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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF STUDIES INVESTIGATING THE INFLUENCE OF EXTREMELY LOW FREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS ON HUMAN EEG PATTERNS Biljana Gjoneska a,

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Presentation on theme: "COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF STUDIES INVESTIGATING THE INFLUENCE OF EXTREMELY LOW FREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS ON HUMAN EEG PATTERNS Biljana Gjoneska a,"— Presentation transcript:

1 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF STUDIES INVESTIGATING THE INFLUENCE OF EXTREMELY LOW FREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS ON HUMAN EEG PATTERNS Biljana Gjoneska a, Nada Pop-Jordanova b, Leonid Grcev c A Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, R. Macedonia b Pediatric Clinic, Faculty of Medicine, R. Macedonia c Centre for Electromagnetic Compatibility, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, R. Macedonia NEUROMATH Meeting, Rome, Italy, 2007

2 ULTIMATE GOALS OF SCIENCE IN THE OUTER WORLD: UNIVERSE -THE MACROCOSM UNIVERSE -THE MACROCOSM IN OUR INNER WORLD: HUMAN BRAIN- THE MICROCOSM NEUROMATH Meeting, Rome, Italy, 2007

3 GLOBAL MOBILE COMMUNICATION (GSM) DEVICES EXTREMELY LOW FREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS (ELF EMF) Relevance: Possible interference with the human EEG Range: 3 Hz Hz Sources: Various. ELF Components: 2 Hz and 8 Hz Technologies: ‘Time division multiple access’ (TDMA) and/or the ‘Discontinuous transmission’ (DTX)

4 “The implementation of laboratory-based studies of cognition and changes in electroencephalograms (EEGs) in people exposed to ELF fields is recommended, including adults regularly subjected to occupational exposure and children” Monograph “Environmental Health Criteria 238”, WHO, 2007

5 DatabaseKeywords Resulting Articles Relevant Articles “Pubmed” Low frequency EMF, ELF and EEG 51 “Scirus” 3602 “WHO-EMF” 411 SOURCES FOR INVESTIGATION I. ONLINE DIGITAL ARCHIVES -“PubMed” -“Scirus” - “World Health Organization” II. REFERENCED ARTICLES Results: 1 Relevant Article

6 SOURCES FOR INVESTIGATION III. INTERNATIONAL EMF PROJECTS - “COST 281” Action investigating possible health impacts of emerging technologies, especially related to communication and information technologies that may result in exposure to electromagnetic fields. - “EMF-NET” “Risk Evaluation of Potential Environmental Hazards from Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure Using Sensitive in vitro Methods” - “REFLEX” “Risk Evaluation of Potential Environmental Hazards from Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure Using Sensitive in vitro Methods” - “WHO-EMF” The International EMF project that examines all evidence of potential health impacts arising from exposure to EMF radiation within the frequency range of 0 to 300 GHz.

7 Name of the Conference/Workshop Founding Project Investigated Parameters Resulting Presentati ons RelevantPresentations “Mobile Telecommunication and the Brain” –11/2003 COST 281 Low frequency EMF, ELF and EEG 130 “Can EMF used in GSM provoke sleep disorders and other cognitive changes” - 12/2003 COST 281 Low frequency EMF, ELF and EEG 180 “Do children represent an especially sensitive group of EMF exposed people?” – 10/2006 COST 281 Low frequency EMF, ELF and EEG 160 “Sensitivity of Children to EMF Exposure”- 06/ 2004 WHO-EMF Low frequency EMF, ELF and EEG 190 SOURCES FOR INVESTIGATION III. INTERNATIONAL EMF PROJECTS NEUROMATH Meeting, Rome, Italy, 2007

8 FINAL SELECTION OF ARTICLES “Frequency-specific responses in the human brain caused by electromagnetic fields” Neurology Section, Department of Medicine, Louisiana State University Medical Center, 1994 “Influence of an alternating 3Hz magnetic field with an induction of 1 militesla on chosen parameters of the human occipital EEG” Department of Internal Medicine, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg. Carl-Ludwig Institute of Physiology, University of Leipzig, 1998 “Preliminary analysis of the effects of DTX mobile phone emissions on the human EEG” “Preliminary analysis of the effects of DTX mobile phone emissions on the human EEG” Clinic of Neurology University Hospital in Zurich, 2004 Alterations in human EEG activity caused by extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields” “Alterations in human EEG activity caused by extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields” Australian Centre for Radiofrequency Bioeffects Research and RMIT University, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2006 “Mobile phone 'talk mode' signal delays EEG-determined sleep onset” Sleep Research Centre, Loughborough University, 2007

9 RESULTS Name of the StudyNo Age Range Mean Age M/F Ratio “Frequency-specific responses in the human brain caused by electromagnetic fields” /8 “Influence of an alternating 3Hz magnetic field with an induction of 1 militesla on chosen parameters of the human occipital EEG” /26 “Preliminary analysis of the effects of DTX mobile phone emissions on the human EEG”10/// “Alterations in human EEG activity caused by extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields” /9 “Mobile phone 'talk mode' signal delays EEG- determined sleep onset”1018–2822/ I. DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS IN PARTICIPANTS

10 RESULTS Name of the Study EMF production Explored freq. Protocol “Frequency-specific responses in the human brain caused by electromag­netic fields” Artificial: Helmholtz Coils 1.5 Hz & 10Hz EEG recording during presentation of the EMF for 2 sec, followed by an inter- stimu­lus period of 5 sec. for a total of 50 tri­als. “Influence of an alternating 3Hz magnetic field with an induction of 1 militesla on chosen parameters of the human occipital EEG” Artificial: Helmholtz Coils 3 Hz 5 min. field-off EEG, 20 min EEG under stimulation, 5 min. field-off EEG II. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND PROTOCOL NEUROMATH Meeting, Rome, Italy, 2007

11 RESULTS Name of the Study EMF production Explored freq. Protocol “Preliminary analysis of the effects of DTX mobile phone emissions on the human EEG” Artificial: Helmholtz Coils 2 Hz 5 min. control period, then 2 trains separated by a 1 min. con­trol pe­riod. At the end again 5 min. control period “Alterations in human EEG activity caused by extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields” Artificial: Helmholtz Coils 50, 16.66, 13, 10, 8.33 & 4Hz 2 min. EEG under stimulation, 1 min. field-off EEG “Mobile phone 'talk mode' signal de­lays EEG- determined sleep onset” Natural: Mobile Phone De­ vice 2 & 8Hz. EEG recording whilst exposure to talk, lis­ ten, standby and sham (nil signal) randomly, for 30 min. In the next 90 min is a sleep opportunity. II. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND PROTOCOL

12 Name of the Study EEG Recording System “Frequency-specific responses in the human brain caused by electromagnetic fields” 10/20 (C3, C4, P3, P4, O1 & O2) (C3, C4, P3, P4, O1 & O2) In each subject, the magnetic field altered ongoing brain activity at the frequency of stimulation from one or more electrodes. The effect was more likely at 10 Hz compared with 1.5 Hz. Namely, significant increase in 10-Hz (alpha) EEG power was registered. Name of the Study EEG Recording System “Influence of an alternating 3Hz magnetic field with an induction of 1 militesla on chosen parameters of the human occipital EEG” 10/20 (O1 & O2) Significant differences were found between sham and real exposure for the relative spectral amplitudes of theta and beta band and theta/beta ratio. Namely, theta/beta ratio becomes almost 6% higher over the left occiput after turning on the field. RESULTS III. EEG Features

13 RESULTS Name of the Study EEG Recording System “Preliminary analysis of the effects of DTX mobile phone emissions on the human EEG” Both scalp and implanted (foramen ovale) electrodes Significant increases and decreases in EEG power spectral density were registered at various brainwave frequencies. The most consistent results were demonstrated by the increase in electrical activity in the gamma band due to EMF exposure. Name of the Study EEG Recording System “Alterations in human EEG activity caused by extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields” Montage of 16 channels. Left: Fp1, F7, F3,T7, C3, P7, P3 & O1. Right: Fp2, F8, F4, T8, C4, P8, P4 & O2. The results indicate that there was a significant increase in Alpha1, Alpha2, and Beta1 at the frontal brain region, and a significant decrease in Alpha2 band in parietal and occipital region due to EMF exposure.

14 RESULTS III. EEG Features Name of the Study EEG Recording System “Mobile phone 'talk mode' signal delays EEG-determined sleep onset” Bipolar EEGs (F3–C3; F4–C4; C3–P3; C4– P4; P3–O1; P4–O2). Post-exposure, sleep latency after talk mode was markedly and significantly delayed beyond listen and sham modes. This condition effect over time was also quite evident in 1–4 Hz EEG frontal power, which is a frequency range particularly sensitive to sleep onset. Namely, EEG delta power increased significantly in the second 10 min period after listen and sham exposures, the third period after standby exposure, but for no period after talk exposure. ALL OF THE STUDIES DEMONSTRATE CHANGES IN RECORDED EEG SIGNALS UNDER THE EMF INFLUENCE

15 CONCLUSIONS I.THE STUDIES TIME-SPAN: 13 years (1994 – 2007). The period of occurrence corresponds TIME-SPAN: 13 years (1994 – 2007). The period of occurrence corresponds to the period of GSM industry expansion. LOCATION: 3 different continents. THE RARE AND INFREQUENT STUDIES REVEAL UNORGANIZED AND UNSYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO THIS PROBLEM. II. PARTICIPANTS Similar age group -> 27 years Similar physiological conditions -> Healthy individuals; Similar mental conditions -> Awake individuals. NONE OF THESE STUDIES INCLUDE CHILDREN AS A TARGET GROUP.

16 CONCLUSIONS III. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND PROTOCOL PROTOCOL IN MOST OF THE STUDIES WAS UNIFORM USING ARTIFICIAL MEANS FOR EMF PRODUCTION. HOWEVER, THE PROTOCOL FOR INVESTIGATION AND THE EEG MONTAGE DIFFER CONSIDERABLY IN EACH OF THE STUDIES. IV. EEG CHANGES ALL STUDIES DEMONSTRATE CONSIDERABLE CHANGES IN EEG POWER SPECTRUM UNDER ELF EMF. HOWEVER, EVIDENCED CHANGES ARE DIFFERENT FROM EACH OTHER IN EACH OF THE STUDIES. NEUROMATH Meeting, Rome, Italy, 2007

17 DISCUSSION THE CHANGES IN EEG MAY HAPPEN DUE TO: -THE DIFFERENCES IN THE PROTOCOL; - EACH SUBJECT RESPONDS DIFFERENTLY TO THE INFLUENCE OF THESE FREQUENCIES, BECAUSE IN EACH SUBJECT THE INTERFERENCE BETWEEN ELF EMF AND EEG FREQUENCIES HAPPENS AT A DIFFERENT LEVEL. ESPECIALLY IN PATIENTS WITH DISORDERS RELATED TO DIFFERENT AROUSALS, THE EFFECTS CAN DIFFER CONSIDERABLY (IN THE SENSE OF BEING BENEFICIAL OR HARMFUL). THERE IS NEED FOR MORE SPECIFIC AND STANDARDIZED INVESTIGATIONS.


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