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World Class Communication Skills - Accessible to Everyone CRACKING THE COMPLEXITY CODE To optimise learning.

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Presentation on theme: "World Class Communication Skills - Accessible to Everyone CRACKING THE COMPLEXITY CODE To optimise learning."— Presentation transcript:

1 World Class Communication Skills - Accessible to Everyone CRACKING THE COMPLEXITY CODE To optimise learning

2 World Class Communication Skills - Accessible to Everyone INTRODUCTION

3 BACKGROUND Have you ever been to a really boring or confusing lecture?  Did you learn a lot from these lectures?

4 BACKGROUND But there are probably other lectures which you found really interesting!  And you probably learnt a lot more!

5 BACKGROUND  So what makes the difference?

6 BACKGROUND  So what makes the difference? There are some well known factors The Presenter Subject Matter Presentation Aids Delivery (Style, Pace, Engagement, etc.) A lot has been written about these

7 BACKGROUND For lectures and presentations And for eLearning (and other documents) The Presenter Subject Matter Presentation Aids Delivery (Style, Pace, Engagement, etc.) The Presenter Subject Matter Media Delivery (Style, Pace, Engagement, etc.) There is a lot of commonality

8 ATTENTION The Presenter Subject Matter Media Delivery (Style, Pace, Engagement, etc.) BACKGROUND And there is a key feature that underpins all of these aspects The Presenter Subject Matter Presentation Aids Delivery (Style, Pace, Engagement, etc.)  How much attention is generated THIS IS CRITICAL

9 ATTENTION The Presenter Subject Matter Media Delivery (Style, Pace, Engagement, etc.) BACKGROUND  Because attention is a primary key to learning The Presenter Subject Matter Presentation Aids Delivery (Style, Pace, Engagement, etc.) Source: Oades & Sartory, 1997; Choi, Seitz & Watanabe, 2009

10 ATTENTION COMPLEXITY The Presenter Subject Matter Media Delivery (Style, Pace, Engagement, etc.) BACKGROUND  And a key factor in creating attention is complexity (which is often poorly understood) The Presenter Subject Matter Presentation Aids Delivery (Style, Pace, Engagement, etc.) Source: Bruner & Kumar, 2000; Stevenson, Bruner & Kumar, 2000; Geissler, Zinkhan, Watson, 2006 But it affects all of these factors

11 COMPLEXITY The Presenter Subject Matter Media Delivery (Style, Pace, Engagement, etc.) WHY IS COMPLEXITY IMPORTANT? The Presenter Subject Matter Presentation Aids Delivery (Style, Pace, Engagement, etc.) Research has shown that there is a link between complexity and attention Complexity LOWHIGH Attention / Interest LOW HIGH Source: Underlying attention model adapted from information at : Geissler, Zinkhan & Watson, 2006; Singh, Dalal & Spears, 2005; Carneiro, 2000; Donderi, 2006; Dale & Arnell, 2010; Sanders & Astheimer, 2008 ; Parmentier, Maybery & Elsey, 2010, Van der Stigchel & Theeuwees, 2007; Gibson, 1979; Ahissar, 1997

12 Complexity LOWHIGH Attention / Interest LOW HIGH WHY IS COMPLEXITY IMPORTANT? Clearly our aim should be to build lessons with this level of complexity! Source: Underlying attention model adapted from information at : Geissler, Zinkhan & Watson, 2006; Singh, Dalal & Spears, 2005; Carneiro, 2000; Donderi, 2006; Dale & Arnell, 2010; Sanders & Astheimer, 2008 ; Parmentier, Maybery & Elsey, 2010, Van der Stigchel & Theeuwees, 2007; Gibson, 1979; Ahissar, 1997

13 Complexity LOWHIGH Attention / Interest LOW HIGH WHY IS COMPLEXITY IMPORTANT? But how do we find this ‘sweet spot’? Source: Underlying attention model adapted from information at : Geissler, Zinkhan & Watson, 2006; Singh, Dalal & Spears, 2005; Carneiro, 2000; Donderi, 2006; Dale & Arnell, 2010; Sanders & Astheimer, 2008 ; Parmentier, Maybery & Elsey, 2010, Van der Stigchel & Theeuwees, 2007; Gibson, 1979; Ahissar, 1997

14 Complexity LOWHIGH Attention / Interest LOW HIGH WORKING OUT OPTIMUM COMPLEXITY Research has been conducted in a range of different fields Source: Underlying attention model adapted from information at : Geissler, Zinkhan & Watson, 2006; Singh, Dalal & Spears, 2005; Carneiro, 2000; Donderi, 2006; Dale & Arnell, 2010; Sanders & Astheimer, 2008 ; Parmentier, Maybery & Elsey, 2010, Van der Stigchel & Theeuwees, 2007; Gibson, 1979; Ahissar, 1997

15 Complexity LOWHIGH Attention / Interest LOW HIGH WORKING OUT OPTIMUM COMPLEXITY For example, a lot of work has been done in the fields of biopsychology and psychophysics Eye Optic Nerves Optic Nerves LGN Visual Cortex Visual Cortex Frontal Cortex Visual Cortex Eye LGN Hippocampi

16 WORKING OUT OPTIMUM COMPLEXITY Formulae have been created to measure the effects (For example these are for visual complexity) Source: Solomanoff, 1986; Van der Helm, 2000; Lee (2003) Complexity LOWHIGH Attention / Interest LOW HIGH P(S I I,K)=P(S I I,K)x P(S,K)/P(I,K) (Heuristic Bayesian Model - S=Scene, I=Image, K=Prior Knowledge -Shows the effects of Top Down & Bottom Up) P(H/D)= [p(D/H) x p(H)/p(D) (Algorithmic Information Theory – H=Perceptual Hypothesis, D=Sensory input data – Likelihood principle of sensory input leading to perception) I(H/D)= I(H) +I(D/H)-I(D) (Simplicity Approach – H=Percept, D=Sensory input data – Possible percept + conditional complexity of D minus the complexity of the data) But in their own right these types of research aren’t very useful for real world development

17 WORKING OUT OPTIMUM COMPLEXITY But this type of research formed a good foundation To create a system that is useful in real world L&D Complexity LOWHIGH Attention / Interest LOW HIGH This journey started in 1983 And it is continuing through

18 WORKING OUT OPTIMUM COMPLEXITY Today I will introduce you to some core concepts And I will give you more information in later sessions Complexity LOWHIGH Attention / Interest LOW HIGH Complexity LOWHIGH Attention / Interest LOW HIGH These will be approaches you can use immediately

19 WHAT CREATES COMPLEXITY?

20 In its simplest form complexity is about the balance between: The complexity of the input The ability of the brain to handle the input When the right balance is found - attention should typically be high

21 WHAT CREATES COMPLEXITY? If there is low complexity people may find the lesson boring and switch off (look for gratification elsewhere) Low complexity of the input The brain engages in gratifying activity LOW ATTENTION

22 WHAT CREATES COMPLEXITY? The input is too complex The brain focusses on a gratifying activity If the input is too complex the brain can focus on other things (that will generate gratification) LOW ATTENTION

23 WHAT CREATES COMPLEXITY? Clearly different people have different mental capabilities (and this will affect the boggle cliff) But there is enough commonality to generate useful approaches that will work for most people (For example) Baker, E., 1981, ‘Everyday Reasoning’. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, and Black, M., 1952, ‘Critical Thinking: An Introduction to Logic and Scientific Method’. Prentice Hall, New York, and Cederblom, J., 1991, ‘Critical Reasoning: Understanding and Criticising Arguments and Theories’ 3rd Edn. Wadsworth Publishing Co. Belmont, California, and Dauben, J., 1995, ‘Abraham Robinson: The Creation of Nonstandard analysis: A personal and mathematical odyssey’. Princeton University Press, Princeton, and Dauer, F., 1989, ‘Critical Thinking: An Introduction to Reasoning’. Oxford University Press, New York, and Flesch, R., 1951, ‘The Art of Clear Thinking’. Harper, New York, and Fraenkel, A., 1961, ‘Abstract Set Theory’ 2nd Edn. North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam, and George, R., 1977, ‘Precision Language and Logic’. Pergamon Press, New York, and Giannini, R., Rackwitz, R., and Pinto, P., 1991, ‘Action Scenarios and Logic Trees’ Zurich, Switzerland, and Hallett, G., 1984, ‘Logic for the labyrinth: A Guide to Critical Thinking’. University Press of America, Lanham, and Harris, E., 1987, ‘Formal Transcendental and Dialectic Thinking: Logic and Reality’. State University of New York Press, Albany, and Josephson, J., and Josephson, S., 1994, ‘Abductive Inference: computation, philosophy, technology’. Cambridge University Press, New York, and Mander, A., 1936, ‘Clearer Thinking. Logic for Everyman’. Watts Publishing, London and Missimer, C., 1990, ‘Good Arguments: An Introduction to Critical Thinking’. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, and Piatelli-Palmarini, M., (Translated by Piatelli-Parlmarini, M., and Botsford, K.), 1994, ‘Innevitable Illusions: How Mistakes of Reason Rule our Minds’. Wiley, New York, and Porn, I,. Holmstrom, G., Jones, A., 1985, ‘Action Logic and Social History’. Philosophical Society of Finland, Helsinki, and Rock, I., 1983, ‘The Logic of Perception’. M.I.T. Press, Cambridge Massachusetts, and Salmon, M., [Ed. Fogelin, R.], 1984, ‘Introduction to Logic and Critical Thinking’. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, San Diego, and Smith, D. and McIntyre, R., 1982, ‘Husserl and Intentionality: A Study of Mind, Meaning and Language’. D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, Holland, and Thouless, R., 1953, ‘Straight and Crooked Thinking’. Pan Books, London, and Weinberg, J., 1965, ‘Abstraction, Relation and Induction: Three Essays in the History of Thought’. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.

24 WHAT CREATES COMPLEXITY? The challenge has been to merge these (and many others) to create a useful working solution This is where the complexity model I will be describing can be very useful for practical L&D This begins by identifying 4 fundamental factors

25 WHAT CREATES COMPLEXITY? The first of these factors is Content Content relates to the complexity of the information It is affected by:  Extent of the input (How much is being provided)  Structure of the input (Is it logical and easy to understand)  Abstraction of the input (Is it concrete or abstract information) As an Example CLT

26 WHAT CREATES COMPLEXITY? ABSTRACT SYMBOLS SOUND ONLY SIGHT ONLY SIGHT AND SOUND SIMULATED EXPERIENCE ACTUAL EXPERIENCE Passive Single Channel Input that needs to be decoded effectively for storage in Long Term Memory Recordings Radio/Telephone Speaker Only Text Symbols Still Pictures Diagrams/Charts/Maps etc. Silent Motion Pictures Illustrated lectures Videos Directive Demonstrations Audience Inclusive Demonstrations Role Playing (Dramatised Experiences) Workshops and Group Design Process with output Direct Experience (e.g. building/operating/doing) Passive Single Channel Input stimulating hearing only Passive Single Channel Input stimulating sight only, but using graphical or iconic input Passive Dual Channel Input Active Multi-Channel Experience in simulated situation Active Multi-Channel experience in real situation COMMUNICATIONS CHANNELSCONTENT ABSTRACT CONCRETE ACTIVE PASSIVE LIKELY RETENTION OF INFORMATION (The broader the tier the more information is typically remembered) Source: Adapted from information at Dale, E., 1969, ‘Audiovisual Methods in Teaching’. 3 rd Edn. Holt Rinehart and Winston, Inc., New York, pp and Mayer, R., and Moreno, R.,1998, ‘A split-attention effect in multimedia learning: Evidence for dual information processing systems in working memory.’ Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, pp and Sloan, P., and Latham, R., 1981, ‘Teaching Reading Is….’ Nelson, Melbourne, p. 90 and Wiman, and Meirhenry, 1960, ‘Educational Media’. Charles Merrill, New York, and Paivio, A, 1991, ‘Dual-coding theory: Retrospect and current status’. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 45 93, pp and Cole, P., and Chan, L., 1994, ‘Teaching Principles and Practice’. 2 nd Edn. Prentice Hall, Sydney, p. 151 and Sinatra, R., 1986, ‘Visual Literacy Connections to Thinking, Reading and Writing, Charles C. Thomas, Springfield Illinois, p. 157

27 WHAT CREATES COMPLEXITY? ABSTRACT SYMBOLS SOUND ONLY SIGHT ONLY SIGHT AND SOUND SIMULATED EXPERIENCE ACTUAL EXPERIENCE Passive Single Channel Input that needs to be decoded effectively for storage in Long Term Memory Recordings Radio/Telephone Speaker Only Text Symbols Still Pictures Diagrams/Charts/Maps etc. Silent Motion Pictures Illustrated lectures Videos Directive Demonstrations Audience Inclusive Demonstrations Role Playing (Dramatised Experiences) Workshops and Group Design Process with output Direct Experience (e.g. building/operating/doing) Passive Single Channel Input stimulating hearing only Passive Single Channel Input stimulating sight only, but using graphical or iconic input Passive Dual Channel Input Active Multi-Channel Experience in simulated situation Active Multi-Channel experience in real situation COMMUNICATIONS CHANNELSCONTENT ABSTRACT CONCRETE ACTIVE PASSIVE LIKELY RETENTION OF INFORMATION (The broader the tier the more information is typically remembered) Source: Adapted from information at Dale, E., 1969, ‘Audiovisual Methods in Teaching’. 3 rd Edn. Holt Rinehart and Winston, Inc., New York, pp and Mayer, R., and Moreno, R.,1998, ‘A split-attention effect in multimedia learning: Evidence for dual information processing systems in working memory.’ Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, pp and Sloan, P., and Latham, R., 1981, ‘Teaching Reading Is….’ Nelson, Melbourne, p. 90 and Wiman, and Meirhenry, 1960, ‘Educational Media’. Charles Merrill, New York, and Paivio, A, 1991, ‘Dual-coding theory: Retrospect and current status’. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 45 93, pp and Cole, P., and Chan, L., 1994, ‘Teaching Principles and Practice’. 2 nd Edn. Prentice Hall, Sydney, p. 151 and Sinatra, R., 1986, ‘Visual Literacy Connections to Thinking, Reading and Writing, Charles C. Thomas, Springfield Illinois, p. 157 Context is the complexity of the new information in relation to what they already know: Affected by a range of factors such as:  Knowledge (What they know & does this align to what they know)  Paradigm (Is this knowledge acceptable)  Conventions (Does the input conform to what they already know) We will talk about this more tomorrow Personality Type Agendas (Internal/External) Knowledge (Subject/Situation) Culture (Societal/Organisational) Human Nature (Universal)

28 WHAT CREATES COMPLEXITY? Continuity is the complexity of the input flow. Affected by a range of factors such as:  Linkages (Does the information fit together and are the linkages clear)  Gaps (Has something important to them been missed)  Flow from previous lessons (Is there cross-lesson continuity)

29 WHAT CREATES COMPLEXITY? Clutter is the complexity related to the clarity of the input. It is affected by the clarity of:  Key information (how clear is the key – germane – message)  Extraneous information (is there too much of the wrong information) To demonstrate this CLT It is much more involved than just the information – it applies to all inputs together

30

31 WHAT CREATES COMPLEXITY? This model therefore:  fills some key gaps in other frameworks  merges a range of frameworks to deliver a single solution

32 USING COMPLEXITY IN THE REAL WORLD

33 USING COMPLEXITY We will show you tomorrow how you can apply this (in really practical ways) To rapidly develop very effective teaching and learning systems (e.g. lectures or eLearning) Increase Comprehension ~40% Increase Retention up to 200% From independent research conducted by RTIO and UWA

34 USING COMPLEXITY In the next session (B8: 11:00AM – P3) You will see how to use cognitive templates To find the optimal complexity for your message RA S OP

35 USING COMPLEXITY In the last session (B9: 11:45AM – P3) You will see how to use powerful visual techniques To optimise the perception of the message These are based on the latest research

36 USING COMPLEXITY Use them together to help hit the optimal complexity Complexity LOWHIGH Attention / Interest LOW HIGH

37 USING COMPLEXITY To improve comprehension and shape impressions for your trainees Complexity LOWHIGH Attention / Interest LOW HIGH

38 USING COMPLEXITY Whether you are using face-to-face learning Complexity LOWHIGH Attention / Interest LOW HIGH

39 USING COMPLEXITY Or eLearning Complexity LOWHIGH Attention / Interest LOW HIGH

40 USING COMPLEXITY Or any other type of learning Complexity LOWHIGH Attention / Interest LOW HIGH

41 World Class Communication Skills - Accessible to Everyone CONCLUSION

42 In this session we have only provided a high level overview For a critical teaching & learning element that is universally applicable (use it with any approach, delivery system, or framework) To substantially improve learning outcomes We will drill down into these concepts in the following sessions

43 CONCLUSION If you want to learn more:  I can send out handouts to you  Please feel free to come and chat  Go to my web site for more information  Come along to the sessions tomorrow  Pick up a copy of the book (this explains the practical approach for message development – proceeds to the Clown Doctors) – or go to:

44 World Class Communication Skills - Accessible to Everyone QUESTIONS

45 World Class Communication Skills - Accessible to Everyone THANK YOU Thank you very much for your attention and input

46 World Class Communication Skills - Accessible to Everyone QUESTIONSTHANK YOU Thank you very much for your attention and input


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