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TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE: LIBRARY SERVICES & KNOWLEDGE PROFESSIONALS Paul J Graham, MA, MLIS Presented to University of Washington, Seattle September 14 th.

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Presentation on theme: "TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE: LIBRARY SERVICES & KNOWLEDGE PROFESSIONALS Paul J Graham, MA, MLIS Presented to University of Washington, Seattle September 14 th."— Presentation transcript:

1 TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE: LIBRARY SERVICES & KNOWLEDGE PROFESSIONALS Paul J Graham, MA, MLIS Presented to University of Washington, Seattle September 14 th 2012

2 Presentation Contents 1) Knowledge System  Definition and Application 2) State of the Art  Some current issues of Translational Science Research 3) Librarian Perspectives  Library services 4) Knowledge Professionals  Knowledge Management  Being a Knowledge Broker Translational Science can turn to Knowledge Studies for Innovation

3 Part 1: The Knowledge System  Production  Organization  (Storage & Retrieval)  Transfer, Diffusion  Application  Implementation 1979 publication Knowledge Application: The Knowledge System in Society by Holzner and Marx

4 P1: Knowledge Management Systems  Over a thousand citations since 2001 on the Web of Science  Over 4000 citations on Google Scholar Knowledge Management and Knowledge Management Systems (2001) Alavi & Leidner MIS Quarterly Vol. 25 no. 1,

5 P1: Library as Knowledge System  A.L. Dick, "Society's Knowledge System and Its Implications for Librarianship." South African Journal for Librarianship and Information Science 50, no. 1 (1982): Based on his thesis from the University of Washington, Seattle  He argues that libraries can reconsider their role and functions relative to Knowledge-Systems processes. He championed libraries becoming more involved in Knowledge Production and Application. The Library has a Knowledge System and is part of a greater Knowledge System

6 P1: Translational Knowledge System

7  Called a Translational Cycle, we can see it is a systems perspective  Results in better science and health benefits.  Revealing the judgements behind science, before science is conducted. Kelley et al champion a normative approach, but also provide their version of a Health Knowledge cycle.

8 Part 2: State of the Art  Definition  History & Terminology  Barriers  Interdisciplinary Teams  Community-Based Research  Collaborative Methods  Research Support  Assessment Metrics What are some of the current issues of Translational Science?

9 P2: Definition  What is Translational Science Research?  A term first used in 1990s (Davidson, 2011)  Popular in medical sciences  Universities now expanding Translational Research credentials  General Definition  Activities designed to transform ideas, insights, and discoveries generated through basic scientific inquiry and from clinical or population studies into effective and widely available clinical applications. (Mitchell et al. 2010)  Includes  Market trends, tendencies of the industry, capitalization, and regulatory requirements (Kleinbeck et al. 2012) What is the Definition of Translational Science? What are the components of Translational Science?

10 P2: History & Terminology  Terminology  Transfer, Utilization, Translation, Dissemination, Distribution, Diffusion, Uptake, Bridging the gap, research utilization, implementation research/science,  Theory  Mode 2, Post Normal Science, Triple Helix,“Two Communities Metaphors” “Sticky Knowledge” “Communities of Practice” “Epistemic Culture”, Habermas’s “Communicative Action”  Models  Iowa Model of Research in Practice, Ottawa Model of Research Use, CURN, Outcomes Focused KT, r2p2r  Methods  Social Network Analysis, Environmental Scanning “Translational Science” is a part of a larger societal project

11 P2: Barriers to Translation  Bridging the cultural divide separating investigators engaged in “fundamental” research vs. “applied” research. (Hobin & Galbraith, 2012)  Investigators may find it difficult to publish their works  Tenure and promotion structure may adversely affect time needed for quality Translation of knowledge.  Hobin & Galbraith, 2012  Addressing the issues academic perception that Translational research is “not intellectually challenging, worthwhile, or good for [a] career.” What are some of the stated Barriers to Translational Research

12 P2: Translational Models The Development of Models for Translational Science is needed.  Thematic analysis is championed to produce a schema for clinicians, policymakers and researchers. (Mitchell et al. 2010) EBP & RU Organizational Change Knowledge exchange & Synthesis Designing & Interpreting dissemination results.  Theories and frameworks enhance dissemination and implementation (Tabak et al., 2012) Construct Flexibility Dissemination or Implementation Sociological Framework

13 P2: Collaborative Teams  Moise et al., 2006  Bridging the distance between the clinic floor and the bench top. Clinical science and Pure Science.  Having a collaborative team that includes clinical perspective and fundamental research.  Wagner & Srivastava, 2012  Championing the “It takes a village” paradigm for a shift in the approach to biomarkers research.  Hobin & Galbraith, 2012  Encouraging and engineering collaboration, cooperation, communication, and respect between basic and clinical scientists.  Byrne et al  Collaboration is fundamental to the enterprise. Multidisciplinary, Interdisciplinary Collaborative teams are seen as a key to better Translational Science outcomes.

14 P2: Collaborative Outreach  Better health outcomes occur for the population when we evaluate key critical judgments. (Kelley et al. 2012)  Ethical, social, cultural, economic  Which disease to target, which programmes to fund,  Offer a Normative Model of the Translational Process  Who will advocate for disease and conditions that impact smaller, more diffuse, or less empowered populations?  Dialectical Thinking (Crockett et al., 2012)  Transformative Consumer Research emphasizing societal welfare.  Tracking social problems  Getting the results into the hands of stakeholders Collaborative methods for achieving greater health impact

15 P2: Community-Based Research  Community-Based Participatory Research Skills (DiGirolamo et al., 2012)  Social determinants of Health  Having community involved in all aspects of the process Design, conduct, analysis, dissemination  Community Relation Building  Many researchers did not have the comprehensive package of CBPR skills  Translational Research Teams (Crockett et al. 2012)  Includes public and community health researchers, as well as community members. Community Based Research is now seen as a vital part of Translational Science activities.

16 P2: Community-Based Research  Extensive Planning  Environmental Scan to identify key resources and people  Formulating relevant relationships  Collaborative research department or committee  Creating a shared vision Some Important Steps for Community Based Research Planning

17 P2: Research Support  Research Studios provide specific research advice for a specific problem from local specialists.  T1 Studio: Bench to Bedside, captures research and proposed research that involve uncovering pathophysiology and mechanisms of disease, as well as early-phase feasibility, safety, and efficacy trials.  T2 Studio: Bedside to Practice and Policy, captures research and proposed research that involve clinical  Two Directors for each major area  Offers ability to overcome barriers identified by CTSA academic health centres  Research workforce, research operations, organizational silos  Reflects Mode 2 Knowledge Production Interdisciplinary Byrne et al “Clinical and Translational Research Studios”

18 P2: Research Support Where are the Librarians in Research Studios? Not on the set…

19 P2: Other Supportive Models  Program Development Teams ( Hunt et al. 2012)  To assist the individual researcher to navigate through the myriad of resources provided.  To help guide the researchers in proposal development, study design, and identification of support components that can help bring projects to fruition.  Clinical Effectiveness Department (Damani & Fulton, 2010)  Interdisciplinary groups  Mentorship Model (Sundgren, 2012)  Facilitates smoother transition to researcher  Gets assistance with ideas.  Demonstrates strengths, explores potential …but there are other Research Support Models to consider…

20 P2: Metrics & Assessment  Lee et al., 2012 Clinical and Translational Scientist Career Success: Metrics for Evaluation  Domains of Career Success  Extrinsic Career Success Factors  Intrinsic Career Success Factors  Determinants of Career Success  Personal Factors  Organizational Factors  Other Metrics in Process  Experience Survey of the Association for Clinical Research Training  Research Support Survey of the Duke Translational Medicine Institute  Graduate tracking Survey System Assessing Research Impact is a major component of any research endeavour today (Learning Cycle diagram from Center for Instructional Innovation, Western Washington University) There are many Info Literacy Assessment tools we can adapt for the clinical environment.

21 Part 3: Librarian’s Perspective  Evaluation & Assessment  Research & Reference  Outreach  Information Literacy  Database Services  Collaborative Spaces What can Librarianship offer to Translational Science?

22 P3: Evaluation & Assessment  Internal Analysis  Survey/Focus groups to students, faculty & staff.  Reviewing Grey Literature (e.g., memos, s)  External Analysis  Reviewing Health Library websites  Informal conversations with key professionals  In-depth review of scholarly literature  Assessing Trends via STEEPLE method Environmental Scan methodology allows for a full consideration of resources and services

23 P3: Research & Reference  iGuide Literature Reviews  Literature reviews that compile the latest apps in a subject field, e.g. Iphone apps for plastic surgeons (Mohan & Brandford, 2012)  Evidence Based Blogging  Powell et al suggests structured blogging as a valid EB tool for sharing of methods and results, and conclusions.  Evolving Librarian skills  McGown et al assessed the librarian’s ability to summarize information for physicians within 20 minutes of the request.  Hunt et al bibliometrics used for social network analysis We must now be concerned with “Evidence Based” everything.

24 P3: Research & Reference  Dealing with Data (Haendel et al., 2012)  Eagle-i Network: accelerating the cycle of scholarly communication by making research resources easy to find. Connects researchers to other researchers, and resources.  Resource Navigators, connects to not just research, but to lab protocols, instrumentation, human studies, software.  This expands the notion of Reference beyond typical sources of information to objects and services, and the location of those services for use. We now must consider expanding our notion of reference beyond books, CDs, DVDs, etc. to scientific equipment.

25 P3: Research & Reference  Assessing Familiar Tools within Academia  Wikis: Collaborative annotated bibliographies (eg., PDBWiki)  Twitter: Translational Twitter (e.g., CTSI information)  Facebook: Providing an avenue for Knowledge Management.  YouTube: Research/Training videos (e.g. Cancer Connection)  New & Developing Services Online  BioMedexperts, mylabmeeting, Mendeley, Nature Network  StickyWalls:, primary wall, Stixy, Bizkit  Cloud Computing (Rosenthal el al., 2010)  Evaluating a “cloud” for Biomedical purposes Web 2.0 Technologies are only now being rigorously assessed for their Academic value

26 P3: Research & Reference  Budget for Library Resources  Will there be a stable financial platform for the “Gold” model of O.A. peer-reviewed journals?  Will current library budgets be redirected to O.A. fees, or free up funds for other projects?  Open Access Journal funds supported by 30 universities (Nariani & Fernandez, 2012).  Responsibility for an Open Access Archive  Will Libraries be responsible for “Green” model of O.A. archives for the creation of university repositories? Open Access resources are growing in importance, especially as a way to spread innovation, improving Translational Research.

27 P3: Outreach (Mobile Devices)  Mobile Webpage & LibGuide  Drug Resources  Library Catalog Requests  Ask Us feature  Calculators  Wireless access and Device tips  StanMed: Stanford App for accessing clinically useful educational modules, tutorials, videos, podcasts at point of care.  CATs: Centre for EBM provides a software tool for creating Critically Appraised Topics We can offer Mobile Webpages for Translational Research Services

28 P3: Outreach (Mobile Reference) Librarian reported an increase in consultations by 400% from Prusin 2012 by simply having 2 sessions of 2 hour office hours.

29 P3: Outreach (Marketing)  Marketing Campaigns (Serenko et al., 2012)  Targeted messages raising awareness of Information Literacy.  Don’t oversell, be clear about training objectives  E-Options (from Matsoukas et al., 2011)  USB Flash Drive marketing library services to Med students at Columbia University.  Other Ideas  Print is still important Book marks, pamphlets, one page research guides  Special Interest Groups Targeting Student organizations & other campus organizations Any Translational Research effort needs marketing. You have to be an entrepreneur.

30 P3: Information Literacy  Foundational Health Science Teaching Services  Clark & Esson, 2012 found that Information literacy training did not prepare them adequately for Evidence Based Practice.  Implementing Information Literacy Strategy  Awareness of Clinical & Pre-Clinical Translational Resources provided via NIH institutions. Research Match, Red Cap, CTSA-IP  Empirical Tools in Knowledge Translation  Conferences, Journals, Grant Information  Bioinformatics resources (e.g., directory links)  Integrated approach to instruction (MacEachern et al., 2012)  Strategic sessions at different stages of education Includes both in-person and virtual Always accepting the challenges and opportunities of Information Literacy training is important to improve Translational Research.

31 P3: Information Literacy

32 P3: Database Services  Effectiveness of Intervention Databases  Rx for Change (synthesis of global evidence) (Grimshaw et al. 2012)  Health Systems Evidence  Creating a Translational Database via Faceted Analysis  KUPI Database, University of Saskatchewan  Translational Science Blogging  McKibbon et al., 2012  Although not perfect search filters have been developed for identifying “knowledge translation” articles in Medline Creating a specialized database provides specialized service that general databases, and traditional cataloguing systems cannot.

33 P3: Collaborative Spaces  Collaborative Commons (U of Florida)  Providing “neutral” collaborative spaces  Emphasizes a variety of Technology Smart & White boards Expanded videoconferencing  Comfortable seating/Table space  Biomedical software (Vivo)  iCentre: A central facility where information, technology, learning, and teaching needs are supported by tech specialists.  Considered an “instructional zone”  Includes both print and online resources  Professional information technology staff Social Learning Ambience is as important as choice of technology…selecting the right tech for the right space.

34 Part 4: Knowledge Professionals  Knowledge Management  Assessing research projects form a KM perspective.  Knowledge Brokering  A model for action. We can offer additional services as Knowledge Brokers

35 P4: Knowledge Management  KM is vital simply because of the vast amount of knowledge and data tools available today. (Hunt et al, 2012)  Emphasis on Knowledge Sharing which is vital to Translational Knowledge  Combined thinking about Technology and People.  Epistemic thinking  Communities of Practice  Learning Community  Knowledge-Based Organization  Converting Tacit to Codified knowledge Knowledge Management perspectives can assist medical research.

36 P4: Knowledge Brokering  Typologies  Organizational Brokering  Individual Brokering  Strategic Services  Characteristics  Puts actual focus on outreach to community and for research output.  Networking & Marketing  Collecting the best evidence for decision making  Breaking down knowledge barriers  Deciphering the best communication models Being a Knowledge Broker is primarily about connecting people-to-people

37 Concluding Thoughts Some Key Areas to Consider…  Taking a Knowledge Systems Perspective for critique and conceptual clarity of Translational Science processes.  Implementing Translational support such as Research Studios, Program Development teams, or Librarian Mentorship to Translational Researchers.  Marketing our services with USB packages directly to key stakeholders, and/or researcher  Applying Library services with a Translational Science focus, such as creating a Translational Science database.  Taking up a Knowledge Brokering paradigm to define the role of Translational Science & Collaboration Librarian.

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