Presentation on theme: "1 Nikolai Bobylev, PhD, Ian Jefferson, PhD INTEGRATION OF URBAN PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE INTO LAND USE GOVERNANCE s:"— Presentation transcript:
1 Nikolai Bobylev, PhD, Ian Jefferson, PhD INTEGRATION OF URBAN PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE INTO LAND USE GOVERNANCE s:
2 -Contemporary challenges: MDGs and cities‘; Urbanisation, sprawl, and land cover change -Urban Physical Infrastructure state of the art -Urban Physical Infrastructure and the Global Environmental Change -Land Use Governance and Urban Physical Infrastructure: a Concept of Reactive and Proactive Interaction with a City -Examples: transport, climate, ecosystem services -Policy recommendations Overview
3 UN Millennium Development Goals Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability Target 9: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs and reverse the loss of environmental resources Post-2015 Development Agenda New Goal: Address Global Environmental Change New Goal: Ensure sustainable Urbanization A Target : Create liveable human settlements A Target : Preserve natural landscapes and ecosystems (as much as possible) MDGs and Post-2015 Development Agenda
4 Facts = Land cover change! source: Bobylev & Jefferson, Sustainable Infrastructure for Resilient Urban Environments (SIRUE) 2012 – 2015 Data: Goldewijk K. and Van Drecht G., 2006; OECD 2008, Angel et al, 2005 *tolerances: built-up area equals urban area; OECD countries equals developed equals industrialised countries. Global Environmental Change: Climate + urbanization+ biodiversity…..
5 source: Bobylev & Jefferson, Sustainable Infrastructure for Resilient Urban Environments (SIRUE) 2012 – 2015 Calculated using data from: China Urban Development Report, 2010; He et al, 2012; UN-Habitat, 2011; Angel et al, 2005; UN-Habitat, *tolerances: built-up area equals urban area, excluding major green areas and water bodies; OECD countries equals to (1) developed (2) industrialised countries; data for China is for the years , data for the urban population is for the years , data for urban population density is for the years 1990 – 2000, the rest data is for Global Environmental Change: Climate + urbanization+ biodiversity….. Policy = Urban sprawl? A Compact city?
6 Infrastructure: transport, resource supply networks, waste management, civil defence, other Urban Physical Infrastructure Challenges – fit for purpose, upgrade, modernize
7 Source: OECD (2011) Strategic Transport Infrastructure Needs to OECD Futures Project on Transcontinental Infrastructure Needs to 2030/50. Global Infrastructure Needs – projections
Global growth by 2030, % data sources: population (UN, 2007); area (Angel et al, 2005); infrastructure (OECD, 2006) 8 Global [Urban Physical] Infrastructure Challenges – not enough, not catching up with development
9 Definitions: Urban Physical Infrastructure (UPI) - a set of artificial structures interconnected physically or functionally UPI includes physical objects like roads, bridges, sewerage, flood protection schemes, energy networks; UPI is one of the major assets of a city in terms of capital investment and critical services provisioning. Urban Physical Infrastructure
10 Land-use transitions source: DeFries et al 2004 A sequence of different land-use regimes that may be experienced within a given region over time: from presettlement natural vegetation to frontier clearing, then to subsistence agriculture and small-scale farms, and finally to intensive agriculture, urban areas, and protected recreational lands. Urban Physical Infrastructure and the Global Environmental Change
Soil - vegetation Groundwater aquifer Pre-settlementVillage & towncityUrban agglomeration Motor-rail transport Utility lines Soil-vegetation, paved surface Soil - vegetation Groundwater aquifer Utility lines Soil-vegetation, paved surface Motor-rail transport Brown fields- contaminated soils Groundwater aquifer Urban Underground Space (UUS) use transitions Urban Physical Infrastructure and the Global Environmental Change Bobylev & Jefferson, 2014
12 Governance - an umbrella term to aggregate systems of formal and informal rules, and actor-networks, including government, industry, and civil society. Actors in urban development and UPI: (1)government via policy, laws, norms, and regulations (2)investors via promoting and financing certain projects in specific areas (3)interest-groups: e.g. environmental movements (4)self-regulatory professional organizations, ex-officio representing e.g. specific industrial sectors (5)businesses, usually having specific interest in specific areas or sectors (6)individuals, including top decision-makers and celebrities UPI Governance
13 Urban Underground Infrastructure (UUI) state of the art: UUI has been viewed only as a service provider UUS actors are not at all or indirectly involved in urban development UUI comes to a consideration at late stages of urban planning process UUI is lagging behind in urban development The result – deficiencies in provisioning of urban services UPI Governance – example: UPI UUS case
14 UPI Governance Lack of critical infrastructure – deficiencies in provisioning of urban services Example: lack of emergency response infrastructure in London and Saint Petersburg
(2) Planning infrastructure implements policies e.g. highwayuse of private car, commercial development in the surrounding area 15 (1) City needs infrastructure provides services e.g. traffic congestion highway UPI interaction with urban development: Reactive - UPI is implemented as a response to city needs. Proactive - urban development follows UPI.
UPI interaction with urban development: Reactive - UPI is implemented as a response to city needs. Proactive - urban development follows UPI. 16 UPI Governance
Governing and land use and urban development: UPI early stage involvement for big decisions An example: which spatial structure to choose? Do we need to choose? – yes to some extent (extent of planning) Goals: minimizing CO 2, maintaining high environmental quality, proximity of facilities … Infrastructure is one of a number of policy instruments 17 UPI Governance
UPI Governance – vision, strategy, and recommendations ??? On-going research and perspectives: The role of professional community is important; Vision behind UPI and planning (global planning?) 18 UPI Governance + policy needs
19 UPI faces increasing pressures under Global Environmental Change; UPI requires adaptation; Yet it can be an effective policy and planning tool itself, which has not been taken into account properly in the past; Governance approach and inclusion broader interests groups base into decision making on UPI can be helpful; Proactive UPI planning can be used to address problems of sustainable land use and ecosystem/infrastructure services provisioning Policy Summary
Projects: Bobylev & Jefferson: Sustainable Infrastructure for Resilient Urban Environments (SIRUE) 2012 – European Comission FP7 PIIF-GA Bobylev & Parriaux: SNSF Scientific &Technological Cooperation Programme Switzerland- Russia, Ecole polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne, Publications: Bobylev N, Hunt DVL, Jefferson I, Rogers CDF, (2013) Sustainable Infrastructure for Resilient Urban Environments. Published by Research Publishing. pp. 906 – 917. Bobylev, N (2013) Urban physical infrastructure adaptation to climate change. In: J.B. Saulnier and M.D. Varella (eds.), Global Change, Energy Issues and Regulation Policies, Springer. Sterling, R., Admiraal, H., Bobylev, N., Parker, H., Godard, J.P., Vähäaho, I., Rogers, C.D.F., Shi, X., Hanamura T. (2012) Sustainability Issues for Underground Space in Urban Areas. Proceedings of the ICE - Urban Design and Planning, 32p. DOI: /udap Bobylev, Nikolai (2009) Mainstreaming Sustainable Development into a City’s Master Plan: a Case of Urban Underground Space Use. Land Use Policy, Elsevier. Photo credits: Nikolai Bobylev references