Presentation on theme: "1 EU FP7 Programme Gasera, University of Turku and VTT developing a MEMS based gas sensor in an EU project Pentti Karioja, VTT Technical Research Centre."— Presentation transcript:
1 EU FP7 Programme Gasera, University of Turku and VTT developing a MEMS based gas sensor in an EU project Pentti Karioja, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Enabling technologies - Technology platforms Lighting & Displays Life Sciences Process INSTR Optical Comm. & processing Safety & Security Energy & Environment 11/16/2009 Design & characterization: 3D design & integration Optics Thermal Mgt Electronics Integrated optics Optical measurement & sensor technologies: spectroscopy, machine vision, & imaging, interferometry etc. Polymer Integration: Multi-layer lamination Assembled foil over-molding Nanoimprint Printing technologies: R2R, UV imprinting, printing processes, materials, devices Precision mechanics 3D mechanical design & construction 3D optics design 3D System-in-Package & Integration: Substrates Assembly Hermetic sealing Thermal management Si technology: MEMS/MOEMS SOI waveguides Application Component / device System / module
Background: Photoacoustic spectroscopy 4 Photoacoustic effect was discovered in 1880 by Alexander Graham Bell The theoretical limitations of this technology are far from what has been achieved with any technology today The full potential has not been reached due to the use of conventional microphones in sensing the pressure waves. Photoacoustic spectroscopy is based on the absorption of light leading to the local warming of the absorbing volume element. The subsequent expansion of the volume element generates a pressure wave proportional to the absorbed energy, which can be detected via a pressure detector.
Background: Cantilever sensor with optical readout  J. Kauppinen, K. Wilcken, I. Kauppinen, and V. Koskinen, “High sensitivity in gas analysis with photoacoustic detection,” Microchem. J. 76, (2004). 5 Finnish SME Gasera has developed a novel MEMS cantilever approach where the displacement is 100 that of microphone membrane , Cantilever sensor is coupled with interferometric measurement of the displacement, Below picometer ( ) displacement can be detected with the optical readout, Theoretical predictions indicate cantilever based PA cell can be miniaturized with sensitivity up to three orders of magnitude over the prior art.
Background: Differential photoacoustic measurement Silicon cantilever microphone is placed in a two- chamber differential gas cell. The differential PA cell operates as a differential IR detector for optical absorption signals propagating through the measurement and reference path. Pressure difference modulation between the chambers is monitored by probing the cantilever movement with an optical interferometer. Allows for open-path and flow-through detection of gases. 6
Benefits of the cantilever enhanced differential PA sensor The detection limit is independent on the size of the gas cell which gives potential for miniaturization. The novel cantilever microphone provides high sensitivity from short absorption path length and highly linear concentration response over a wide dynamic measurement range. Low detection limits can be reached with low power light source, The gas inside the differential cell acts like an optical filter (so-called gas correlation method) providing good selectivity without optical filters or spectrograph. 7
Compact, rugged gas sensor providing significant improvement in sensitivity: Sensor volume target: 5 cm 3 Analysis response time 100 ms Dynamic range > Temperature range: C to C Cost of goods: €100 in high volume production Sensors modular structure allows it to be applicable to a wide range of gases including: CH 4, CO 2, CO, NH 3, … Applications including: leak detection, safety, homeland security and air quality. MINIGAS targets 8
MINIGAS technology roadmap volume < 5 cm 3 9 integrated optic chip 19” rack mount analyzer Commercial gas analyzer EU-project Commercialized gas sensor
Technology portfolio of sensor subsystems IR LEDs with customized wavelengths and performance Silicon MEMS cantilever pressure sensor Spatial read-out interferometer Low Temperature co-fired Ceramics (LTCC) photoacoustic measurement cell On-board drive, detection and readout electronics 10
Infrared Light Emitting Diodes InAs and InAsSb based diode structures have been processed into flip-chip devices with active areas sized by 300 μm and reflective contacts by a multistage wet photolithography method. LEDs are equipped with Si lenses with shape close to hyperhemisphere attached to the contact free surface through the use of high reflective index glue. 11
Silicon MEMS cantilever 12 mask layout
Spatial Interferometer for cantilever readout 13 Based on creating interference by wave- front splitting in order to avoid expensive beam splitting optics. High temperature stability is achieved by using the cantilever frame as the reference mirror. Initial tolerance analysis estimates 0.1 mm positioning accuracy and 0.5 degrees for angular alignment accuracy as the tightest requirement. Performance goal: 1.0 pm displacement sensitivity.
LTCC photoacoustic measurement cell 14 Photoacoustic cell chamber dimensions: 2.5 2.5 10.0 mm The vertical cavity is laminated using a silicone insert, Cells are drilled at the laminated stage before the co-fire, Reflective metal coating by thick film coating, Sapphire windows are sealed with solder glass paste, The He-leak rate for the sealed modules was <2.0 ×10-9 atm×cm 3 /s, which fulfills the requirements for the leak rate according MIL- STD 883.
Predicted performance 15
16 First experiments using sensor platform Portable methane sensor demonstrator based on LTCC differential photo acoustic cell and silicon cantilever The assembled sensor fitted in a volume of 40 mm x 40 mm x 35 mm. The achieved differential pressure signal was proportional to gas concentration in the open measurement path of gas flow. The sensitivity of the first prototype was 300 ppm for methane with 1 s response time. Sensitivity is increased to 30 ppm, when response time of 100 s is used.