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Translational Science: Library Services & Knowledge Professionals

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Presentation on theme: "Translational Science: Library Services & Knowledge Professionals"— Presentation transcript:

1 Translational Science: Library Services & Knowledge Professionals
Paul J Graham, MA, MLIS Presented to University of Washington, Seattle September 14th 2012

2 Presentation Contents
1) Knowledge System Definition and Application 2) State of the Art Some current issues of Translational Science Research 3) Librarian Perspectives Library services 4) Knowledge Professionals Knowledge Management Being a Knowledge Broker First I want to introduce a Theoretical perspective that I believe will be helpful in contextualizing the efforts of an integrated Health Knowledge System with the affiliated organizations. This will be reflected in actual practices found in Translational Science. Then I’ll discuss some current issues important to Translational Science, the State of the Art. This will include some remarks about how Librarians can respond to these trends and provide services. But then, I’ll focus on how the library and librarians can serve Translational Science research…this will be from the Librarian’s informational perspective. Finally, I’ll end by championing the Librarian as a Knowledge Professional…specifically using the model of “Knowledge Brokering” as key to fulfilling the role as “Translational Science and Collaboration Librarian”. Translational Science can turn to Knowledge Studies for Innovation

3 Part 1: The Knowledge System
1979 publication Knowledge Application: The Knowledge System in Society by Holzner and Marx Production Organization (Storage & Retrieval) Transfer, Diffusion Application Implementation The “Knowledge System” concept concerns the understanding and interrelationship of knowledge in society...or the social system of knowledge. This is a simple conceptual framework for understanding knowledge processes. I think we are so used to Knowledge System thinking, that we sometimes forget that it can be grounded in a theoretical perspective… this case, the Sociology of Knowledge. What is important is NOT the terminology used (production or creation…..transfer or diffusion), but the process. For example, the term “Application” here refers to when knowledge is ‘applied’…but the term “implementation” is reserved for when knowledge becomes Tacit, or second nature. The use of vaccines to prevent disease.

4 P1: Knowledge Management Systems
Knowledge Management and Knowledge Management Systems (2001) Alavi & Leidner MIS Quarterly Vol. 25 no. 1, Over a thousand citations since on the Web of Science Over 4000 citations on Google Scholar The Knowledge System concept is so convincing and useful it was adopted as a primary model in the article Knowledge management and knowledge management systems: Conceptual foundations and research issues which has integrated the Knowledge System perspective from Holzner and Marx. That particular article is quite popular...cited over a thousand times since 2001 in the Web of Science, and on Google Scholar, over 4000 times. They cite Holzner and Marx for providing the Systematic framework for discussing Knowledge Management System Processes.

5 P1: Library as Knowledge System
The Library has a Knowledge System and is part of a greater Knowledge System A.L. Dick, "Society's Knowledge System and Its Implications for Librarianship." South African Journal for Librarianship and Information Science 50, no. 1 (1982): Based on his thesis from the University of Washington, Seattle He argues that libraries can reconsider their role and functions relative to Knowledge-Systems processes. He championed libraries becoming more involved in Knowledge Production and Application. The work of Archie Leonard Dick is of direct importance here. With a background in the Sociology of Knowledge, Dick addresses the application of this concept in Librarianship. Let me quote some of his thesis: “Although libraries are more narrowly concerned with the organization, storage, and distribution, the other elements, those of production, application or use, have implications for libraries. The contents of a library must be seen in relation to knowledge production. The use of a library’s knowledge for solving practical problems is knowledge use and application. To begin to look at the libraries larger role in society we can utilize the knowledge system concept for this task.” This concept is certainly valuable for librarianship in general, but also for considering the wider issues of Translational Science and how that fits into an integrated Health Knowledge System. A Study of a Model of Society's Knowledge System and Its Implications for Librarianship School of Librarianship, Seattle, Washington.

6 P1: Translational Knowledge System
Here is an example from Mitchel et al, 2010 of a model of Translational Science and it incorporates the process of systems thinking from production, dissemination, and adoption…it is called a “continuum”, but really its Knowledge Systems thinking. There are other examples: Drolet and Lorenzi, 2011 use a descriptive knowledge system model to assist in assessing the Translational Research process in order to identify where inefficiencies or loss of opportunities exist. So behind our Systems Perspective there is a tangible service.

7 P1: Translational Knowledge System
Kelley et al champion a normative approach, but also provide their version of a Health Knowledge cycle. Called a Translational Cycle, we can see it is a systems perspective Results in better science and health benefits. Revealing the judgements behind science, before science is conducted. One clear task of any Translational Science Librarian can be examining the components of that Knowledge System, providing a visual map, through Logic Models, Concept Maps, or more sophisticated means such as GIS information. Now, I’ll turn to Translational Science…the State of the Art.

8 Part 2: State of the Art Definition History & Terminology Barriers
What are some of the current issues of Translational Science? Definition History & Terminology Barriers Interdisciplinary Teams Community-Based Research Collaborative Methods Research Support Assessment Metrics There are a lot of questions to be asked in Translational Science…here are some questions from the literature: what is the fundamental question to be addressed? How can different research methods address it? Which populations will be included, and how will research affect them? Were they asked what their research/community priorities are? Who will collaborate on the project? What benefits are likely to flow from the research, and who will bear the burdens? What will success look like, and, for whom?

9 P2: Definition What is the Definition of Translational Science? What are the components of Translational Science? What is Translational Science Research? A term first used in 1990s (Davidson, 2011) Popular in medical sciences Universities now expanding Translational Research credentials General Definition Activities designed to transform ideas, insights, and discoveries generated through basic scientific inquiry and from clinical or population studies into effective and widely available clinical applications. (Mitchell et al. 2010) Includes Market trends, tendencies of the industry, capitalization, and regulatory requirements (Kleinbeck et al. 2012) There are many definitions of Translational Science: Enhancing the development, testing, and implementation of disease diagnostics and therapeutics. (Hobin and Galbraith, 2012) Making results of basic research applicable to clinical use (Wagner and Srivastava, 2012) The definition from the new National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences is to “catalyze the generation of innovative methods and technologies that will enhance the development, testing, and implementation diagnostics and therapeutics across a wise range of diseases and conditions.”

10 P2: History & Terminology
“Translational Science” is a part of a larger societal project Terminology Transfer, Utilization, Translation, Dissemination, Distribution, Diffusion, Uptake, Bridging the gap, research utilization, implementation research/science, Theory Mode 2, Post Normal Science, Triple Helix,“Two Communities Metaphors” “Sticky Knowledge” “Communities of Practice” “Epistemic Culture”, Habermas’s “Communicative Action” Models Iowa Model of Research in Practice, Ottawa Model of Research Use, CURN, Outcomes Focused KT, r2p2r Methods Social Network Analysis, Environmental Scanning Although “Translational Science” has a focus on medicine, diagnostics and therapeutics, it exists within a larger history of research activity. There are various terminology that have their own genealogy, there are applicable theories, models and research methods…applied across social science, health, and the sciences. Together…as one literature we could call it “Knowledge Science” or “Knowledge Studies”. I’ve been reviewing the literature since 2003, so I’ve been able to develop a conceptual picture of the research…again, a systems perspective helps in managing the chaos of terminology and research because the focus is on the actual “process”. This is a very significant problem that I think Librarians can fix…providing some structure to the terminology…for example, a Knowledge Science thesaurus.

11 P2: Barriers to Translation
What are some of the stated Barriers to Translational Research Bridging the cultural divide separating investigators engaged in “fundamental” research vs. “applied” research. (Hobin & Galbraith, 2012) Investigators may find it difficult to publish their works Tenure and promotion structure may adversely affect time needed for quality Translation of knowledge. Hobin & Galbraith, 2012 Addressing the issues academic perception that Translational research is “not intellectually challenging, worthwhile, or good for [a] career.” As you can see in this slide, I’ve outlined a few of the perceived barriers to Translation of knowledge. Some of the “Barriers” occur in the so-called cultural divide between “pure science” and “applied science”…as well as the gap in getting innovations into policy and practice….that is, helping people.

12 P2: Translational Models
The Development of Models for Translational Science is needed. Thematic analysis is championed to produce a schema for clinicians, policymakers and researchers. (Mitchell et al. 2010) EBP & RU Organizational Change Knowledge exchange & Synthesis Designing & Interpreting dissemination results. Theories and frameworks enhance dissemination and implementation (Tabak et al., 2012) Construct Flexibility Dissemination or Implementation Sociological Framework Although there are numerous Knowledge Transfer, and Translation health models, there is still a stated need for creating new models for the clinical environment, specifically for Translational Science needs and/or selecting the correct existing model to apply to a project. This is where knowledge of the wider literature is vital. As Translational Science relies upon Social Science and health policy research for more productive, interdisciplinary results, it does not make sense to re-create all those models again…but to mine the existing, and rich Knowledge Science literature that already exists. As Librarians, we can provide that literature through systematic searches, individualized databases, and contributing ourselves to the scholarly literature.

13 P2: Collaborative Teams
Multidisciplinary, Interdisciplinary Collaborative teams are seen as a key to better Translational Science outcomes. Moise et al., 2006 Bridging the distance between the clinic floor and the bench top. Clinical science and Pure Science. Having a collaborative team that includes clinical perspective and fundamental research. Wagner & Srivastava, 2012 Championing the “It takes a village” paradigm for a shift in the approach to biomarkers research. Hobin & Galbraith, 2012 Encouraging and engineering collaboration, cooperation, communication, and respect between basic and clinical scientists. Byrne et al. 2012 Collaboration is fundamental to the enterprise. As I just mentioned, Multi-disciplinary or Interdisciplinary teams are seen as important to the Translational process. Librarians can and should be a part of multidisciplinary teams. Recently, librarians have joined Doctors and Med students in their rounds, providing point-of-care information service… certainly we can make the argument for Librarians to be integrated in such team projects. In 2003, I was hired by the current Vice Dean of Social Sciences at the University of Saskatchewan for a Canadian Institutes for Health Research funded study of Knowledge Transfer.

14 P2: Collaborative Outreach
Collaborative methods for achieving greater health impact Better health outcomes occur for the population when we evaluate key critical judgments. (Kelley et al. 2012) Ethical, social , cultural, economic Which disease to target, which programmes to fund, Offer a Normative Model of the Translational Process Who will advocate for disease and conditions that impact smaller, more diffuse, or less empowered populations? Dialectical Thinking (Crockett et al., 2012) Transformative Consumer Research emphasizing societal welfare. Tracking social problems Getting the results into the hands of stakeholders Collaborative outreach includes having an understanding of the ethical, social, cultural, and economic issues involved in research. An example given from Kelley et al. concerns the Gates Foundation that had difficulty in application of Polio vaccinations because of inadequate supply chains, distribution networks, and community rumours at there could be adverse affects. But we can also apply Dialectical thinking, rather than trying to apply research from our perspective…there are organizations that bring issues to the attention of researchers. Again, from the Librarian’s perspective, we need to be aware of these movements and organizations so we can inform Translational Researchers and Scientists.

15 P2: Community-Based Research
Community Based Research is now seen as a vital part of Translational Science activities. Community-Based Participatory Research Skills (DiGirolamo et al., 2012) Social determinants of Health Having community involved in all aspects of the process Design, conduct, analysis, dissemination Community Relation Building Many researchers did not have the comprehensive package of CBPR skills Translational Research Teams (Crockett et al ) Includes public and community health researchers, as well as community members. One of the most important collaborative methods is Community Based Research. My other Masters degree is in Bioethics, so I am certainly aware of the problems that can occur without ‘informed consent’...the same way we involve patients, we need to involve communities. Today, to be ethical…you need to build a bridge to the community, to the population you are studying who may impact from the study’s results. I once served on an interdisciplinary team that was studying Equine Assisted Psychotherapy…helping troubled Aboriginal Canadian youth work through their problems through taking responsibility for the care of horses. This involved some informal meetings with the owner of a ranch with this special service…part of the process is meeting with the community stakeholders, and including them in updates. So…as I found new information for the research team, I also shared the information with the Ranch owner, and made myself a liaison…a knowledge Broker which I’ll talk about later on in the presentation.

16 P2: Community-Based Research
Some Important Steps for Community Based Research Planning Extensive Planning Environmental Scan to identify key resources and people Formulating relevant relationships Collaborative research department or committee Creating a shared vision Here are a few key tasks for Community Based Research for Translational Research…and of course, librarians can be involved in structuring and searching for resources via an environmental scan methodology, help in collaborative research and committee work.

17 P2: Research Support Byrne et al “Clinical and Translational Research Studios” Research Studios provide specific research advice for a specific problem from local specialists. T1 Studio: Bench to Bedside, captures research and proposed research that involve uncovering pathophysiology and mechanisms of disease, as well as early-phase feasibility, safety, and efficacy trials. T2 Studio: Bedside to Practice and Policy, captures research and proposed research that involve clinical Two Directors for each major area Offers ability to overcome barriers identified by CTSA academic health centres Research workforce, research operations, organizational silos Reflects Mode 2 Knowledge Production Interdisciplinary There is an interesting service that has become popular at Vanderbilt. The Studios are a series of integrated, dynamic roundtable discussions that bring together relevant research experts from diverse academic disciplines to focus on a specific project or investigation at a specific stage of research. These sessions are intended to refine hypotheses and research questions; to promote the most appropriate and most rigorous study designs and research methods; to ensure the most effective and efficient approaches to study implementation; to examine and consider new study analyses in an effort to maximize both the amount and the rigor of information a project generates; and to facilitate the translation of research findings into publication, practice and policy. Studio Types include: hypothesis generation, study design, grant review, implementation, analysis and interpretation, manuscript review or Translation.

18 P2: Research Support Where are the Librarians in Research Studios? Not on the set… So…the first thing I asked myself was….where are the librarians in this Research Studio system? The answer is that they’re not directly present. Here is the response from the authors on the role of Librarians…certainly not superficial, but also not suggesting a realization of potential: “Librarians have not played any role in studios.  Other than perhaps doing a literature search, I am not sure what role they might play.  I think the PIs should be responsible for conducting their own lit. search because that is necessary very early on when the PIs are determining if the research is worthwhile.  Plus I don't think it would be feasible to ask a librarian to conduct a literature search for every studio since our numbers have greatly increased and will likely continue to do so.  We could provide a link to the library services if you think that would be valuable.” --If Research Studios are increasing, then that means justification for more librarians. --Librarians with extensive research experience could certainly be a part of the system. --We know that even the most experienced researchers don’t necessarily find all the most relevant research…hence the involvement of librarians. --If the Research Studios are a success…then why not expand…there is no reason why Librarians cannot develop their own Research Studio groups to assist in Translational Science…bringing in Library Colleagues to serve on these groups.. --It can be multidisciplinary, involve community leaders…fulfill many of the needs for Translational Science.

19 P2: Other Supportive Models
…but there are other Research Support Models to consider… Program Development Teams ( Hunt et al. 2012) To assist the individual researcher to navigate through the myriad of resources provided. To help guide the researchers in proposal development, study design, and identification of support components that can help bring projects to fruition. Clinical Effectiveness Department (Damani & Fulton, 2010) Interdisciplinary groups Mentorship Model (Sundgren, 2012) Facilitates smoother transition to researcher Gets assistance with ideas. Demonstrates strengths, explores potential Whether it is a Research Studio, or a Program Development Team, there is a role for Translational Science Librarians to be a part of that system. I once served on a team that was investigating the physician mentorship. The idea was to support mentorship as a way to retain rural doctors, and allow them to gain skills for clinical research to further their career. The question we can ask as Librarians…why don’t we have a mentorship programme for new researchers? This would not be the Librarian acting as the personal research assistant, but being a trusted guide to sorting and selecting databases, someone to ask the tough questions to. This could be in place for a year. Then, as in other traditional mentorship programmes, the mentor and mentee then can go their separate ways or continue a research collaboration if fruitful. When I have been able to collaborate directly with researchers, not all the time, but most of the time no matter what their subject, I’ve been able to collaborate as a peer, contribute to the project or co-author a paper.

20 P2: Metrics & Assessment
Assessing Research Impact is a major component of any research endeavour today (Learning Cycle diagram from Center for Instructional Innovation, Western Washington University) Lee et al., 2012 Clinical and Translational Scientist Career Success: Metrics for Evaluation Domains of Career Success Extrinsic Career Success Factors Intrinsic Career Success Factors Determinants of Career Success Personal Factors Organizational Factors Other Metrics in Process Experience Survey of the Association for Clinical Research Training Research Support Survey of the Duke Translational Medicine Institute Graduate tracking Survey System Whether it’s the social sciences, health, the applied sciences…organizations around the world want to assess the impact of research…especially in times of economic uncertainty, or recession, funders want impact assessment. As Librarians we can adapt current Information Literacy assessment tools towards a clinical and science research environment. There are many Info Literacy Assessment tools we can adapt for the clinical environment.

21 Part 3: Librarian’s Perspective
What can Librarianship offer to Translational Science? Evaluation & Assessment Research & Reference Outreach Information Literacy Database Services Collaborative Spaces Now I’m going to turn directly to information services support from the Librarian’s perspective.

22 P3: Evaluation & Assessment
Environmental Scan methodology allows for a full consideration of resources and services Internal Analysis Survey/Focus groups to students, faculty & staff. Reviewing Grey Literature (e.g., memos, s) External Analysis Reviewing Health Library websites Informal conversations with key professionals In-depth review of scholarly literature Assessing Trends via STEEPLE method Prior to any major library related effort of any magnitude, one should always consider the best evidence for decision making…that may mean the application of a survey, questionnaire or something more in-depth such as an Environmental Scan strategy. To engage in an Environmental Scan means being opportunistic (in a good way) with available data sources. You begin with an internal assessment of simply what data is available to you…then you move outward to other organizations, and scholarly literature…possibly using the STEEPLE conceptual method for organizing and focusing a search strategy. (Social, Technology, Environment, Economic, Political, ….and then I added Legal and Ethics to that as well).

23 P3: Research & Reference
We must now be concerned with “Evidence Based” everything. iGuide Literature Reviews Literature reviews that compile the latest apps in a subject field, e.g. Iphone apps for plastic surgeons (Mohan & Brandford, 2012) Evidence Based Blogging Powell et al suggests structured blogging as a valid EB tool for sharing of methods and results, and conclusions. Evolving Librarian skills McGown et al assessed the librarian’s ability to summarize information for physicians within 20 minutes of the request. Hunt et al bibliometrics used for social network analysis iGUIDE: A new type of literature review now appearing is the “iGuide”…literature reviews that assess iphone or IPAD Applications in a given area. The iGuide is a good example of how we can support Translational Science. Not only can we provide bibliographies, or compile this literature ourselves for publication, but we can remind Translational Researchers that their projects may either have an “App” as an end product, or their work may be made more efficient through adapting a medical application. Awareness. Blogging: Translational Science involves finding new ways to communicate knowledge to various stakeholders…we have to be looking for the latest methods of disseminating evidence based information. One recent new tool is Evidence Based Blogging. NEW SKILLS: There is also the evolving skills of the librarian to consider…McGown et al describes how librarians can summarize information for evidence based decision making within 20 minutes. Hunt et al 2012 describe how “the use of bibliometric analysis demonstrates the importance of library skills and knowledge management contributions to the new field of Translational Sciences, both through the introduction of research techniques that traditionally fall into the knowledge management domain….and through the use of technology that builds on categorization skills, such as Social network analysis tools.” (54) For me…it means moving into the field of Bioinformatics as a professional development challenge.

24 P3: Research & Reference
We now must consider expanding our notion of reference beyond books, CDs, DVDs, etc. to scientific equipment. Dealing with Data (Haendel et al., 2012) Eagle-i Network: accelerating the cycle of scholarly communication by making research resources easy to find. Connects researchers to other researchers, and resources. Resource Navigators, connects to not just research, but to lab protocols, instrumentation, human studies, software. This expands the notion of Reference beyond typical sources of information to objects and services, and the location of those services for use. Here is an interesting extension of Reference and research services by extending the notion of reference to scientific equipment and resources. In Translational Science this would be beneficial for collaborating more effectively. This would involve having a searchable database of equipment, lab protocols, instrumentation that can be used…as well as connecting researchers to other researchers via a detailed CV database…a vital knowledge Brokering concept which I’ll discuss at the end of the presentation.

25 P3: Research & Reference
Web 2.0 Technologies are only now being rigorously assessed for their Academic value Assessing Familiar Tools within Academia Wikis: Collaborative annotated bibliographies (eg., PDBWiki) Twitter: Translational Twitter (e.g., CTSI information) Facebook: Providing an avenue for Knowledge Management. YouTube: Research/Training videos (e.g. Cancer Connection) New & Developing Services Online BioMedexperts, mylabmeeting, Mendeley, Nature Network StickyWalls:, primary wall, Stixy, Bizkit Cloud Computing (Rosenthal el al., 2010) Evaluating a “cloud” for Biomedical purposes There are many possibilities for Research and Reference using Web 2.0 technology. There are two types of technology here…familiar social networking sites that are now being used for Academia…and new services that specifically are being used for Academia. (The internet and social media constitute effective means of conveying information to targeted groups. Crocket et al ) However, we do have to assess these tools from a user’s perspective. Application of any technology has to be easy to use, user friendly… scientists and clinicians are pressed for time, they don’t’ need to work with unproven technology, worry about technical functioning.

26 P3: Research & Reference
Open Access resources are growing in importance, especially as a way to spread innovation, improving Translational Research. Budget for Library Resources Will there be a stable financial platform for the “Gold” model of O.A. peer-reviewed journals? Will current library budgets be redirected to O.A. fees, or free up funds for other projects? Open Access Journal funds supported by 30 universities (Nariani & Fernandez, 2012). Responsibility for an Open Access Archive Will Libraries be responsible for “Green” model of O.A. archives for the creation of university repositories? Today, the trend for medical Librarians is to support “Open Access” as a vital model for improving Translational Science Research. However, there are still outstanding questions left concerning open access? Will there be a stable funding model for the “Gold” standard of Open Access? Will we be shifting library resources (that may be freed-up from less costly journal purchases) to create Open Access funds for authors? Will we be in charge of creating and managing the “Green” model of open access research, essentially, archiving the knowledge produced by the university?

27 P3: Outreach (Mobile Devices)
We can offer Mobile Webpages for Translational Research Services Mobile Webpage & LibGuide Drug Resources Library Catalog Requests Ask Us feature Calculators Wireless access and Device tips StanMed: Stanford App for accessing clinically useful educational modules, tutorials, videos, podcasts at point of care. CATs: Centre for EBM provides a software tool for creating Critically Appraised Topics This is an example of implementing Mobile services in a Health Library context. There is a Translational Science Lib Guide on the University of Washington Health Library site. We can always be thinking about the next step…for example, library related iPhone applications for Translational Science.

28 P3: Outreach (Mobile Reference)
Librarian reported an increase in consultations by 400% from Prusin 2012 by simply having 2 sessions of 2 hour office hours. This additional example from a recent 2012 publication shows how a librarian can engage in productive, efficient outreach by conducting “Laboratory Office Hours”....the Librarian…in consultation with Faculty…sets up office hours in a location that students frequent. This means providing service in an environment where students and faculty already feel comfortable. The librarian only schedule 4 hours a week for this kind of outreach but increased consultations by 400%. The question that I asked msyelf…what kind of outreach can we do with the affiliated organizations? At the moment, I’m unsure, because I don’t know enough about the culture, the researchers, the services already provided by librarians…but there is potential to employ this model where relevant. Prusin (2012) Laboratory Office hours.

29 P3: Outreach (Marketing)
Any Translational Research effort needs marketing. You have to be an entrepreneur. Marketing Campaigns (Serenko et al., 2012) Targeted messages raising awareness of Information Literacy. Don’t oversell, be clear about training objectives E-Options (from Matsoukas et al., 2011) USB Flash Drive marketing library services to Med students at Columbia University. Other Ideas Print is still important Book marks, pamphlets, one page research guides Special Interest Groups Targeting Student organizations & other campus organizations And, outreach includes marketing campaigns: I highlighted the middle option here because it seems most intriguing… We could, for example, create an information package with important Translational Science resources, PDFs, links to research and grant specialists, website links, and a survey to help us evaluate the user’s needs…all on a USB flash drive for distribution to Researchers. Of course, this could be shaped to the audience…a specific USB package to a specific type of researcher….it would also be easy to distribute such packages to community members who may be involved in community based research.

30 P3: Information Literacy
Always accepting the challenges and opportunities of Information Literacy training is important to improve Translational Research. Foundational Health Science Teaching Services Clark & Esson, found that Information literacy training did not prepare them adequately for Evidence Based Practice. Implementing Information Literacy Strategy Awareness of Clinical & Pre-Clinical Translational Resources provided via NIH institutions. Research Match, Red Cap, CTSA-IP Empirical Tools in Knowledge Translation Conferences, Journals, Grant Information Bioinformatics resources (e.g., directory links) Integrated approach to instruction (MacEachern et al., 2012) Strategic sessions at different stages of education Includes both in-person and virtual Information Literacy is important here: We need to continually be providing the foundational services, such as teaching use of PubMed. This is where collaboration among library colleagues is vital. If such services are being provided by key library individuals, let’s not duplicate effort…for example…in my role at the University of Saskatchewan, I worked out of the Sociology department. There was a Sociology Liaison who helped students, and faculty as well. We worked out a division of labour…with me taking an emphasis on Research Training, Project Management, Training Workshops, etc., and he focused on his interests in Information Literacy of databases, websites, and searching strategies. It just made things more efficient. We can then ask…should our information literacy efforts be integrated or institutionalized?

31 P3: Information Literacy
Here is a example of an integrated scheduling plan for information literacy. Can we achieve this for Translational Science Information Literacy sessions?

32 P3: Database Services Effectiveness of Intervention Databases
Creating a specialized database provides specialized service that general databases, and traditional cataloguing systems cannot. Effectiveness of Intervention Databases Rx for Change (synthesis of global evidence) (Grimshaw et al. 2012) Health Systems Evidence Creating a Translational Database via Faceted Analysis KUPI Database, University of Saskatchewan Translational Science Blogging McKibbon et al., 2012 Although not perfect search filters have been developed for identifying “knowledge translation” articles in Medline Today, databases are not difficult to put together. You can use Endnote’s XML options to create a database. I created a Knowledge Transfer database using Faceted analysis as the way to make clear distinctions in the literature, such as “Is this a conceptual, theoretical article? Or is it an empirical article, new knowledge being published?” I simply typed the information into Endnote, and once a month a computer Technician uploaded the results to the online database.

33 P3: Collaborative Spaces
Social Learning Ambience is as important as choice of technology…selecting the right tech for the right space. Collaborative Commons (U of Florida) Providing “neutral” collaborative spaces Emphasizes a variety of Technology Smart & White boards Expanded videoconferencing Comfortable seating/Table space Biomedical software (Vivo) iCentre: A central facility where information, technology, learning, and teaching needs are supported by tech specialists. Considered an “instructional zone” Includes both print and online resources Professional information technology staff And of course…we can consider collaborative spaces. The University of Florida has an interesting model, providing what they call a “Collaborative Commons”. We could research, plan, and implement a similar model specifically for Translational Sciences…the emphasis is on technology and collaboration. Also, we shouldn’t look only to “higher education” for examples. The idea of an “iCentre” comes from a movement across Australia in secondary schooling. I’m using this example because in an environmental scan, for instance, we could stretch out our external analysis to take into account trends in education from a broad perspective. We need to look for innovation in many contexts. Can we combine the idea of an iCentre and the Collaborative Commons to create unique learning and research application space?

34 Part 4: Knowledge Professionals
We can offer additional services as Knowledge Brokers Knowledge Management Assessing research projects form a KM perspective. Knowledge Brokering A model for action. I’ve presented a lot of information…which is why at the beginning of the presentation I presented the Knowledge System perspective…so that we have a way of making sense of things…to consider how any of these ideas will improve, or reduce barriers to a Translational Science Knowledge System. I believe by taking up the challenge to be knowledge professionals in Knowledge Management and Brokering we can do just that…improve knowledge production and application.

35 P4: Knowledge Management
Knowledge Management perspectives can assist medical research. KM is vital simply because of the vast amount of knowledge and data tools available today. (Hunt et al, 2012) Emphasis on Knowledge Sharing which is vital to Translational Knowledge Combined thinking about Technology and People. Epistemic thinking Communities of Practice Learning Community Knowledge-Based Organization Converting Tacit to Codified knowledge Knowledge Management is important…and we can take up a knowledge Management perspective specifically to aid in Translational Research. Cancer Lymphedema example…. Tacit knowledge conversion from the researchers to a new codified interview guide. This opens up a new kind of service…one where librarians offer a Knowledge Management review of research projects to help health researchers become more efficient.

36 P4: Knowledge Brokering
Being a Knowledge Broker is primarily about connecting people-to-people Typologies Organizational Brokering Individual Brokering Strategic Services Characteristics Puts actual focus on outreach to community and for research output. Networking & Marketing Collecting the best evidence for decision making Breaking down knowledge barriers Deciphering the best communication models There are Organizations dedicated to brokering such as Knowledge Mobilization in Canada and The Institute for Knowledge Transfer, Liverpool, England. There are individual brokers who are natural implementers of knowledge in their organizations, whether their job title indicates it or not. Then there are strategic services such as the “Knowledge Transfer Partnerships” method in Britain where and individual is sent to an organization as a Research Associate where they do a form of undercover brokering to assist in becoming both evidence based, and more efficient. Brokers connect people, they have to have marketing skills, and they collect evidence and they can be multidisciplinary. Connecting people for mentorship

37 Concluding Thoughts Some Key Areas to Consider… Taking a Knowledge Systems Perspective for critique and conceptual clarity of Translational Science processes. Implementing Translational support such as Research Studios, Program Development teams, or Librarian Mentorship to Translational Researchers. Marketing our services with USB packages directly to key stakeholders, and/or researcher Applying Library services with a Translational Science focus, such as creating a Translational Science database. Taking up a Knowledge Brokering paradigm to define the role of Translational Science & Collaboration Librarian.

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