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ENFERMEDADES GENERADAS POR CONTAMINANTES. CONTAMINANTES QUE GENERAN ENFERMEDADES.

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Presentation on theme: "ENFERMEDADES GENERADAS POR CONTAMINANTES. CONTAMINANTES QUE GENERAN ENFERMEDADES."— Presentation transcript:

1 ENFERMEDADES GENERADAS POR CONTAMINANTES

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4 CONTAMINANTES QUE GENERAN ENFERMEDADES

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7 EL PROBLEMA TAMBIÉN ES LA DOSIS

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11 EL PROBLEMA TAMBIÉN ÉS EL TIEMPO

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16 ORGANOCHLORINE COMPOUNDS ARE TOXIC COMPOUNDS AT HIGH CONCENTRATIONS

17 HEXACHLOROBENZENE

18 CHLORACNE by EXPOSURE TO DIOXINS AUGUST 2004NOVEMBER 2004 V. Yushchenko

19 Newborn with in-utero growth delay and skin hyperigmentation due to in- utero exposure to PCBs (Kyushu, Japan, 1968)

20 ORGANOCHLORINE COMPOUNDS WERE NOT PRESENT IN THE ENVIRONMENT NOR IN HUMAN BODIES SIXTY YEARS AGO THEREFORE OUR METABOLISM IS NOT READY TO HANDLE THEM (which is not the case for PAH)

21 POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

22 –1-naphthol – 2-fluorenol –9-phenanthrol –1-pyrenol –3-benzo[a]pyrenol PAH metabolites

23 MEASUREMENTS OF EXPOSURE TO PAH IN WOMEN FROM VALENCIA urine values normalized to creatinine

24 WHAT IS THE PROBLEM AT LOW CONCENTRATIONS?

25 WE NEED TO ESTIMATE WHAT ARE THE DELETERIOUS EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE AT LOW AMOUNTS BUT FOR LONG PERIODS ENCOMPASSING ALL LIFE AND ALL GROWTH STAGES (INCLUDING IN UTERO DEVELOPMENT)

26 Development of neural system in children

27 Decrease of brain cells with age Small increases of cell losses (0.1 or 0.3% per year) may give rise to clinic emergencies at younger age. Levels of loss of 40% are probable causes of illness

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35 AREA DE ESTUDIO Comarca de la Ribera d’Ebre Ubicada en el curso del río 4500 habitantes Industria electroquímica Agricultura de frutas y hortalizas, almendras, aceite y vino. FLIX Población rural expuesta a contaminación específica

36 Chlorine  Organochlorinated solvents trichloroethylene tetrachloroethylene dichlorometane chloroform...  NaOH, HCl, H 2 ACTIVITIES IN THE ELECTROCHEMICAL PLANT Products synthesized

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39 Average 24-hr air concentrations of organochlorine compounds in Flix and the reference community (Barcelona) COMPOUNDFlixBarcelona ng/m 3 averagerangeaveragerange HCB PCBs pp'-DDE

40 608 Residents from Flix gave biologic samples age: 48.8 years 84.3% lived for more than 20 years in Flix TOTAL women 83 men 46 years TOTAL men 8 women 40 years TOTAL men 13 women 62 years

41 8 times higher in the population of Flix than in Barcelona 100 times higher than in the USA rural population (Sther-Green y cols, 1988) 23 times higher than in USA general population (Murphy y cols.,1985) 1.4 times higher than Slovakian population (Koçan y cols.1994) De l’ordre o inferiors a altres publicadesnferiors o In the order or lower than other reported   

42  C (ng/ml)

43 Criterio OMS (IPCS 1994) adulto 64 Kg m 3 aire 4 horas/día en el exterior Concentraciones medias Cint = 51 ng/m 3 Cext = 26 ng/m 3 Estimación de la inhalación de HCB 1.13  g HCB /dia Referencia:  g/día

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45 Reference values: TSH mIU/ml; Total T4: mg/ml; Free T4: ng/dl; AST: UI/l; ALT: 7-33 UI/l; GGT in men: UI/l; GGT in women: 5-35 UI/l. Description of TSH, total T4, free T4, AST (Aspartate aminotransferase, ALT (Alanine aminotransferase and GGT (Gamma Glutamil Transpeptidase serum levels, by sex and occupational status. Flix, Catalonia

46 Correlación entre los niveles de HCB y las desviaciones de T4, ALT y GGT

47 CONCLUSIONES DEL ESTUDIO Los niveles de HCB aumentan: - con el tiempo de residencia, - con el consumo local de pescado. - con la edad de las mujeres - en el grupo de edad media en los hombres Los niveles de HCB en los extrabajadores > 60 años son similares a los no trabajadores. La salud percibida no difiere del resto de Catalunya. Riesgo superior para la totalidad de las enfermedades asociadas al HCB para los que han trabajado alguna vez en la electroquímica. No se ha registrado ningún caso de Porfíria Cutanea Tarda. Seis personas con exceso de porfirinas totales en la orina. Cinco personas con anomalías en el perfil de porfirinas excretadas. Determinación de la ruta metabólica de el HCB: conjugado del glutatión en la orina. Correlación entre el Pentaclorobenzotiol y el HCB en el suero: r 2 =0.78

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51 HUMAN SERUM CONCENTRATIONS IN CONTROLS AND CASES OF EXOCRINE PANCREATIC CANCER WITH AND WITHOUT A MUTATION IN THE K-RAS GENE

52 INMA – INfancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood) is a NETWORK born in 2003 funded by the Spanish Ministry of Health. The project brings together different working groups from different universities, research centers, hospitals and Health administration. INMA aims to study the role of the most important environmental pollutants in air, water and diet and their effects on child growth and development. Overview

53 The INMA project aims to Objectives To describe the degree of individual prenatal exposure to environmental pollutants present in the air and water, and the internal dose of chemicals during pregnancy and at birth To evaluate the impact of the exposure to different contaminants on infants’ growth, health and development To evaluate the role of diet and fatty acids on infants’ growth, health and development

54 INMA participants Population Inclusion Year Target number Flix Menorca Granada Madrid Valencia Sabadell Asturias Guipuzkua *

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56 Carrizo et al., Environmental Science and Technology, 40, (2006)

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60 MATERNAL FEEDING ARTIFICIAL FEEDING CONCENTRATIONS BUDGET INTAKE OF ORGANOCHLORINE COMPOUNDS THROUGH MATERNAL AND ARTIFICIAL FEEDING IN THE COHORT OF MENORCA DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BIRTH AND FOUR YEARS

61 POLYBROMODIPHENYL ETERS Carrizo et al. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41, (2007)

62 POLYBROMODIPHENYL ETERS

63 Carrizo et al. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41, (2007)

64 EFFECTS

65 Exposure to hexachlorobenzene during pregnancy and social behavior at age 4 years Ribas-Fito et al., Environmental Health Perspectives, 115, (2007)

66 Exposure to hexachlorobenzene during pregnancy and social behavior at age 4 years Ribas-Fito et al., Environmental Health Perspectives, 115, (2007)

67 Prenatal exposure to current concentrations of HCB is associated with a decrease in the Social Competence and an increase of the Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder at preschooler ages. These results suggest that some infants may be at risk from the developmental neurotoxicity of HCB due to relatively high concentrations of HCB detected in cord serum and breast milk from women in certain parts of the world. Ribas-Fito et al., Environmental Health Perspectives, 115, (2007)

68 Ribas-Fito et al., American Journal of Epidemiology, 164, (2006) Early exposure to DDE and asthma

69 Ribas-Fito et al., American Journal of Epidemiology, 164, (2006) Early exposure to DDE and asthma

70 Sunyer et al., Clinical and Experimental Allergy 36, 1236–1241 (2006)

71 Early exposure to DDE and asthma Sunyer et al., Clinical and Experimental Allergy 36, 1236–1241 (2006)

72 Wheezing occurring at four (odds ratio = 1.13 ( ) per each increase in 1 ng/ml) as well as asthma diagnosed at six (1.18 ( )) showed a statisticaly significant association with DDE measured at birth. Early exposures to DDE seems to play a role in asthma, but not exposures occurring during breastfeeding or later Sunyer et al., Environmental Health Perspectives 113, (2005) Sunyer et al., Clinical and Experimental Allergy 36, 1236–1241 (2006)

73 Delays in cognitive skills and In utero exposure to DDT

74 Prenatal exposure to background low-level concentrations of DDT is associated with a decrease in the cognitive skills among preschoolers Ribas-Fito et al., American Journal of Epidemiology, 164, (2006)

75 Ribas-Fito et al., American Journal of Epidemiology, 166, (2007) 4,4-DDT incorporation by breastfeeding

76 Ribas-Fito et al., American Journal of Epidemiology, 166, (2007) 4,4-DDT incorporation by breastfeeding

77 77 DDT prenatal exposure and cognitive development at 4 years Ribas-Fitó, Am J Epidemiol 2007 DDT exposure at birth (ng/ml) McCarthy general cognitive scale * * p<0.05 Ribera d’Ebre y Menorca (n=391)

78 Ribas-Fito et al., American Journal of Epidemiology, in press Children who were breastfed for more than 20 weeks had better cognitive performance regardless of their in utero exposure to DDT. A linear dose response between breastfeeding and cognition was observed in all DDT groups.

79 Ribas-Fito et al., American Journal of Epidemiology, in press Despite the possibility of harm from environmental contaminants in breast milk, breastfeeding for long periods should still be recommended as the best infant feeding method

80 Thyroid disruption and organochlorine compounds. Four-year-old children. Alvarez-Pedrerol et al., Occupational and Environmental Medicine 65, (2008) Alvarez-Pedrerol et al., Environment International 34, (2008)

81 Background levels of OCs at four years-old children affect their thyroid function. Children with higher levels of p,p’-DDT, β -HCH and PCBs (138, 153 and 118) had lower concentrations of T3, while freeT4 was only negatively associated with PCB-118. As thyroid hormones are essential for normal brain development, the lower levels of T3 or free T4 observed in children with higher exposure to OCs may affect cognitive function. Levels of PCB-153 and β-HCH in utero are positively related to TSH concentrations. Association between β-HCH and TSH confirmed in the Valencian cohort. Levels of DDE in mothers are positively correlated to TSH and negatively to free T4. Alvarez-Pedrerol et al., Occupational and Environmental Medicine 65, (2008) Alvarez-Pedrerol et al., Environment International 34, (2008)

82 ORGANOCHLORINE COMPOUNDS AND CHILDREN SIZE

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84 Exposure to hexachlorobenzene and risk of overweight Smink et al., Acta Pædiatrica 97, (2008)

85 High exposure of HCB prenatal (level in cord blood > 1.03 ng/mL) is associated with an increase of BMI and overweight in girls and boys at age 6.5 years. Children from normal weight mothers also presented an increased risk of having higher BMI with increasing concentrations of HCB in cord serum. Smink et al., Acta Pædiatrica 97, (2008)

86 CompoundExposureEffectReferences HCBIn uteroPoor social behaviour Ribas-Fito et al., Environ. Health Perspect. 115, (2007) HCBIn uteroADHD Ribas-Fito et al., Environ. Health Perspect. 115, (2007) HCB4 yearsAlteration of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) Alvarez-Pedrerol et al., Occup.Environ. Med. 65, (2008) Alvarez-Pedrerol et al., Environ. Int. 34, (2008) HCBIn uteroOverweight Smink et al., Acta Pædiatrica 97, (2008) HCBadultsThyroid cancer Grimalt et al., Int. J. Cancer 56, (1994) HCB4 yearsAlteration of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) Sala et al., Occup. Environ. Med. 58, (2001) HCBIn uteroBirth size Lopez-Espinosa et al., Pediatrics 128, e127-e134 (2011) DDEIn uteroAsthma Ribas-Fito et al., Am. J. Epidemiol. 164, (2006) Sunyer et al., Clin. Exp. Allergy 36, 1236–1241 (2006) DDE4 years mothers Alteration of thyroid hormones (TSH, T3 and T4) Alvarez-Pedrerol et al., Occup. Environ. Med. 65, (2008) Alvarez-Pedrerol et al., Environ. Int. 34, (2008) Lopez-Espinosa et al., Environ. Res. 109, (2009) DDEIn uteroIncrease in urinary coproporphyrins Sunyer et al., Environ. Health Perspect. 116, (2008) DDEIn uteroBirth weight Lopez-Espinosa et al., Pediatrics 128, e127-e134 (2011) DDTIn uteroDecrease of cognitive skills. Higher for children with GSTP1 Val-105 allele Ribas-Fito et al., Am. J. Epidemiol. 164, (2006) Morales et al. Environ. Health Perspect.116, (2008) DDTIn uteroBirth weight Lopez-Espinosa et al., Pediatrics 128, e127-e134 (2011) PCB-118, PCB-1534 years In utero Alteration of thyroid hormones (T4 and TSH) Alvarez-Pedrerol et al., Occup. Environ. Med. 65, (2008) Alvarez-Pedrerol et al., Environ. Int. 34, (2008) Β-HCH4 years In utero Alteration of thyroid hormones (T4 and TSH) Alvarez-Pedrerol et al., Occup. Environ. Med. 65, (2008) Alvarez-Pedrerol et al., Environ. Int. 34, (2008) Lopez-Espinosa et al., J. Exp. Sci. Environ. Epidemiol. 20, (2010) BDE-474 yearsPoor social behaviour Gascon et al., Environ. Int. 37, (2010) BDE-474 yearsPostnatal attention deficit Gascon et al., Environ. Int. 37, (2010)


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