Presentation on theme: "SLIS Cradle seminar Chapel Hill, 20 March 2015 Javier Hernandez-Ros"— Presentation transcript:
1Digitisation, on-line access and digital preservation of Cultural Heritage in Europe SLIS Cradle seminarChapel Hill, 20 March 2015Javier Hernandez-RosEU Fellow at UNC European Commission – Head of Creativity unit
2A defining challenge"The digitisation, digital preservation and provision of meaningful access to Europe’s vast treasures of cultural heritage is one of the defining challenges for our generation. It is the fuel which will help power smart, sustainable growth, founded in the Enlightenment ideals that created the European Union.“Neelie Kroes, VP European CommissionEnlightenment Ideals1. Human autonomy is the means and end of Enlightenment2. The importance of reason:Freedom means being able to think rationally for yourself.Reason will lead us to the truth.3. Enlightenment is universal: All humans are equal by nature.4. Progress Human history is the story of progress in the human condition.5. Secularism: Religion and politics should be separated. One’s method of worship should be a private matter.6. The centrality of economics to politics: A society’s well-being depends on how its economy is structured.7. The ideal of popular government: People are capable of ruling themselves. The aristocracy is not the only class that deserves to rule.
4Film heritage: premium content Only 1.5% of the 1 million hours of European film heritage holdings have actually been digitisedAnd a large part of it not accessible on-line due to copyright rules (access on dedicated premises)
5Born digital contentWeb sites, electronic journals, blogs, tweets, etc.Very fragile resourcesRaw material for future historiansThe who, what and how of preserving these resourcesDark or accessible archives?
6Google rocked the boat in 2005 Google Books: 10 years already…Digitisation work had been done by memory organisations at snail pace since the 1990sMicrosoft quit digitisation work in 2007Google YES, but not only…Digitisation: political priority, a bit more fundingEC has been active in policy, legislation (orphan works), funding, coordination
7Challenges in 2005… …and partly still today (1) Organisational: Who does what? What do we digitise? How do we share it on line? - Digital Heritage NCWho preserves digital born content? What do we preserve?Financial: Who pays? Very little private funds in the EU. Foundations? PPPs: partnerships with Google? Monetise (public domain) content? Cultural data as an infrastructure. Sustainability?
8Challenges in 2005… …and greatly still today (2) Legal:Copyright, orphan works, out of print works – 20th century dark holeSharing data: open data, CC licences, public domain content under licenses (museums)Web archiving, preservation, dark archivesTechnical:Do we have the methodologies and technologies?Standards, metadata, LOD
9EC Actions: Policy, Legislation, Funding Recommendations to Member States (guidance):on the digitisation and online accessibility of cultural material and digital preservation- on Film HeritageDirective on the Re-use of Public Sector Information (PSI)Open Data PolicyR&I programmesStructural (regional) fundsThe objective of ENUMERATE is to create a reliable baseline of statistical data about digitization, digital preservation and online access to cultural heritage in Europe.ENUMERATE builds on the results of the NUMERIC project ( ). This was a ground breaking initiative to create a framework for the gathering of statistical data on digital cultural heritage. ENUMERATE will improve and refine the methodology from NUMERIC and will bring the data online for re-use.
10Digital culture ecosystem -Supply (1) Very much supply driven: Memory organisations, national/regional/local initiatives (Digital Heritage NC), digital humanities initiativesLittle private money (Google, Newspapers.com, Proquest, Ancestry.com, early photography archives)UGC: stories of people + memory organisations content = Europeana 1914/18,
11Digital culture ecosystem -Supply (2) Portals and APIsPlatforms and aggregators: Wikicommons, FlickrCommons, Internet Archive, Europeana/DPLA, World digital library, Pinterest, Google Art, Artstore
12Trends in supply Open data (NGA, Rijksmuseum), but not all… Small ammounts when monetising collectionsDigitisation not enough – Curation, apps, dissem.Facilitate reuse: authoring tools, hackathons, prizes, start-upsEngagement: UGC – Europeana , LoCCooperation with internet platforms/projects: multipliers
13Digital culture ecosystem - Demand Use and Reuse (apps of all sorts, teaching material, storytelling, AR/VR, virtual museums)Prime content vs long tailDemand sectors: education & culture, leisure, art lovers, research (long tail, TDM), cultural tourism, creative industries, cultural gamesCultural content has great demand (Wikipedia web site n° 7 in the world), huge visibilityCultural tourism in Europe accounts for 40%
14In one of her weekly podcast at the end of May, German Chancellor Angela Merkel talked to historian Frank Drauschke about the Europeana Awareness First World War-related project Europeana In the interview, she discussed the importance of such projects that invite people to participate in Europe´s history.Europeana is based on an initiative at the University of Oxford where people across Britain were asked to bring family letters, photographs and keepsakes from the War to be digitised. The success of the idea – which became the Great War Archive – has encouraged Europeana, Europe's digital archive, library and museum, to bring other national institutions across Europe into an alliance with Oxford University. The collaboration brings European stories online alongside their British, German, Slovenian, Luxembourgian, Irish, etc. counterparts in a World War One stories collection.
15The Market placeGreat presence of non profit initiatives: Wikipedia, Google Books, Google Art, Khan Academy – smart history, Learning with the LoC..Free access to culture heritageOpen data: positive effect (on everything)Commercial reuse: documentaries, films, art publishers, publicity, fashion…Apps: Daily art, museum apps, Google Trip
16Business models Non profit projects make it difficult for businesses Hackathons end at Lab productsVirtual museums, AR applications, apps paid by cultural institutions.Some publicity paid apps (Google Trip)Maintsreaming apps in established businesses (museums visitors, cultural visits)?No Spotify for art …
17EU Fellow at UNC: Impact of digitisation projects Cultural, social and economic impactDifficult to measureAccess indicators: web traffic, impressions in other platforms (Wikipedia, Facebook, Pinterest, FlickrCommons, Google Art, Khan Academy…),Reuse indicators: downloads, licensesEconomic impact in creative industries, learning/education, tourism, cultural apps: case studies
18Digital culture / Cultural heritage online Current funding programmes Further InformationDigital culture / Cultural heritage onlineDigital Culture, Recommendation on Digitisation and MSEGFilm Heritagehttps://ec.europa.eu/digital-agenda/en/protection-film-heritageEuropeanaCurrent funding programmesConnecting Europe Facility (CEF)Horizon 2020In conclusion:Policy & coordination feed into funding activitiesCall upon group for help with definition of future activitiesPromote activities in support of digital culture through programme committees
19Past funding programmes Further InformationPast funding programmesFP7Funded projectsICT Policy Support Programme (ICT PSP)Follow us on TwitterIn conclusion:Policy & coordination feed into funding activitiesCall upon group for help with definition of future activitiesPromote activities in support of digital culture through programme committees