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Reference ontologies for manufacturing Bob Young - R Young, N Hastilow, M Imran, N Chungoora Z Usman and A-F Cutting-Decelle.

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Presentation on theme: "Reference ontologies for manufacturing Bob Young - R Young, N Hastilow, M Imran, N Chungoora Z Usman and A-F Cutting-Decelle."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reference ontologies for manufacturing Bob Young - R Young, N Hastilow, M Imran, N Chungoora Z Usman and A-F Cutting-Decelle

2 Outline Background - lots of useful standards Need for multiple standards across manufacturing Problems in interoperability across standards The IMKS project and the use of formal semantics Towards a reference ontology for manufacture

3 Global Manufacture Key areas: Modelling Manufacturing Capability Product Lifecycle Management Knowledge Sharing and Reuse Integration and Inter- operability Design for Manufacture Concurrent Engineering Manufacturing Planning Supply Chain Capability Information & Knowledge Infrastructures for Manufacture ICT in Manufacturing – background to our work at Loughborough University Manufacturing Industries: Aerospace Automotive Machine tools Electrical machines Injection moulding Food Manufacturing Industries: Aerospace Automotive Machine tools Electrical machines Injection moulding Food

4 Lots of useful standards Focus mainly on ISO TC 184 SC4 – “Industrial data” Examples of useful standards – ISO STEP overview – ISO machining features – ISO Product Lifecycle Support – ISO Parts Library – ISO MANDATE – ISO PSL – ………………..

5 STEP-ISO ISO PLIB ISO PLIB ISO PSL STEP NC ISO ISO AP239- PLCS ISO MANDATE ISO MANDATE STEP-ISO AP224 Feature Based Manufacturing I SO Cutting Tool Standard

6 Issues in using multiple ISO Standards for information sharing Multiple Interpretations of nominally the same concept Multiple definitions of the same term

7 Example: multiple interpretations from PRODUCT DEFINITION (ISO ) (uses definition from ISO ) ”a thing or substance produced by a natural or artificial process” e.g.: Product definition from (ISO 10303_1) ENTITY Product ABSTRACT SUPERTYPE OF (ONEOF (Breakdown, Breakdown_element, Document, Interface_connector, Interface_specification, Part, Requirement, Slot)); id : STRING; name : STRING; description : OPTIONAL STRING;BreakdownBreakdown_elementDocumentInterface_connectorInterface_specificationPartRequirementSlot END_ENTITY; from PLCS Part-439 (ISO ) (uses definition from ISO )

8 Multiple definitions for the same term from MACHINING FEATURE (ISO 10303_224) “A Part is a material or functional element that is intended to constitute a component of different products” from PLIB (ISO 13584_1) “A Part is the physical item which is intended to be produced through the manufacturing process. Each Part may be one of the following: Manufactured_assembly, or Single_piece_part. The data associated with a Part are the following: — manufacture_authorization; — manufactured_by_organization; — manufactured_by_person; — owned_by_organization; — owned_by_person; — part_description; — part_id; — part_name; — part_revision_id; — physical_form; — property_characteristics; — quantity_ordered; — security_classification. ” Example: Part

9 Resource (ISO ; ISO ): Any device, tool and means, except raw material and final product components, at the disposal of the enterprise to produce goods or services. This definition includes ISO definition. Resource (ISO ): Something that may be described in terms of a behavior, a capability, or a performance measure that is pertinent to the process. Resource (ISO 15704): An enterprise entity that provides some or all of the capabilities required by the execution of an enterprise activity and/or business process. Michel, J.J., Terminology extracted from some manufacturing and modelling related standards. CEN/TC 310 N1119R2. Problem – multiple standards with multiple semantics

10 ISO TC184/SC4 Future architecture Rotterdam SC4 recognise need for formal ontologies I ndustrial D ata I ntegrated O ntologies and M odels

11 ISO TC184/SC4 Future architecture Rotterdam definitions of the concepts data model schemas data model schemas information flows process components process components process components ARM schemas analyse scope information flows AIM/MIM schemas analysis information requirements defines the data about the concepts needed to fulfil the information requirements data model schemas data model schemas implementation specification domain knowledgedomain knowledge in AAM mapping domain knowledge as reference data reference data Current ISO approach

12 ISO TC184/SC4 Future architecture Rotterdam reference data knowledge of the concepts reference data definitions of the concepts data model schemas data model schemas information flows process components process components process components definitions of the concepts analyse scope information flows data model schemas analysis information requirements defines the data about the concepts needed to fulfil the information requirements reference data data model schemas data model schemas implementation specification domain knowledge knowledge of the concepts (an ontology) A part of the IDIOM approach

13 Common Concepts Knowledge Verification Formally defined core- concepts i.e. using logic statements Specialised domain Concepts Specialised domain concepts Common KB Specialised KB Concept underlying a Manufacturing Reference Ontology (from IMKS)

14 Formal definitions using a Common Logic base - KFL (=> (Core.Resource ?r) (exists (?c) (and (Core.Capability ?c) (Core.hasCapability ?r ?c)))) :IC soft "Every resource may have some capability." (=> (Core.Resource ?r) (exists (?e) (and (Core.Enterprise ?e) (Core.isHeldBy ?r ?e)))) :IC soft "Every resource may be held by some enterprise." (=> (Core.Resource ?r) (exists (?p) (and (Core.Process ?p) (Core.isUsedBy ?r ?p)))) :IC soft "Every resource may be used by some process." Cannot be misinterpreted Can be used to build new ‘specialisations’ to suit specific requirements Inferences can be made based on the logic

15 Ontology Specialisation Time The level of compliance of new systems or new system versions can be checked

16 Reference ontology aspects explored to date Design for machining Design for assembly Interoperability compliance across manufacturing systems

17 The IMKS project developed a proof of concept formal ontology related to sharing knowledge across product design and machining

18 The concept extended across design for assembly and assembly planning

19 The concept extended to manufacturing systems interoperability

20 Formalisms specified in KFL and exploited in HIGHFLEET’s XKS environment Each of the sets of concepts illustrated in these figures have been formally specified in KFL They have been implemented and used in knowledge sharing and interoperability validation experiments.

21 (=> (Feature ?f) (exists(?AOI) (and (AttributeOfInterest ?AOI) (hasAttributeOfInterest ?f ?AOI)))) :IC hard "Every feature has an Attribute of Interest (=> (FormFeature ?ffeature) (exists (?form) (and (Form ?form) (FormFeature ?ffeature) (hasAttributeOfInterest ?ffeature ?form)))) :IC hard "A Form exist as an Attribute of Interest for a FormFeature” (=> (DesignFeature ?df) ((exists(?function) (and (Function ?function) (hasAttributeOfInterest ?df ?function))))) :IC hard "A function exists for a DesignFeature" (=> (ProductionFeature ?Turningf) (exists (?mfgmethod) (and (ManufacturingMethod ?manufacturingmethod) (hasAttributeOfInterest ?Turningf ?mfgmethod)))) :IC hard "ManufacturingMethod exists for every Productionfeature" An Example - Feature Specialisations in Common Logic

22 The FLEXINET Concept – a new FP7 FoF project in negotiation

23 Conclusions The approach is showing significant potential There is much still to be done The approach we have taken is pragmatic –There will be a need at some point for an agreed set of underlying foundation concepts –As formal semantic languages develop there will be a need for them to remain compatible There will be a balance to be found between the benefits of enabling interoperability and the costs and constraints of designing formally constrained semantic systems

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