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Smerovanie v TCP/IP sieťach. Meno počítača, workgroup, domian Win. domain nie je DNS názov!! Úplne iná služba!

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Presentation on theme: "Smerovanie v TCP/IP sieťach. Meno počítača, workgroup, domian Win. domain nie je DNS názov!! Úplne iná služba!"— Presentation transcript:

1 Smerovanie v TCP/IP sieťach

2 Meno počítača, workgroup, domian Win. domain nie je DNS názov!! Úplne iná služba!

3 IP adresy – 32 bitov

4 IP adresy – 32 bitov

5 IP adresy – prideľovanie Také zde samozřejmě platí zásada jednoznačnosti adres, takže všechny nově připojované sítě musí mít dosud nepoužité adresy. V Internetu proto existuje centrální autorita (konkrétně: DDN Network Information Center, SRI International, 333 Rawenswood Avenue, Menlo Park, California 94025), která se stará o hospodaření s IP adresami, a přiděluje je všem potenciálním zájemcům (přesněji: přiděluje tu část IP adres, která představuje adresu sítě, zatímco zbývající část IP adres si volí žadatel. V našich zeměpisných šířkách však není nutné se pro přidělení IP adresy obracet až do USA. DDN NIC, která adresy spravuje, totiž delegovala svou pravomoc v přidělování IP adres pro oblast ČSFR výpočetnímu centru pražské VŠCHT (Technická 5, Praha 6).

6 Nastavenie IP a Subnet mask

7 Default Gateway obrazne

8

9 Subnet Mask  Vlastná IP:  Subnet Mask:  Moja podsieť:  Ak subnet mask:  Moja podsieť:  Rozhodovanie či sa nachádza cieľová IP v mojej podsieti: cieľ_IP and SubnetMask = my_IP and SubnetMask

10 Smerovacia tabuľka počítača C:\Documents and Settings\Administrator>route print  ========================================================================  Interface List  0x MS TCP Loopback interface0x f ea ec b3 b Marvell Yukon Gigabit Ethernet 10/100/1000Base-T Adapter, Copper RJ-45 - Packet Scheduler Miniport=================================================================  ========================================================================  Active Routes:  Network Destination Netmask Gateway Interface Metric         Default Gateway:  ========================================================================

11 Metrika – priorita pre interface  The following table lists the link speeds and metrics for computers that run Windows XP Service Pack 2. Link SpeedMetric Greater than 200 Mb10 Greater than 80 Mb, and less than or equal to 200 Mb20 Greater than 20 Mb, and less than or equal to 80 Mb25 Greater than 4 Mb, and less than or equal to 20 Mb30 Greater than 500 Kb, and less than or equal to 4 Mb40 Less than or equal to 500 Kb50

12 ARP  Address Resolution Protokol  stará sa o smerovanie paketov v rámci podsiete  využíva MAC adresy sieťových rozhraní (Media Access Control) C:\Documents and Settings\Administrator>arp -a Interface: x2 Interface: x2 Internet Address Physical Address Type Internet Address Physical Address Type d-bc-5a-f3-00 dynamic d-bc-5a-f3-00 dynamic e-0c-3d-c3-27 dynamic e-0c-3d-c3-27 dynamic e dynamic e dynamic d-61-4b-8e-f4 dynamic d-61-4b-8e-f4 dynamic e0-4c-00-ef-ec dynamic e0-4c-00-ef-ec dynamic

13 ARP

14 PING  Zistenie stavu prenosovej cesty k cieľovému uzlu C:\Documents and Settings\Administrator>ping Testovanie dostupnosti s 32 bajtov údajov: Odpoveď od : bajty=32 čas=13 ms TTL=57 Odpoveď od : bajty=32 čas=9 ms TTL=57 Odpoveď od : bajty=32 čas=8 ms TTL=57 Odpoveď od : bajty=32 čas=12 ms TTL=57 Štatistika testovania dostupnosti pre : Pakety: odoslané = 4, prijaté = 4, stratené = 0 (strata 0 ), Pakety: odoslané = 4, prijaté = 4, stratené = 0 (strata 0 ), Približné časy výmeny údajov v milisekundách: minimum = 8ms, maximum = 13ms, priemer = 10ms. minimum = 8ms, maximum = 13ms, priemer = 10ms.

15 Trace Route – sledovanie paketu C:\Documents and Settings\Administrator>tracert  Tracing route to [ ]  over a maximum of 30 hops:  1 1 ms 1 ms 1 ms swr-uvt.tuke.sk [ ]  2 2 ms 2 ms 2 ms  3 1 ms 1 ms 1 ms fw2.tuke.sk [ ]  4 3 ms 2 ms 2 ms TU-Kosice.sanet2.sk [ ]  5 9 ms 8 ms 8 ms CVT-Bratislava.sanet2.sk [ ]  6 9 ms 9 ms 9 ms DialTelecom-gw.six.sk [ ]  7 9 ms 11 ms 9 ms octarine.dialtelecom.sk [ ]  8 15 ms 12 ms 10 ms petitpress-gw.dialtelecom.sk [ ]  9 16 ms 14 ms 13 ms fwaccell.petitpress.sk [ ]  Trace complete.

16 DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

17

18 DHCP - exclude

19 DHCP - reserved

20 DNS – Domain Name Server

21 DNS – Domain Name System voice.kemt.fei.tuke.sk

22 DNS – ako funguje

23 WINS

24 WINS  Short for Windows Internet Naming Service, a system that determines the IP address associated with a particular network computer. This is called name resolution. WINS supports network client and server computers running Windows and can provide name resolution for other computers with special arrangements. Determining the IP address for a computer is a complex process when DHCP servers assign IP addresses dynamically. For example, it is possible for DHCP to assign a different IP address to a client each time the machine logs on to the network. WINS uses a distributed database that is automatically updated with the names of computers currently available and the IP address assigned to each one. IP address network computernetworkcomputers WindowsIPcomputerDHCPIP address network computernetworkcomputers WindowsIPcomputerDHCP  DNS is an alternative system for name resolution suitable for network computers with fixed IP addresses. DNS

25 Hosts a iné  c:\WINDOWS\system32\drivers\etc\hosts lmhosts.sam networks protocol services # This file contains the mappings of IP addresses to host names. Each # entry should be kept on an individual line. The IP address should # be placed in the first column followed by the corresponding host name. # The IP address and the host name should be separated by at least one # space. # # Additionally, comments (such as these) may be inserted on individual # lines or following the machine name denoted by a '#' symbol. # # For example: # # rhino.acme.com # source server # x.acme.com # x client host localhost

26 Proxy server  Zrýchlenie prístupu v pomalých sieťach  uchováva prezreté stránky  umožňuje filtrovať obsah stránok  Cache server, nútené proxy na všetky porty alebo iba na http

27 Proxy server – nastavenie v IE

28 Connection sharing 2000 XP  DHCP server ( x)  NAT server  Gateway ( )

29 Firewall

30 Firewall aplikácie


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