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4.4 Finding Rational Zeros

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The rational root theorem If f(x)=a n x + +a 1 x+a 0 has integer coefficients, then every rational zero of f has the following form: p factors of constant term a 0 q factors of leading coefficient a n n … =

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Example 1: Find rational roots of f(x)=x 3 +2x 2 -11x-12 1.List possible q=1(1) p=-12 (1,2,3,4,6,12) X= ±1/1,± 2/1, ± 3/1, ± 4/1, ± 6/1, ±12/1 2.Test: 1 2 -11 -12 1 2 -11 -12 X=1 1 3 -8 x=-1 -1 -1 12 1 3 -8 -20 1 1 -12 0 3.Since -1 is a zero: (x+1)(x 2 +x-12)=f(x) Factor: (x+1)(x-3)(x+4)=0 x=-1 x=3 x=-4 You can use a graphing calculator to narrow your choices before you test!

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Extra Example 1: Find rational zeros of: f(x)=x 3 -4x 2 -11x+30 1. q=1 (1) p=30 (1,2,3,5,6,10,30) x= ±1/1, ± 2/1, ±3/1, ±5/1, ±6/1, ±10/1, ±15/1, ±30/1 2.Test: 1 -4 -11 30 1 -4 -11 30 x=1 1 -3 -14 x=-1 -1 5 6 1 -3 -14 16 1 -5 -6 36 X=2 1 -4 -11 30 (x-2)(x 2 -2x-15)=0 2 -4 -30 (x-2)(x+3)(x-5)=0 1 -2 -15 0 x=2 x=-3 x=5

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Example 2: f(x)=10x 4 -3x 3 -29x 2 +5x+12 1.List: q=10 (1,2,5,10) p=12 (1,2,3,4,6,12) x= ± 1/1, ± 2/1, ± 3/1, ± 4/1, ± 6/1, ±12/1, ± ½, ± 3/2, ± 1/5, ± 2/5, ± 3/5, ± 4/5, ± 6/5, ± 12/5, ± 1/10, ± 3/10, ± 12/10 2.w/ so many – sketch graph on calculator and find reasonable solutions: x= -3/2, -3/5, 4/5, 3/2 Check: 10 -3 -29 5 12 x= -3/2 -15 27 3 -12 10 -18 -2 8 0 Yes it works * (x+3/2)(10x 3 -18x 2 -2x+8)* (x+3/2)(2)(5x 3 -9x 2 -x+4) -factor out GCF (2x+3)(5x 3 -9x 2 -x+4) -multiply 1 st factor by 2 __ ____

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Descartes’ Rule of Signs The number of positive real zeros = the number of sign changes in f(x) or less than by an even #. NO YES There are four changes. So there may be 4, 2 or 0 positive real zeros.

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Descartes’ Rule of Signs cont. The number of negative real zeros = the number of sign changes in f(-x) or less than by an even #. YES NO There is one change. So there is 1 negative real zero.

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Find the number of positive and negative real zeros. Then determine the rational zeros for g(x)= 5x 3 - 9x 2 – x + 4 There are 2 positive and 1 negative real zero 1. LC=5 CT=4 x:±1, ±2, ±4, ±1/5, ±2/5, ±4/5 *The graph of original shows 4/5 may be: 5 -9 -1 4 x=4/5 4 -4 -4 5 -5 -5 0 (x-4/5)(5x 2 -5x-5)= (x-4/5)(5)(x 2 -x-1)= mult.2 nd factor by 5 (5x-4)(x 2 -x-1)= -now use quad for last- * 4/5, 1+, 1-. 2 2 __ ____

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6.6 Finding Rational Zeros pg. 359! What is the rational zero theorem? What information does it give you?

6.6 Finding Rational Zeros pg. 359! What is the rational zero theorem? What information does it give you?

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