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Radionuclides & Radiation : Tools for Betterment of Humankind

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Presentation on theme: "Radionuclides & Radiation : Tools for Betterment of Humankind"— Presentation transcript:

1 Radionuclides & Radiation : Tools for Betterment of Humankind
Meera Venkatesh Radiopharmaceuticals Division Bhabha Atomic Research Centre

2 15th July 06

3 Radionuclides – What are they?
Unstable nuclides of elements Emission of energetic rays in the process of becoming a different, more stable nuclide Radioactive rays 15th July 06

4 Radionuclides - Properties
Emission of Radiation alpha (), beta () : particulates gamma () : non-particulate energetic; varying energies Transient - non-permanent concept of half life; varying half-lives 15th July 06

5 Radiations : , ,  energetic
interact with matter to deposit the energy the radiations are easily measurable at very low amounts - high sensitivity the material may alter and its properties may change – e.g. polymerisation the radiation will attenuate after interacting with the material – e.g. its energy reduces, intensity reduces 15th July 06

6 Some Areas of Impact Medical Agriculture Industry & Hydrology Research
diagnostic, therapeutic, sterilization Agriculture food preservation, tracers, mutation Industry & Hydrology radiography, tracers, gauging, radiation processing Research tracers ... 15th July 06

7 Radioisotope/Radiation Applications : Basis
Easy detectability : Tracers Alterations in the material on irradiation Attenuation in the radiation itself 15th July 06

8 Easy detectability of radiation
Tracer applications - Medical Diagnostic in-vivo Nuclear Medicine; static imaging of organs; dynamic imaging of organs; understanding the functioning of vital organs; delineation of tumours etc.etc. Diagnostic in-vitro radiometric kits hormones/drugs/antigens measurement in biological samples 15th July 06

9 Tracer applications - industries, water management
trouble shooting; hydrology applications; process development/optimisation, monitoring industrial reactions etc. Tracer applications - laboratory & agricultural tracers; process understanding; optimisation of manure/ pesticide; fate of the used manure/pesticide etc. 15th July 06

10 Radioisotope/Radiation Applications : Basis
Easy detectability : Tracers Alterations in the material on irradiation Attenuation in the radiation itself 15th July 06

11 Alterations in the material
damage to living cells, death of living organisms - fungi, bacteria, cancer cell .. polymerisation of monomers creation of defects in materials - crystal structure breaking of very tough materials 15th July 06

12 Damage to living cells Fungi, bacteria .. ; food preservation by irradiation; sterilization of medical products by gamma irradiation; blood irradiation cancer cells ; teletherapy, brachytherapy, in-vivo therapy - radiopharmaceuticals, loco-regional therapy 15th July 06

13 polymerisation of monomers;
radiation processing of wires, cables, ‘O’ rings etc. breaking of very tough materials degradation of polymers, teflon etc. creation of defects in crystal structure colouration of diamonds 15th July 06

14 Radioisotope/Radiation Applications : Basis
Easy detectability : Tracers Alterations in the material on irradiation Attenuation in the radiation itself 15th July 06

15 Attenuation in the radiation
intensity decrease information about the material - uniformity, thickness, defects etc. Gamma radiography ; status of/defects in materials Nucleonic gauges; thickness, level measurements 15th July 06

16 Which radionuclides or radiations? Selection Criteria
Emission properties type of radiation, energy Half life Chemistry Feasibility Cost 15th July 06

17 Medical use of Radiation & Radioisotopes
Diagnostic Therapeutic Radiation processing Teletherapy In-vivo Radiopharmaceuticals Brachytherapy Gamma knife In-vitro radiometric assays Sterilization, Blood Irradiation Polymerized products : hydrogel, drug delivery systems 15th July 06

18 Radiopharmaceuticals
Molecules containing Radioactivity used in Medicine - for Diagnosis & Therapy Diagnostic Products In-vivo injectibles oral In-vitro Radiometric assays Therapeutic Products In-vivo injectibles oral Sealed Sources Brachy Therapy Topical Applications 15th July 06

19 Diagnostic Radiopharmaceuticals
In-Vitro : ‘in-glass’ or outside the body Radiometric Assays (RIAs & IRMAs) Nobel prize winning technology (Dr Yalow-1976) Very useful tool in diagnosing diseases related to hormones; indispensable in pathology labs More recently use in various areas : Tumor Specific Antigens, viral antigens, drugs with narrow therapeutic index, non-clinical applications IRMA- Prostate Specific Antigen - Prostate Cancer RIA-Aflatoxin B1 - mycotoxin - food commodities 15th July 06

20 Radiometric Assays Analytical techniques to measure minute quantities of an analyte in a complex matrix Use of radiolabeled molecule as the tracer Utility in Medicine, Environment, Food industry etc. 15th July 06

21 Endocrinology, Oncology Pharmacology & toxicology
Concentration Substance 10 mmol/L 1 Glucose Albumin 100 10 umol/L Creatinin Iron Immunoglobulin 10 nmol/L Thyroxin, Cortisol Progesterone, Testosterone, T3 Estradiol 10 pmol/L Insulin Free T3 Endocrinology, Oncology Drug development Pharmacology & toxicology Non clinical fields 15th July 06

22 Diagnostic Radiopharmaceuticals : in-vivo
In-Vivo : ‘inside the body’ Static Imaging Organ size, shape, abnormalities etc. Thyroid, Liver, Kidneys, Brain, Skeleton, Lungs, malignancies Presence of nodules, tumours, metastatic lesions, goitre, abcess, shrinkage etc. Dynamic Imaging Functioning of the organ, rate, output, defects etc. Heart, Liver, Kidneys Infarcted myocardium, hole in the heart, filtration defects in kidneys etc. 15th July 06

23 Nuclear Medicine – for imaging
Very safe Non-invasive No reactions or side effects minimal radiation dose 15th July 06

24 Uniqueness of a nuclear scan
X-ray, USG, CT & MRI – give anatomic information. Nuclear scan provides unique FUNCTIONAL as well as ANATOMIC INFORMATION A highly sensitive technique; also known as Molecular Imaging Available for almost every organ / system 15th July 06

25 Example: Functioning of heart muscles
Typical heart scan - dynamic showing various regions for easy diagnosis of functioning and quantification of results 15th July 06

26 Static images of thyroid with Na99mTcO4
Avid Uptake with increased TSH Iodine Deficiency Goitre Normal Lingual Thyroid Avid Uptake with increased T3& T4 Toxicosis Cold Nodule - Rt Lobe 15th July 06

27 for skeletal metastases in patients with known or suspected cancer.
WHOLE BODY BONE SCAN for skeletal metastases in patients with known or suspected cancer. 99mTc MDP Bone Scan Normal Multiple Metastases Ca Prostate Multiple Metastases Ca Lt Breast 15th July 06

28 Positron Emission Tomography: PET
Recent technology 18F-Fuloro deoxy glucose (18F-FDG) most widely used tracer for PET 3D picture of defects, clear, precise Most often used to find out recurrence of cancers Also used to image heart and brain to find tissues that are not ‘alive’ (do not take up glucose) 15th July 06

29 Example : PET machine & PET image
15th July 06

30 Therapeutic Radiopharmaceuticals
Deleterious effect of ionising radiations on cells/organisms In-vivo & Sealed Sources Primarily Cancers; others : hyperthyroidism, radiation synoviorthesis etc. Historically very old ; non-systematic Systematic - Old - 131I, 32P Surge - past 15 years Forecast : sales 0.5 B USD now to 2.8 B in 2007 15th July 06

31 Range of particulate radiations
10 a : cell nucleus b : single cell c : few cells d : 100 cells d 1 c Range (mm) 0.1 b 0.01 a Auger e MeV, MeV - 1.7 MeV - 15th July 06

32 Therapeutic Radiopharmaceuticals
Palliative - Bone pain Radiolabeled phosphonates 89Sr Chloride, 32P-phosphate, 153Sm-EDTMP, 188Re-HEDP , 188Re-CTMP, 177Lu-DOTMP, 175Yb-DOTMP Liver cancer treatment colloids/particulates - through hepatic artery 166Ho-chitosan, 90Y-glass microspheres, 188Re-Sn colloid Radiation Synoviorthesis colloids/particulates : intra articular injections 166Ho-Hydroxyapaptite(HA), 153Sm-HA, BARC - clinical trials and supply 15th July 06

33 Example: Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis using a radiopharmaceutical
15th July 06

34 Brachytherapy Use of radioactive sources for treatment
Within the tissue Covering the cancer tissue – like amould Within a cavity having cancer Within a vessel to be irradiated 15th July 06

35 Treatment of Breast Cancer
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36 Low Energy Radioactive Plaque Therapy for treatment of Ocular melonoma
Tiny rice-sized {0.8mm(OD)x4.75mm(l)} radioactive seeds (15-25 no.) are glued into the gold eye-plaque or seed carrier. A mushroom-shaped choroidal melanoma Plaque is sewn covering the tumour and removed after stipulated dose delivery (2-3 weeks) 15th July 06

37 Clinical Trials Sankara Netralaya, Chennai; 10 Patients successfully treated since Sept. 2003; all doing fine. Product awaiting AERB approval for regular use 15th July 06

38 Prostate brachytherapy –within tissues
. Prostate cancer is a disease in which cancer cells grow in the prostate. Seed implantation with I-125/Pd-103 seeds (brachytherapy) is a highly effective treatment for men with prostate cancer. Treatment: Hormone therapy Surgery Radiation therapy 15th July 06

39 Intracavitary brachytherapy
Encapsulation of small radioactive (137Cs)tubes(40 mCi each). Location of tumor position. Implantation of applicator 15th July 06

40 External beam radiation therapy - Teletherapy
External source High intensity radiation; 60Co – most widely used A machine is used to direct the radiation to the tumor (cancer) through the skin. 15th July 06

41 Indigenous Teletherapy Machine
15th July 06

42 Gamma Knife High accuracy, low risk, low complications, low morbidity
Multiple targeting (up to Co sources; 1 TBq each; circular array) to achieve better dose delivery and low damage to surrounding tissues. Brain tumors  Acoustic neuroma Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) Trigeminal neuralgia  High accuracy, low risk, low complications, low morbidity 15th July 06

43 Radioisotope Applications in Industry Quick, easy, clean and cost saving techniques
Sealed Sources Radiation Processing Radiography Testing Gamma Scanning Industrial tomography Nucleonic Control Systems Radioactive Tracers Flow rate measurements Inventory Control - chemical plants Leak/blockage detection- pipe lines RTD Studies in chemical reactors Silt movement studies (harbours) 15th July 06

44 Radiation processing Gamma rays/ Electron beams
Medical products sterilization Blood irradiation Polymerisation Hydrogel Surface curing of materials-cables, wires, O-rings Processing of sewage sludge Value addition of gems Food & Agriculture industry 15th July 06

45 Gamma irradiation plant
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47 Electron Beam Machine 15th July 06

48 Radiation processed Hydrogel for use as Burn/Wound Dressing
Product patented Commercialized 15th July 06

49 Sewage Sludge Hygienization Facility
Vadodara 15th July 06

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53 Irradiated Gems – Value addition
15th July 06

54 Radiation & Radioisotopes in Food & Agriculture
Radiation Processing Sprout inhibition - potatoes, onions Disinfestation - grains Delayed ripening - bananas etc. Extension of shelf life - strawberries Microbial decontamination – spices, meat Hygeinization – meat, fish Sterilisation – meat, fish, chapatis etc. 15th July 06

55 [Storage temperature 100 C] [Storage duration 17 Days ]
FRENCH BEANS UNTREATED TREATED 1 kGy TREATED 2 kGy Shelf-life extension of whole ready –to – cook French beans by radiation processing [Storage temperature 100 C] [Storage duration 17 Days ] 15th July 06

56 [Storage temperature 100 C] [Storage duration 25 Days ]
POMEGRANATE ARILS UNTREATED TREATED 2 kGy Shelf-life extension of cut ready –to – eat pomegranate arils by radiation processing [Storage temperature 100 C] [Storage duration 25 Days ] 15th July 06

CONTROL IRRADIATED (2 kGy) Shelf-life extension of cut ready –to – cook ash gourd by radiation processing STORAGE DURATION : 8 DAYS STORAGE TEMPERATURE : 100 C 15th July 06

58 Mutation Radiotracers High yield -Ground nuts, rice, pulses
Disease resistance -mung powdery mildew Enhanced properties -ground nut, jute Early maturity -ground rice, pulses, jute Large seed -ground nut Radiotracers Optimisation of fertiliser use, amounts, time, soil depth etc. 15th July 06

59 adaptability, seed dormancy
Trombay varieties Released & Notified by MoA, GOI for commercial cultivation( ) Greengram TMB-37 2005 M: 63 Y: 1100 YI: 20 Eastern UP, Bihar, Jharkhand, Assam and West Bengal Tolerant to yellow mosaic virus Soybean TAMS-38 2005 M: 95 Y: 2318 YI: 20 Maharashtra Early maturing, resistant to bacterial pustule, Myrothecium leaf spot Groundnut TPG-41 2004 M: 120 Y: Summer 2407 YI: 26 All India Large seed (65g 100 seeds) Fresh seed dormancy On farm trials 4551kg/ha 49% increase TG-37A M: 110 Y: Kharif 1993 YI: 26-38 Rainy season Rajasthan,Punjab Haryana,Gujarat UP. Rabi/Summer W.Bengal.Orissa, Assam/N.E. Wider adaptability, seed dormancy M=Maturity(days), Y=Yield (Kg/ha), YI= Yield Increase (%) TMB-37 TAMS-38 TG-37A TPG-41

60 Trombay Groundnuts in Farmers Field…
Girgaon Receding moisture situation Karnataka 15th July 06

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62 Radiography Easy detection of defects
Just like X rays for chest congestion or fractures! 15th July 06

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66 Tomographic system 15th July 06

67 Radiotracer for studying silt movement, dredging etc
Radiotracer for studying silt movement, dredging etc. in coasts/harbours 15th July 06

68 Underground pipeline leakage detection by radiotracer
Long buried pipelines Easy detection Exact location Enormous amount of time, labour and money saving 15th July 06

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70 Detection of underground pipeline leakage
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71 In Essence …. Radionuclides and Radiation play important roles in many fields that affect human welfare. The impact of nuclear medicine in Medical field is very gratifying In Agriculture and food industry radiation and radioisotope have a significant role to play In industries too the use of radiations is steadily increasing for a variety of purposes The futuristic predictions show an upward trend towards use of radiations/radionuclides 15th July 06

72 Acknowledgements Dr. Gurcharan Singh, Head, IAD, BARC
Dr. S.F. D’Souza, Head, NA & BTD, BARC Dr. A.K. Sharma, Head, FTD, BARC Dr. S. Sabharwal, Head, RTDS, BARC 15th July 06

73 Thank You! 15th July 06

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