorming Problem Solving Techniques Use brainstorming and Cause and Effect diagrams to narrow potential root causes Compare selected potential root causes to the IS/IS NOT data Investigate several root causes at the same time Conduct experiments to verify your selected root cause(s) Do a DOE - Taguchi Study if necessary Ask for additional help if necessary freeleansite.com

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CAUSE AND EFECT DIAGRAMS
ONCE A CLEAR AND SPECIFIC PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION HAS BEEN MADE, A CAUSE AND EFFECT ANALYSIS SHOULD BE COMPLETED. Cause and Effect Diagrams are graphic representations of potential problem causes. They are sometimes called: FISHBONE DIAGRAMS, ISHIKAWA DIAGRAMS or CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAMS There are various types of cause and effect diagrams including: PROCESS FLOW, 5M (sometimes called 5M and E), STRATIFICATION The type C&E diagram utilized should be the one (or more) that provides the best detailed breakdown of potential causes. Ask yourself: "What variability could result in the stated problem?” Add each identified potential source of variation to the C&E diagram Without variability, either there are No problems (all good) or Everything's a problem (all bad) With variability, there are probably Some good and some bad. Continue to ask the question for each main branch of the Cause-and-Effect diagram. The Objective is to Identify all potential causes of the problem (by identifying sources of variability). freeleansite.com

VERIFY YOUR ROOT CAUSE CANDIDATES - Make the problem come and go -
D4 - DEFINE AND VERIFY ROOT CAUSES Validate Root Causes Clearly state root cause(s) and identify data which suggests a conclusion. Verify root cause factors are present in the product or process. Can we generate the problem independently? Can we make it come and go? VERIFY YOUR ROOT CAUSE CANDIDATES - Make the problem come and go - - Turn it on and off - freeleansite.com

D4 - ASSESSING QUESTIONS:
POTENTIAL CAUSES: 1. Have you drawn the process flow and stratification C&E diagrams and identified all sources of variation? 2. Have all sources of information been used to define the cause of the problem? 3. Do you have the physical evidence of the problem? 4. Can you establish a relationship between the problem and the process? 5. Do you continually challenge the potential root causes with the question "why" then follow with "because" to construct alternative potential causes? 6. Is this a unique situation or is the likely problem similar to past experience? 7. What are the "is, is not" differences? 8. Has a comparative analysis been completed to determine if the same or similar problem existed in related products? 9. What are the experiences of recent actions that may be related to this problem? 10. Why might this have occurred? 11. Why haven't we experienced this before? 12. What changed? Manufacturing: Engineering: - new suppliers? - any pattern to the problem? - new tools? - geographically? - new operators? - time of year? - process changes? - build dates? - measurement system? - did the problem exist at program sign-off? - raw materials? - was it conditionally signed-off? - vendor-supplied parts? - did the problem exist on prototype vehicles? - do other plants have a similar problem? - did the problem exist on the functional builds? - did the problem exist on the 4-p's? (pre-production product prove-out) freeleansite.com

D4 - ASSESSING QUESTIONS:
DATA: 1. What data is available to indicate any changes in the process? 2. Does data exist to document the customer's problem? ROOT CAUSE 1. If the potential cause is the root cause, then how does it explain all we know about the problem? How has this been verified? 2. Is there any possibility that there is another contributing cause besides the one we have identified? How is this being evaluated? OTHER POTENTIAL CAUSES 1. What evidence do you have that other potential causes are actually occurring? 2. If they are occurring, what unwanted effects might they produce? 3. Do actions need to be taken to ensure that other potential causes do not create unwanted effects? freeleansite.com

DISCIPLINE #5 - (D5) To this point we have focused on:
Understanding and defining the problem Containing the effects of the problem Identifying and Verifying the root cause of the problem Now we need to PERMANENTLY SOLVE the problem Select alternative solutions Confirm the potential solutions through testing programs Verify that the solution ELIMINATES the problem and its effects freeleansite.com

‘NEVER SEE THE PROBLEM AGAIN’
DISCIPLINE #5 - (D5) AVOID BAND-AID SOLUTIONS Band-Aids generally: have the term temporary attached to them somewhere cover or hide a problem but don’t remove it are containments - not solutions WE ARE BEYOND CONTAINMENT - WE ARE LOOKING FOR THE ‘ONCE AND FOR ALL’, ‘ALL TIME’, ‘NEVER SEE THE PROBLEM AGAIN’ FIX When identifying solutions: Consider the Cost and the Value Consider Implementation issues Consider Timing Consider the Effectiveness Reliability Feasibility Accuracy Consider Potential Side Effects You don’t want to cure a cold only to develop pneumonia freeleansite.com

D5 CHOOSE AND VERIFY CORRECTIVE ACTIONS
OBJECTIVE: Through pre-production test programs quantitatively confirm that the selected corrective actions will resolve the problem for the customer, and will not cause any undesirable side effects. Define contingency actions, if necessary, based on risk assessment. Run Pilot Tests. Artificially simulate the solution to allow actual process or field evaluation. Field test the solution using pilot customer groups. Verify carefully that another problem is not generated by the solution. Monitor Results. Quantify changes in key indicators. Stress the customer/user evaluation. ASSESSING QUESTIONS: CONFIRMATION TESTING QUESTIONS. 1. Can you list and measure all of the indicators related to this problem? 2. Which of the indicators are most directly related to the problem? Can you use the indicators to measure problem severity? 3. Can you determine how often or at what intervals to measure the problem (hourly, daily, weekly, monthly)? 4. If there are no changes in the indicators after taking action, can you determine what to do? Will you need to take cause, action or verification measures? 5. Do all indicators reflect conclusive resolution? 6. Has the team prioritized the customer/user evaluation after the implementation? 7. What scientific methods are being used to verify effectiveness in the short term and to predict the outcome in the long term? VERIFICATION QUESTIONS: 1. Has the customer been contacted to determine a date when verification will be evaluated? 2. What data has been established for follow-up? 3. Has a time line chart been completed? 4. Have field tests been conducted using pilot customer groups? 5. Have dates been established when verification of effectiveness will be evaluated? freeleansite.com

CORRECTIVE ACTIONS ARE PERMANENT
DISCIPLINE #6 - (D6) Install the best solution for permanent corrective action Use on-going monitoring to ensure root causes have been eliminated Monitor the long term effects Back up the effectiveness with data CORRECTIVE ACTIONS REMOVE THE ROOT CAUSE NOT JUST THE EFFECTS CORRECTIVE ACTIONS ARE PERMANENT freeleansite.com

D6 - IMPLEMENT PERMANENT CORRECTIVE ACTIONS
OBJECTIVE: Define and implement the best permanent corrective actions. Choose on-going controls to ensure the root cause is eliminated. Once in production, monitor the long-term effects and implement contingency actions, if necessary, Identify Alternative Solutions. Evaluate how other groups solved similar problems. Consider redesign of the part or process to eliminate the problem. Anticipate the failure of the solution. Develop contingency actions. Implement Solution Use an action plan approach to implement the solution as quickly as possible. Test and verify contingency actions, if possible. ASSESSING QUESTIONS: 1. Do the actions represent the best possible long-term solution from the customer's viewpoint? 2. Do the actions make sense in relation to the cycle plan for the products? 3. Has an action plan been defined? - Have responsibilities been assigned? - Has timing been established? - Has required support been defined? - What indicators will be used to verify the outcome of the actions, both short- and long-term? 4. On-Going Controls Ensure the problem will not recur Seek to eliminate inspection-based controls. Address 5M sources of variation. Test the control system by simulating the problem. 5. Have the corrective action plans been coordinated with all the affected parties? 6. What indicators will be used to determine the outcome of the actions? 7. What controls are in place to assure the permanent fix is verified as intended? FORECAST OUTCOME: 1. Will actions permanently solve the problem? Can you try out the corrective actions on a small scale to test their effectiveness? 2. Can scientific experiments be conducted to gain knowledge to predict the outcome of the effects of the implemented actions? 3. Do the permanent corrective actions require support from external sources to be effective? freeleansite.com

DISCIPLINE #7 - (D7) OBJECTIVE: Modify those management systems, operating systems, practices, and procedures to prevent recurrence of this problem and all similar problems. Address system follow-up responsibilities. MODIFY (As Required): METHODS EQUIPMENT MATERIALS PROCEDURES MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS freeleansite.com

DISCIPLINE #7 - (D7) ASSESSING QUESTIONS:
1. Has the problem occurred due to a mechanical or behavioral system? 2. Has a process flow C/E diagram of the management system been prepared? 3. Have changes been made to the system? 4. Have action plans been written to coordinate actions, if so, who, what, when? 5. Have the practices been standardized? 6. Has a new FM.E.A. been prepared? (Failure Mode Effects Analysis) 7. Have all interested parties been notified of the resolution actions, including input into the Computer Archiving System, if available? freeleansite.com

DISCIPLINE #8 - (D8) freeleansite.com

DISCIPLINE #8 - (D8) OBJECTIVE: Recognize the collective efforts of the team. Use all forms of employee recognition. Documentation as necessary. Celebrate successful conclusion of the problem solving effort. Formal disengagement of the team, and return to normal duties. ASSESSING QUESTIONS: 1. Have creative solutions been taken to warrant a review for a company sponsored award? 2. Has appreciation been shown to all the team members? 3. How has the team leader identified individual contributions to the problem resolution? 4. What are the presentation plans? 5. Could the problem and the solution be videotaped? 6. Could a paper of the team's effort be written and distributed throughout the organization? freeleansite.com

Team Problem Solving Process
Management’s Role in the Team Problem Solving Process freeleansite.com

MANAGEMENT ROLES, INVOLVEMENT AND EXPECTATIONS
CLIMATE Participative Leadership - Supportive and People/Team Oriented Management Team Oriented Problem Solving Process - Understood and supported by management which is actively involved in nurturing the process Training - In technical problem solving tools/methods and interpersonal/team skills Support of the Team Problem Solving Process from "Identification" through "Implementation” Expectations and requirements for team and team members clearly stated and understood "up front” Encouragement to innovate, iterate, and take risk Coaching - By example, constructive criticism, positive reinforcement “Room to Grow" and "Freedom to Fail” - Tolerance of mistakes and false starts - Learn from errors - Non-punitive response Recognition/Reward - Teamwork and team skills recognized and publicized Feedback - Communication of "value added" by team effort MANAGEMENT ROLE Have patience - Problem solving is an iterative process involving people who are continually learning. There is no "absolute" timetable for the solution of a problem, Take time and dedicate effort to understand the team problem solving process and "coach" the teams. Be willing to accept failures and false starts as part of learning process. Continuous improvement requires continuous learning/risk taking. Provide training and "practice time" to individuals/teams. Be personally INTERESTED/INVOLVED with teams and team dynamics. State expectations clearly "up front." Demand performance to expectations - teamwork, process . . . Lead and teach by example - model the behaviors you expect. Provide personal feedback to the team of impact/value added of problem solution. Be willing to make teamwork/team skills and performance in team environment keys to recognition / reward. freeleansite.com

MANAGEMENT ROLES, INVOLVEMENT AND EXPECTATIONS
IDENTIFICATION-PRIORITIZATION System to identify problems using operational measurements Customer oriented indicators - "Total Quality" concept Timely indicators - Support minimum time to containment - or preferably, prevent mode problem solving Complexity minimized - Varies based on problem type, complexity and data sources Priority system - Must reflect the operational priorities of the organization - Must be understood by all Problem solving priority - Must be matched by resource priority Resources allocated - Must "match" the problem content and context - Must be committed for the full term of the problem solving effort Tracking system(s) - Must be effective without creating "non-productive" work MANAGEMENT ROLE Establish, maintain, and continuously improve the system. Refrain from tampering/overriding the priority system. Provide the "right" resources (people, facilities, etc.) in sufficient quantity and quality to complete the task in a timely manner. Respect resource commitments. Provide clear expectations - before the fact. Share significance (impact) of problem with team. freeleansite.com

MANAGEMENT ROLES, INVOLVEMENT AND EXPECTATIONS
PROBLEM SOLVING Team process - Team must have the "right" members - Knowledge - "Team" Skills and Orientation - Authority to act for their activity - Time to do the job right 8-D process - Complete and thorough follow through on all 8 D's - Iteration as required Tools - Correctly applied/applicable to task Access To all required information, facilities and resources Methods Appropriate to the specific problem MANAGEMENT ROLE Be willing to give up the "right" people to the team. Live up to commitments - People, time, resources . . . Understand the process and support the team. Give authority to team members. Refrain from "Monday morning quarterbacking." Provide constructive/supportive interest in team and process. Review progress and ask constructive coaching questions. Require adherence to proper process and appropriate documentation. Be patient Demanding "instant solutions" to problems forces teams to shortcut the process which often results in failure to identify root cause or otherwise fatally flaws the process. freeleansite.com

MANAGEMENT ROLES, INVOLVEMENT AND EXPECTATIONS
IMPLEMENTATION System to carry out corrective actions promptly and efficiently Minimum procedural requirements and financial/management approval levels Provision for "expediting" corrective actions within the system Rigorous mechanism to institutionalize "prevent actions" and provide ongoing maintenance of prevent actions "in place" System to retain problem solving experience with no added workload - 8-D write-ups and backup as "case studies" Capability to learn from experience - Case studies organized and accessible to future problem solving teams Current experience published to applicable activities - Promote prevent mode problem solving Feedback - Long term results and value added to team Recognition and reward of team MANAGEMENT ROLE Establish, maintain and continuously improve implementation systems. Commit funds, resources and personal attention/support to follow through on implementation phase. Provide "knowledge system" to retain, organize and publish experience/knowledge gained. Become an "advocate for implementation" Be personally involved Eliminate roadblocks Expedite action Demonstrate support/interest Recognize team effort and reward "team players" Acknowledge value of teams' problem solution Make systems changes as necessary to prevent problem recurrence freeleansite.com

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8D PROBLEM SOLVING PROCESS
1. USE TEAM APPROACH Action plan for team formation. 2. DESCRIBE THE PROBLEM Process flow diagram to define the process Pareto analysis to select priority problems Control charts to indicate special causes Check sheets to define 5W2H Action plan to coordinate problem definition actions 3. IMPLEMENT AND VERIFY INTERIM (CONTAINMENT) ACTIONS Check sheets to evaluate effectiveness of actions Control charts and histograms with intensive sampling for process monitoring Action plan to coordinate interim fixes 4. DEFINE AND VERIFY ROOT CAUSE(S) Identify Potential Causes Brainstorming to develop the potential causes Cause-and-effect diagrams to identify and organize potential causes Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) to identify potential causes from observed failure mode Analyze Potential Causes Check sheet to collect data Comparison plots, histograms, and stratified graphs to evaluate stratification factors or different process or product parameters Scatter plots to evaluate relationships between characteristics Gage studies to evaluate the measurement system Action plan to manage analysis steps Validate Root Causes Comparison plots, histograms, and stratified graphs to validate cause (e.g., with/without comparison) Stratified graphs to validate presence of root cause factors Action plan to manage validation actions Identify Alternate Solutions Brainstorming to solicit ideas Alternative solution C/E diagram to address potential areas for solutions 5. CHOOSE AND VERIFY EFFECTIVENESS OF PERMANENT CORRECTIVE ACTION Control charts and histograms to evaluate process stability and capability Check sheets to collect product or process evaluation information FMEA 6. IMPLEMENT PERMANENT CORRECTIVE ACTIONS Control charts and check sheets to monitor process performance Comparison plots to periodically ensure stratification factors are not influencing process output Dimensional Control Plan 7. PREVENT RECURRENCE Process flow diagram to define the management system that did not prevent the problem Action plan to coordinate needed changes 8. CONGRATULATE YOUR TEAM 8D PROBLEM SOLVING PROCESS freeleansite.com

a gage R & R is often required
When assessing MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS a gage R & R is often required See the AIAG Reference Manual titled: “MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS ANALYSIS” for help and guidance in this area. freeleansite.com

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NOTE: This presentation is to be used as an informational tool and refresher training document.
The information it contains is derived for experience and the following reference documents. AIAG Manuals should be referenced whenever you are seeking the latest and controlled procedural and process information. References: Advanced Product Quality Planning and Control Plan Reference Manual (APQP) from AIAG Measurement Systems Analysis (MSA) Reference Manual from AIAG Statistical Process Control (SPC) Reference Manual from AIAG Production Part Approval Process (PPAP) Reference Manual from AIAG Potential Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (PFMEA) Reference Manual from AIAG Quality System Requirements Reference Manual (QS-9000) from AIAG Quality System Requirements - Tooling & Equipment Supplement from AIAG Tooling & Equipment Quality System Assessment (QSA-TE) from AIAG Quality System Assessment (QSA) from AIAG freeleansite.com

8-D Improvement Initiatives presents TEAM-ORIENTED PROBLEM SOLVING
A SYSTEMATIC PROBLEM SOLVING PROCESS 8-D What is problem solving? It is a technique to identify root causes of problems> Strictly fact based Uses all the problem solving tools: Creative thinking Rational thinking Decision Analysis Risk Analysis The Seven Statistical Tools Check Sheets Pareto Diagrams Process Flow Diagrams Cause and Effect Diagrams Histograms Scatter plots Control Charts Advanced Statistical and Data Analysis Tools Simulation Regression Analysis Designed Experiments ***Follows the DMAIC process*** freeleansite.com

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