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RLG Programs A Library Preservation Challenge Managing the collective collection over time Janifer Gatenby, OCLC Western European Studies Section (ACRL.

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Presentation on theme: "RLG Programs A Library Preservation Challenge Managing the collective collection over time Janifer Gatenby, OCLC Western European Studies Section (ACRL."— Presentation transcript:

1 RLG Programs A Library Preservation Challenge Managing the collective collection over time Janifer Gatenby, OCLC Western European Studies Section (ACRL WESS) June

2 Programs & Research A Library Preservation Challenge ALA Anaheim– June Fundamental Questions What are the challenges? What are the responses to these challenges / problems? Are they adequate in themselves? Does the ensemble make coherent sense?

3 Programs & Research A Library Preservation Challenge ALA Anaheim– June Challenge: We lose valuables Natural disaster, Deterioration, War, Lack of care or will Only 20% of silent films survive Theda Bara: 3.5 of 40 films We also lose valuable digital things Broken links, broken code, buried data, lack of description (context)

4 Programs & Research A Library Preservation Challenge ALA Anaheim– June “When scores of books packed into shelves or in piles are set ablaze, the pages fuse and carbonize, turning into clinkers in the intense heat due to the lack of oxygen.” Bosnia's National Library in Sarajevo, shelled and burned August 25-26, 1992

5 Programs & Research A Library Preservation Challenge ALA Anaheim– June Looking at the Challenges That which cannot be found…. is lost Increasing part of library collection is outside the building – digital and physical Broken digital links Obscurity – failure to rank highly That which is not regularly accessed…. may be lost E.g. PDFs that will not open because they contain outdated fonts Openers may get lost Little used resources may be weeded, in ignorance of their rare value

6 Programs & Research A Library Preservation Challenge ALA Anaheim– June Looking at the Challenges Limited space in library buildings Yet physical collection continues to grow British Library storage increases by 12 kilometres a year “in ,920 new titles were published in the U.S., and the number of new books has increased nearly every year for the last decade, despite the spread of electronic publishing” Robert Darnton Increase in grey material Self publishing; no peer review Increase in material of dubious merit More difficult to detect resources of worth How much should we collect and preserve?

7 Programs & Research A Library Preservation Challenge ALA Anaheim– June Preservation Level Regional & National Individually not unique but if lost would destroy regional landscape Streetscape Leiden, Netherlands Global Works of international significance in their own right Rijnland Gemeenschaft, Leiden Ship’s Carpenter’s building, Leiden

8 Programs & Research A Library Preservation Challenge ALA Anaheim– June Responses Collective physical stores and services Digitisation Collective digital stores Beyond simple storage to true preservation Exposure

9 Programs & Research A Library Preservation Challenge ALA Anaheim– June Collective physical stores Central independent physical stores National Repository Library of Finland, Kuopio (400kms NE of Helsinki) Norwegian Repository Library CTLes (Centre Technique du Livres de L’Enseignement Supérieur) CASS (Cooperative Academic Store of Scotland) One library nominated for region University of Regensburg, Bavaria (following failures in North Rhine Westphalia and Baden-Württemberg) Central / Distributed hybrid UK Research Reserve Project (based on BL but retaining 2 to 3 other copies among the cooperative)

10 Programs & Research A Library Preservation Challenge ALA Anaheim– June Physical Stores – an adequate response? Rely on union catalogues – for collection management and exposure Finnish receive uncatalogued material and catalogue it UK Research Reserve: known problems Serial holdings in union catalogues are “patchy” And not updated regularly enough And don’t include retention policy (new ISO standard – Schema for Holdings – includes dynamic and policy information for query responses) Rely on effective delivery systems & Digitisation on Demand For DOD need copyright evidence Lack comprehensive, simple international request and delivery

11 Programs & Research A Library Preservation Challenge ALA Anaheim– June Digitisation We cannot digitise everything in the forseeable future CENL 2007 est. – only 1% digitised 2005 – Google books 10 yr plan is only covering 35% of WorldCat Jilovsky 2008 – 12% Digitising for indexing versus digitizing for preservation Parts need re-doing Jean Noël Jeanneney & Google Books Cultural, commercial bias Questionable quality Access and re-use restrictions Preservation not guaranteed “Too many – often small – institutions or institutions with relevant collections of too modest a volume want to digitise too little at too high a price without being able to justify distributed costs of investment and management…” Erland Kolding Nielsen RLG Programs comparison of digitisation contracts

12 Programs & Research A Library Preservation Challenge ALA Anaheim– June Digitisation and Copyright OCLC Registry of Copyright Evidence Need more author information – nationality Need definition of “due diligence” “The extension of the copyright limit from 50 to 70 years… was simply a catastrophe and an enormous obstacle to developing a relevant, adequate and comprehensive EDL with 20th century material of sufficient importance….The legal demands of investigating and finding the heirs..prohibitive” Erland Kolding Nielsen

13 Programs & Research A Library Preservation Challenge ALA Anaheim– June Centralised and Collective Digital Stores The assets of the libraries Gallica (90,000 works, 80,000 images) KB, Netherlands – 7 projects; 41 million pages EU Digital Library OCLC Digital Archive Harvestable Institutional Repositories Saving the community’s assets CLOCKSS (licensed content on publisher’s sites) Web archiving – saving the community’s web presence

14 Programs & Research A Library Preservation Challenge ALA Anaheim– June European Digital Library EU has funded infrastructure Now warming to funding digitisation itself Needs serious funding “..nothing wrong with the vision (EDL with > 12 million by 2012) but [financially] unrealistic “ Erland Kolding Nielsen “..A better balance between quality, quantity and costs has to be struck if libraries wish to digitise on a large scale…” Astrid Verheusen

15 Programs & Research A Library Preservation Challenge ALA Anaheim– June Archiving licensed and research content Licensed digital content – e.g. CLOCKSS Research data EU 7 th Framework FP7 – taking research data to the forefront JISC study: Keeping Research Data Safe: a cost model and guidance for UK Universities Neil Beagrie, Julia Chriszcz and Brian Lavoie RLG Programs, led from Scotland “New modes of scholarship”

16 Programs & Research A Library Preservation Challenge ALA Anaheim– June Lots of Copies Keep Stuff Safe “...let us save what remains: not by vaults and locks which fence them from the public eye and use in consigning them to the waste of time, but by such a multiplication of copies, as shall place them beyond the reach of accident.” — Thomas Jefferson, February 18, 1791 (CLOCKSS web page) CLOCKSS – US/UK cooperative Monitoring, testing, emulating Indiana U, NYPL, Rice U, Stanford U, U. Virginia, OCLC, U. Edinburgh Am.Chem.Assoc, AMA, Am. Physiol.Assoc, Nature, Sage, Taylor & Francis, Elsevier, Oxford UP, Springer, Wiley Blackwell

17 Programs & Research A Library Preservation Challenge ALA Anaheim– June Long Term Archiving Systems e-Depot (KB Dutch National Library) kopal (DNB German National Library) LOCKSS (Stanford University) Portico (Ithaka / JSTOR) Outdated data formats Migration or emulation “..migration during ingest adds significantly to costs with no guarantee that the chosen formats will solve future problems “ Michael Seadle quoting LOCKSS

18 Programs & Research A Library Preservation Challenge ALA Anaheim– June WARC – Web Archiving ISO Allows archiving of all control information from the harvesting protocol (e.g., request headers), not just response information. payload content Arbitrary metadata linked to other stored data (e.g., subject classifier, discovered language, encoding) Data transformations linked to other stored data Overly long records by truncation or segmentation Allows duplicate removal (to reduce storage) Support for data compression and maintenance of data record integrity. Standardisation led by Christian Lupovici of the Bibliothèque Nationale de France

19 Programs & Research A Library Preservation Challenge ALA Anaheim– June WARC Implementations Bibliothèque Nationale de France Coverage – covered by legal deposit – everything that would be consumed by the French public (not just the.fr domain) 120 terabytes; > 10 billion files Norway, Sweden Everything in the national domain International Internet Preservation Consortium (IIPC) Australia, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Iceland, Italy, Norway, Sweden, The British Library (UK), The Library of Congress (USA) and the Internet Archive (USA)

20 Programs & Research A Library Preservation Challenge ALA Anaheim– June Exposure Importance of maximum exposure Users expectations – users are playing internationally Need web presence to achieve page rank in search engines Growth of harvesting OAIPMH, sitemaps Need to act on two fronts for maximum exposure Feeding external search engines and sites Enriching the metadata at home “Visibility in a way can be seen to be indispensable in the survival of the item”…Werner Schwartz

21 Programs & Research A Library Preservation Challenge ALA Anaheim– June Catalogue and Union catalogues Cataloguing backlogs still real NUKAT in Poland – just celebrated 1 million records University of Warsaw Bavarian State Library finished retrospective cataloguing 2004 “Millions of digital documents and resources are uncatalogued and even unmapped and difficult to retrieve” Michael Gorman

22 Programs & Research A Library Preservation Challenge ALA Anaheim– June Catalogues becoming richer Supporting improved discovery and exposure Replacing the browsing experience Supporting selection Learning from online shopping experience (Amazon) Importance of user contribution Need large sites to attract users Importance of data mining rather than data crafting Scalability

23 Programs & Research A Library Preservation Challenge ALA Anaheim– June VIAF links

24 Programs & Research A Library Preservation Challenge ALA Anaheim– June Evaluative information Reading lists Ester (Estonia) BibSys Bibliotek.dk Statistics Bibliotek.dk COBISS – Slovenian “Best Read Books” Over 70,000 lists

25 Programs & Research A Library Preservation Challenge ALA Anaheim– June Exposure of Library Resources End User interfaces to Union catalogues - examples NUKAT SUDOC GBV Bibliotek.dk BibSys Libris COBISS Ester

26 Programs & Research A Library Preservation Challenge ALA Anaheim– June The same copy can be retrieved from: The Royal Library of the Netherlands web site: The Royal Library of the Netherlands web site: The Dutch National Union Catalogue web site: The Dutch National Union Catalogue web site: The European Library web site: The European Library web site: WorldCat: WorldCat: Google Books: Google Books:

27 Programs & Research A Library Preservation Challenge ALA Anaheim– June WorldCat - Statistics Bibliographic records: Holdings: Articles: 54+ million (Medline, ERIC, GPO, British Library, ArticleFirst) New – agreements with H. W. Wilson et MLA Libraries: National catalogues loaded: > 40 Australia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Poland, Sweden, United Kingdom public libraries ++

28 Programs & Research A Library Preservation Challenge ALA Anaheim– June WorldCat: Visits per month

29 Programs & Research A Library Preservation Challenge ALA Anaheim– June Provenance and destination 2007: 110 millions 1 million referrals per month from Google Book Search

30 Programs & Research A Library Preservation Challenge ALA Anaheim– June Regional & National Management of the collective collection Selection, weeding, claiming Provision of delivery services Global physical delivery architecture Global Exposure of collections bibliographic metadata, holdings, issue level holdings statistics reference query and answer pairs Exposure of services Management of exposure data Links, mining, user contribution Curation of rare & priceless Electronic delivery architecture

31 Programs & Research A Library Preservation Challenge ALA Anaheim– June Fundamental Questions What are the responses to these challenges / problems? Are they adequate in themselves? Does the ensemble make coherent sense? ? ? ? ? Collective physical stores and services  Digitisation  Collective digital stores Beyond simple storage to true preservation  Exposure 

32 Programs & Research A Library Preservation Challenge ALA Anaheim– June “..Electronic enterprises come and go. Research libraries last for centuries. Better to fortify them than to declare them obsolete, because obsolescence is built into the electronic media..” Robert Darnton New York review of books 55, no. 10 June

33 Programs & Research A Library Preservation Challenge ALA Anaheim– June Thank you

34 Programs & Research A Library Preservation Challenge ALA Anaheim– June Collection Analysis Compare collection – globally or with selected libraries By subject, classification, format, publication date range Supports re-location, purchase, digitisation decisions

35 Programs & Research A Library Preservation Challenge ALA Anaheim– June Registries of digital content “Catalogue information will increase the use of digitised works and their chance to be preserved”…Werner Schwartz OCLC / DLF Registry of digital Masters Agreement with LIBER / CERL – Consortium of European Research Libraries Scope of harvesting in Europe is still insufficient Data not in compliance with DLF guidelines – being converted


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