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Radionuclides & Radiation : Tools for Betterment of Humankind Meera Venkatesh Radiopharmaceuticals Division Bhabha Atomic Research Centre.

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Presentation on theme: "Radionuclides & Radiation : Tools for Betterment of Humankind Meera Venkatesh Radiopharmaceuticals Division Bhabha Atomic Research Centre."— Presentation transcript:

1 Radionuclides & Radiation : Tools for Betterment of Humankind Meera Venkatesh Radiopharmaceuticals Division Bhabha Atomic Research Centre

2 15 th July 06

3 Radionuclides – What are they? Unstable nuclides of elements Emission of energetic rays in the process of becoming a different, more stable nuclide Radioactive rays

4 15 th July 06 Radionuclides - Properties Emission of Radiation alpha (  ), beta (  ) : particulates gamma (  ) : non-particulate energetic; varying energies Transient - non-permanent concept of half life; varying half-lives

5 15 th July 06 Radiations : , ,  energetic interact with matter to deposit the energy the radiations are easily measurable at very low amounts - high sensitivity the material may alter and its properties may change – e.g. polymerisation the radiation will attenuate after interacting with the material – e.g. its energy reduces, intensity reduces

6 15 th July 06 Some Areas of Impact Medical diagnostic, therapeutic, sterilization Agriculture food preservation, tracers, mutation Industry & Hydrology radiography, tracers, gauging, radiation processing Research tracers...

7 15 th July 06 Radioisotope/Radiation Applications : Basis Easy detectability : Tracers Alterations in the material on irradiation Attenuation in the radiation itself

8 15 th July 06 Easy detectability of radiation Tracer applications - Medical Diagnostic in-vivo Nuclear Medicine; static imaging of organs; dynamic imaging of organs; understanding the functioning of vital organs; delineation of tumours etc.etc. Diagnostic in-vitro radiometric kits hormones/drugs/antigens measurement in biological samples

9 15 th July 06 Tracer applications - industries, water management trouble shooting; hydrology applications; process development/optimisation, monitoring industrial reactions etc. Tracer applications - laboratory & agricultural tracers; process understanding; optimisation of manure/ pesticide; fate of the used manure/pesticide etc.

10 15 th July 06 Easy detectability : Tracers Alterations in the material on irradiation Attenuation in the radiation itself Radioisotope/Radiation Applications : Basis

11 15 th July 06 Alterations in the material damage to living cells, death of living organisms - fungi, bacteria, cancer cell.. polymerisation of monomers creation of defects in materials - crystal structure breaking of very tough materials

12 15 th July 06 Damage to living cells Fungi, bacteria.. ; food preservation by irradiation; sterilization of medical products by gamma irradiation; blood irradiation cancer cells ; teletherapy, brachytherapy, in- vivo therapy - radiopharmaceuticals, loco- regional therapy

13 15 th July 06 polymerisation of monomers; radiation processing of wires, cables, ‘O’ rings etc. breaking of very tough materials degradation of polymers, teflon etc. creation of defects in crystal structure colouration of diamonds

14 15 th July 06 Easy detectability : Tracers Alterations in the material on irradiation Attenuation in the radiation itself Radioisotope/Radiation Applications : Basis

15 15 th July 06 Attenuation in the radiation intensity decrease information about the material - uniformity, thickness, defects etc. Gamma radiography ; status of/defects in materials Nucleonic gauges; thickness, level measurements

16 15 th July 06 Which radionuclides or radiations? Selection Criteria Emission properties type of radiation, energy Half life Chemistry Feasibility Cost

17 15 th July 06 Medical use of Radiation & Radioisotopes DiagnosticTherapeutic Polymerized products : hydrogel, drug delivery systems Brachytherapy Teletherapy In-vivo Radiopharmaceuticals In-vitro radiometric assays Radiation processing Sterilization, Blood Irradiation Gamma knife

18 15 th July 06 Radiopharmaceuticals Molecules containing Radioactivity used in Medicine - for Diagnosis & Therapy Diagnostic Products In-vivo injectibles oral In-vitro Radiometric assays Therapeutic Products In-vivo injectibles oral Sealed Sources Brachy Therapy Topical Applications

19 15 th July 06 Diagnostic Radiopharmaceuticals In-Vitro : ‘in-glass’ or outside the body Radiometric Assays (RIAs & IRMAs) Nobel prize winning technology (Dr Yalow-1976) Very useful tool in diagnosing diseases related to hormones; indispensable in pathology labs More recently use in various areas : Tumor Specific Antigens, viral antigens, drugs with narrow therapeutic index, non-clinical applications IRMA- Prostate Specific Antigen - Prostate Cancer RIA-Aflatoxin B1 - mycotoxin - food commodities

20 15 th July 06 Radiometric Assays Analytical techniques to measure minute quantities of an analyte in a complex matrix Use of radiolabeled molecule as the tracer Utility in Medicine, Environment, Food industry etc.

21 15 th July 06 ConcentrationSubstance 10 mmol/L 1 Glucose Albumin umol/L 1 Creatinin Iron Immunoglobulin nmol/L 1 Thyroxin, Cortisol Progesterone, Testosterone, T3 Estradiol pmol/L Insulin Free T3 Endocrinology, Oncology Drug development Pharmacology & toxicology Non clinical fields

22 15 th July 06 Diagnostic Radiopharmaceuticals : in-vivo In-Vivo : ‘inside the body’ Static Imaging Organ size, shape, abnormalities etc. Thyroid, Liver, Kidneys, Brain, Skeleton, Lungs, malignancies Presence of nodules, tumours, metastatic lesions, goitre, abcess, shrinkage etc. Dynamic Imaging Functioning of the organ, rate, output, defects etc. Heart, Liver, Kidneys Infarcted myocardium, hole in the heart, filtration defects in kidneys etc.

23 15 th July 06 Nuclear Medicine – for imaging Very safe Non-invasive No reactions or side effects minimal radiation dose

24 15 th July 06 Uniqueness of a nuclear scan X-ray, USG, CT & MRI – give anatomic information. Nuclear scan provides unique FUNCTIONAL as well as ANATOMIC INFORMATION A highly sensitive technique; also known as Molecular Imaging Available for almost every organ / system

25 15 th July 06 Example: Functioning of heart muscles Typical heart scan - dynamic showing various regions for easy diagnosis of functioning and quantification of results

26 15 th July 06 Static images of thyroid with Na 99m TcO 4 Lingual Thyroid Normal Cold Nodule - Rt Lobe Avid Uptake with increased TSH Iodine Deficiency Goitre Avid Uptake with increased T3& T4 Toxicosis

27 15 th July 06 99mTc MDP Bone Scan Multiple Metastases Ca Prostate Normal Multiple Metastases Ca Lt Breast WHOLE BODY BONE SCAN for skeletal metastases in patients with known or suspected cancer.

28 15 th July 06 Positron Emission Tomography: PET Recent technology 18 F-Fuloro deoxy glucose ( 18 F-FDG) most widely used tracer for PET 3D picture of defects, clear, precise Most often used to find out recurrence of cancers Also used to image heart and brain to find tissues that are not ‘alive’ (do not take up glucose)

29 15 th July 06 Example : PET machine & PET image

30 15 th July 06 Therapeutic Radiopharmaceuticals Deleterious effect of ionising radiations on cells/organisms In-vivo&Sealed Sources Primarily Cancers; others : hyperthyroidism, radiation synoviorthesis etc. Historically very old ; non-systematic Systematic - Old I, 32 P Surge - past 15 years Forecast : sales 0.5 B USD now to 2.8 B in 2007

31 15 th July 06 Range of particulate radiations a Auger e- 5.3 MeV , 0.15 MeV  MeV  - Range (mm) b c d a : cell nucleus b : single cell c : few cells d : 100 cells

32 15 th July 06 Palliative - Bone pain Radiolabeled phosphonates 89 Sr Chloride, 32 P-phosphate, 153 Sm-EDTMP, 188 Re- HEDP, 188 Re-CTMP, 177 Lu-DOTMP, 175 Yb-DOTMP Liver cancer treatment colloids/particulates - through hepatic artery 166 Ho-chitosan, 90 Y-glass microspheres, 188 Re-Sn colloid Radiation Synoviorthesis colloids/particulates : intra articular injections 166 Ho-Hydroxyapaptite(HA), 153 Sm-HA, BARC - clinical trials and supply Therapeutic Radiopharmaceuticals

33 15 th July 06 Example: Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis using a radiopharmaceutical

34 15 th July 06 Brachytherapy Use of radioactive sources for treatment Within the tissue Covering the cancer tissue – like amould Within a cavity having cancer Within a vessel to be irradiated

35 15 th July 06 Treatment of Breast Cancer

36 15 th July 06 Low Energy Radioactive Plaque Therapy for treatment of Ocular melonoma Tiny rice-sized {0.8mm(OD)x4.75mm(l)} radioactive seeds (15-25 no.) are glued into the gold eye-plaque or seed carrier. A mushroom-shaped choroidal melanoma Plaque is sewn covering the tumour and removed after stipulated dose delivery (2-3 weeks)

37 15 th July 06 Clinical Trials Sankara Netralaya, Chennai; 10 Patients successfully treated since Sept. 2003; all doing fine. Product awaiting AERB approval for regular use

38 15 th July 06 Prostate brachytherapy Prostate brachytherapy –within tissues. Prostate cancer is a disease in which cancer cells grow in the prostate. Seed implantation with I-125/Pd-103 seeds (brachytherapy) is a highly effective treatment for men with prostate cancer. Treatment:  Hormone therapy  Surgery  Radiation therapy

39 15 th July 06 Intracavitary brachytherapy Encapsulation of small radioactive ( 137 Cs)tubes(40 mCi each).  Location of tumor position.  Implantation of applicator

40 15 th July 06 External beam radiation therapy - Teletherapy  External source  High intensity radiation; 60 Co – most widely used  A machine is used to direct the radiation to the tumor (cancer) through the skin.

41 15 th July 06 Indigenous Teletherapy Machine

42 15 th July 06 Gamma Knife Multiple targeting (up to Co sources; 1 TBq each; circular array) to achieve better dose delivery and low damage to surrounding tissues. Brain tumors Acoustic neuroma Arteriovenous malformation malformation (AVM) Trigeminal neuralgia High accuracy, low risk, low complications, low morbidity

43 15 th July 06 Radioisotope Applications in Industry Quick, easy, clean and cost saving techniques Sealed Sources Radiation Processing Radiography Testing Gamma Scanning Industrial tomography Nucleonic Control Systems Radioactive Tracers Flow rate measurements Inventory Control - chemical plants Leak/blockage detection- pipe lines RTD Studies in chemical reactors Silt movement studies (harbours)

44 15 th July 06 Radiation processing Gamma rays/ Electron beams Medical products sterilization Blood irradiation Polymerisation Hydrogel Surface curing of materials-cables, wires, O-rings Processing of sewage sludge Value addition of gems Food & Agriculture industry

45 15 th July 06 Gamma irradiation plant

46 15 th July 06

47 Electron Beam Machine

48 15 th July 06 Radiation processed Hydrogel for use as Burn/Wound Dressing Product patented Commercialized

49 15 th July 06 Sewage Sludge Hygienization Facility Vadodara

50 15 th July 06



53 Irradiated Gems – Value addition

54 15 th July 06 Radiation & Radioisotopes in Food & Agriculture Radiation Processing Sprout inhibition - potatoes, onions Disinfestation - grains Delayed ripening - bananas etc. Extension of shelf life - strawberries Microbial decontamination – spices, meat Hygeinization – meat, fish Sterilisation – meat, fish, chapatis etc.

55 15 th July 06 FRENCH BEANS UNTREATED TREATED 1 kGy TREATED 2 kGy Shelf-life extension of whole ready –to – cook French beans by radiation processing [Storage temperature 10 0 C] [Storage duration 17 Days ]

56 15 th July 06 POMEGRANATE ARILS UNTREATED TREATED 2 kGy Shelf-life extension of cut ready –to – eat pomegranate arils by radiation processing [Storage temperature 10 0 C] [Storage duration 25 Days ]

57 15 th July 06 WHITE PUMPKINS (ASH GOURD) CONTROL IRRADIATED (2 kGy) Shelf-life extension of cut ready –to – cook ash gourd by radiation processing STORAGE DURATION : 8 DAYS STORAGE TEMPERATURE : 10 0 C

58 15 th July 06 Mutation High yield -Ground nuts, rice, pulses Disease resistance -mung powdery mildew Enhanced properties -ground nut, jute Early maturity -ground rice, pulses, jute Large seed -ground nut Radiotracers Optimisation of fertiliser use, amounts, time, soil depth etc.

59 Greengram TMB M: 63 Y: 1100 YI: 20 Eastern UP, Bihar, Jharkhand, Assam and West Bengal Tolerant to yellow mosaic virus Soybean TAMS M: 95 Y: 2318 YI: 20 MaharashtraEarly maturing, resistant to bacterial pustule, Myrothecium leaf spot Groundnut TPG M: 120 Y: Summer 2407 YI: 26 All IndiaLarge seed (65g 100 seeds) Fresh seed dormancy On farm trials 4551kg/ha 49% increase Groundnut TG-37A 2004M: 110 Y: Kharif 1993 YI: Rainy season Rajasthan,Punjab Haryana,Gujarat UP. Rabi/Summer W.Bengal.Orissa, Assam/N.E. Wider adaptability, seed dormancy Trombay varieties Released & Notified by MoA, GOI for commercial cultivation( ) TPG-41TG-37A TAMS-38 TMB-37 M=Maturity(days), Y=Yield (Kg/ha), YI= Yield Increase (%)

60 15 th July 06 Trombay Groundnuts in Farmers Field… Girgaon Receding moisture situation Karnataka


62 15 th July 06 Radiography Easy detection of defects Just like X rays for chest congestion or fractures!




66 15 th July 06 Tomographic system

67 15 th July 06 Radiotracer for studying silt movement, dredging etc. in coasts/harbours

68 15 th July 06 Underground pipeline leakage detection by radiotracer Long buried pipelines Easy detection Exact location Enormous amount of time, labour and money saving

69 15 th July 06

70 Detection of underground pipeline leakage

71 15 th July 06 In Essence …. Radionuclides and Radiation play important roles in many fields that affect human welfare. The impact of nuclear medicine in Medical field is very gratifying In Agriculture and food industry radiation and radioisotope have a significant role to play In industries too the use of radiations is steadily increasing for a variety of purposes The futuristic predictions show an upward trend towards use of radiations/radionuclides

72 15 th July 06 Acknowledgements Dr. Gurcharan Singh, Head, IAD, BARC Dr. S.F. D’Souza, Head, NA & BTD, BARC Dr. A.K. Sharma, Head, FTD, BARC Dr. S. Sabharwal, Head, RTDS, BARC

73 15 th July 06 Thank You!

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