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QB50 Project in response to

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1 QB50 Project in response to
FP7 Space 2010 call “Facilitating access to space for small scale missions” J. Muylaert, C. O. Asma, R. Reinhard von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics Rhode-Saint-Genèse (Brussels) SEMWO November 16-18, 2011 Vilnius, Lithuania

2 QB50 - THE IDEA An international network of 50 double CubeSats for multi-point, in-situ, long-duration measurements in the lower thermosphere and for re-entry research A network of 50 double CubeSats sequentially deployed (1 CubeSat every orbit) Initial altitude: 320 km (circular orbit, i=79°) Downlink using the Global Educational Network for Satellite Operations (GENSO)

3 QB50 – Studying Lower Thermosphere
A network of 50 CubeSats in the lower thermosphere compared to networks in higher orbits has the following advantages: The lifetime of a CubeSat in the envisaged low-Earth orbit will only be three months, i.e. much less than the 25 years stipulated by international requirements related to space debris A low-Earth orbit allows high data rates because of the short communication distances involved In their low-Earth orbits, the CubeSats will be below the Earth’s radiation belts, which is very important because CubeSats use low-cost Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components The residual atmosphere at these altitudes would help the CubeSats to scan lower altitudes without onboard propulsion and also to achieve a stable attitude The orbit of the International Space Station (ISS) is usually maintained between 335 km (perigee) and 400 km (apogee). If a network of many CubeSats is launched into an orbit that is above that of the ISS there is a danger of collision with the ISS when the orbits of the CubeSats decay due to atmospheric drag. If the initial orbit of the CubeSats is below 330 km there is no danger of collision. On all other missions CubeSats are a secondary payload, on QB50 the CubeSats are the primary payload.

4 On a Double CubeSat (10 x 10 x 20 cm3):
QB50 - THE IDEA On a Double CubeSat (10 x 10 x 20 cm3): Science Unit: Lower Thermosphere Measurements Sensors to be selected by a Working Group Standard sensors for all CubeSats ISIS 2U Functional Unit: Power, CPU, Telecommunication Optional Technology or Science Package Universities are free to design the functional unit

5 QB50 – CubeSat Community 81 Letters of Intent 2 Australia 3 Austria
4 Belgium 1 Brazil 1 Czech Republic 3 Canada 1 Chile 8 China 2 Denmark 1 Estonia 1 Ethiopia 1 Finland 3 France 7 Germany 2 Greece 1 Hungary 1 India 1 Iran 2 Ireland 2 Israel 2 Italy 1 Lithuania 1 Netherlands 1 Norway 5 Peru 1 Portugal 1 Russia 1 Singapore 1 Slovakia 2 South Korea 1 Spain 1 Sweden 1 Taiwan 2 Turkey 4 United Kingdom 8 USA 1 Vietnam 81 Letters of Intent

6 WORK BREAKDOWN – Tasks 1, 2, 3 See separate slide See separate slide
Management Task 1 VKI Project management WG & AC Meetings Workshops & Dissemination Europe, Middle East, Afr CSs Quality Assurance ASTRIUM North & South American CSs STANFORD Asian CSs NPU Mission Analysis Task 2 Mission Requirements ISIS Deployment Strategy Orbital Dynamics SSC ADCS & GPS Mission Control EPFL Launcher Task 3 Science & I. O. D. Task 4 Operations Task 5 Ground Stations & Comms BIRA Data Proc & Archiving C. See separate slide See separate slide

7 WORK BREAKDOWN – Task 3 Launcher Task 3 Launcher Programmatics VKI/SRC
QA, PA ASTRIUM SHTIL 2.1 Launcher and Operations SRC Launcher Interface ISIS Launch campaign Payload Bay Programmatics VKI M. A. I. T. Deployment System Design

8 WORK BREAKDOWN – Task 4 Science & I. O. D. Task 4 Atmospheric Science
VKI System Engineering SSC Sensor selection and procurement MSSL Atmospheric Models Measurement techniques IAP In Orbit Technology Demonstration Atmospheric Re-Entry InflateSail Gossamer SolarSail Demonstration DLR Formation Flight TU-DELFT

9 Advisory Structure

10 Sensor Selection Working Group
Sensors reviewed: Accelerometer Energetic Particle Sensors FIPEX (oxygen sensor) GPS Ion Mass Spectrometer Langmuir Probe Laser Reflector Magnetometer Neutral Mass Spectrometer Spherical EUV and Plasma Spectrometer (SEPS) Thermal Sensors (Incl. Bolometric Oscillation Sensor) Wind Ion Neutral Composition Suite (WINCS - Armada) Information gathered for each sensor: Science case Description Performance Mass Power Data rate Operations and Commanding Special requirements Heritage (TRL) Cost (development and per unit) Development schedule

11 Sensor Selection Working Group
CubeSat Configuration Spacecraft resources preclude accommodating all sensors on all CubeSats Present sensor budget need to be increased for a scientifically compelling payload Minimum baseline would be: 10 x FIPEX+T+LR; 10 x NMS+T+LR; 10 x LP+T+LR; x IMS+T+LR Proposed baseline would be: 20 x [FIPEX, NMS, Thermal, Laser Reflector] 20 x [Langmuir Probe, IMS, Thermal, Laser Reflector]

12 QB50 – Orbital Dynamics To be determined:
Initial orbital altitude to ensure minimum lifetime of 3 months Separation speed (present assumption in the range 1 to 5 m/s) Should the CubeSats be deployed in flight direction, anti-flight direction, upward, downward, east or west direction? Deployment sequence (1 CubeSat per orbit or 1 CubeSat every 2 or 3 orbits?) Which atmospheric models should be used (present assumption several different models) Which trajectory simulation software should be used? Which drag coefficient should be used (probably a range of coefficients) These questions will be addressed by the Orbital Dynamics Working Group (ODWG)

13 Importance of Attitude Stability

14 Lifetime Prediction (h0 = 320 km)

15 Launch Vehicle Shtil-1 Shtil-2.1 The Shtil -1 was used to launch :
TUBSAT-N (8kg) and TUBSAT-N1(3kg) nanosatellites into a 400x776 km orbit on 7 July 1998 Kompass-2 satellite (77kg) into a 402x525km orbit on 26 May 2006 On the Shtil-1, the payload is placed inside a special container which is custom designed and mounted next to the third stage engine nozzle. The Shtil-2.1 is an improved version of the Shtil-1 where the payload is accommodated inside a fairing on top of the third stage The Shtil-2.1 is fully developed and hardware has been built and tested Shtil-1 Shtil-2.1 15

16 QB50 – Launching & Deployment

17 QB50 – Launching & Deployment
Shtil - 2.1

18 QB50 – Launching & Deployment
2014 Precursor flight 2013 Shtil - 2.1

19 Study of platforms and deployers for CubeSats on SHTIL
CubSat containers Launcher telemetry Optional :Solar Sail protective capsule SHTIL

20 Accommodation on Shtil 2.1
(may not be to scale) 20

21 QB50 – CubeSat Accommodation
Batt Lower bay and 3rd stage engine Shtil - 2.1

22 In-Orbit Technology Demonstration
VKI’s Re-Entry CubeSat A modular deployment system for double and triple CubeSats Gossamer-1 Solar Sail demonstration package De-orbiting and debris mitigation by electrodynamic tether Other In-Orbit Demos: End of life analysis, Debris Formation flight Micro-propulsion systems Micro-g experiment InflateSail demonstration mission

23 Inflate-Sail for testing a solar sail with inflatable booms

24 Gossamer-1 Project Solar sail attached to 3rd stage
Solar Sail Deployment Demonstration During the launch, the sail is stowed in a container (45 x 45 x 40 cm3, 15 kg). It remains attached to the third stage (to the deployment system) and uses the battery on board. The solar sail is deployed after all the CubeSats It brings down the Shtil 2.1 3rd stage in 15 days, thereby demonstrating rapid de-orbiting Solar sail attached to 3rd stage sail and boom compartment

25 VKI Re-EntSat – Concept
Atmospheric Re-Entry Flight Data Flight data for Debris/Disintegration Tool (RAMSES) Validation Re-EntSat to survive until ~70 km altitude Light ablative material as thermal shield Temperature & Pressure measurements on the thermal shield Skin friction measurements on the side Temperature field and heat flux estimations De-orbiting techniques using aerodynamic means

26 Formation Flying CubeSats
DelFFI Project: with triple CubeSats “Delta” and “Phi” Delft University of Technology intends to provide two triple-unit Cubesats, both being equipped with a highly miniaturized propulsion system in addition to the standard science payload. This allows for a coordinated formation flying of these two satellites using baselines, which can be realized, maintained and adjusted during the mission based on scientific and technological needs. The position of the satellite will be determined by GPS. The inter-satellite communication will be realized by ground stations Therefore, formation flight will be possible at any distance

27 Call for CubeSat Proposals
The Call for Proposals will be issued on the QB50 web site on 1 December 2011 Deadline for submission of proposals to VKI 15 January 2011 Proposal evaluation and clarification period 15 Jan – 20 Feb 2012 Page limit: 15 pages - incl. figures, tables, references - excl. cover page, Table of Contents Annexes for - Cost section (detailed and realistic cost breakdown - CubeSat management (organigramme, key personnel) Availability of a ground station is an advantage but not a necessary condition for selection

28 QB50 NEWSLETTER The QB50 Newsletter No.2 (mid September) will have articles on - Status of the QB50 project - Second QB50 Workshop - 4th European CubeSat Symposium - Call for CubeSat Proposals for QB50 - Sensor selection - Ground station network - Frequency allocation - Deployment system - Gossamer-1 - A few articles on special double and triple CubeSats on QB50 for science and technology demonstration If you wish to publish a short article (5-20 lines) in the QB50 Newsletter contact the Editor Cem O. Asma, also if you wish to subscribe or unsubscribe to the Newsletter FP7QB50

29 Important Dates: 30 Oct 2011: Deadline for the submission of abstracts
15 Nov 2011: Notification of acceptance 15 Dec 2011: Publication of the programme and the abstracts 15 Jan 2012: Deadline for online registration 30 Jan-1 Feb 2012: CubeSat Symposium Registration fee: 100 € (this includes 3 lunches and all coffee breaks) CUBESAT SYMPOSIUM

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