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Teaching Community Assistant Initiative A project with: Ghana Education Service Ghana National Association of Teachers Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action.

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Presentation on theme: "Teaching Community Assistant Initiative A project with: Ghana Education Service Ghana National Association of Teachers Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action."— Presentation transcript:

1 Teaching Community Assistant Initiative A project with: Ghana Education Service Ghana National Association of Teachers Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab (J-PAL) Innovations for Poverty Action (IPA)

2 Education Quality: Evidence from elsewhere The problem Remedial Education in India Extra Teachers in Kenya Key Insights Teaching Community Assistant Initiative Ghana Context Program Design Research Design Research design

3 Low Quality of Education Progress in participation rates but not in quality Pratham-JPAL 2005 – Among 7-14 year olds children : –15 % do not recognize letters –61 % cannot read and understand a story –38% do not recognized numbers Pratham: “All children in school AND learning”

4 Evidence from Elsewhere 4 InterventionImpact on Basic Skills Providing free textbooks Marginal (high achievers only) Add other supplies, inputs, e.g. flipcharts No Improving the quality of education “inputs” without other reforms do not necessarily contribute to better children learning if basic knowledge was not previously acquired.

5 Education Quality: Evidence from elsewhere The problem Remedial Education in India Extra Teachers in Kenya Key Insights Teaching Community Assistant Initiative Ghana The context Program Design Research Design Next steps

6 Teacher Assistant in India Balsakhi (“friend of the child”) Teach children lagging behind separately for 2 hours during regular class time Teachers are community volunteers (high school education level)

7 Project Design and phases Sample frame: a.. Schools in in Vadodara, India – 122 Schools – Approx 6,000 children Preliminary Tests : – Math and language

8 Baseline Comparison of Students

9 Project Design and phases schools 61 schools Program G3Yes G4No (Control) Program G3No (Control) G4Yes Randomization

10 Project design and phases Implementation and monitoring Implementation by Pratham Researchers worked with Pratham to provide monitoring (Directly monitored attendance reports) Final Test – Assess for a second time knowledge in math and language – Important: Assess all children having taken part in preliminary test Important Impacts: –0.25 std dev in average; –At least 0.6 for children lagging behind (= 38% to 50% NEA) 10

11 Follow-Up Comparison

12 Education Quality: Evidence from elsewhere The problem Remedial Education in India Extra Teachers in Kenya Key Insights Teaching Community Assistant Initiative Ghana Program Design Research Design

13 Extra teacher in Kenya Primary Education in Kenya Challenges –Class size –Teacher absenteeism –Heterogeneous Classes –Few teaching and learning material –Low completion rates Program “Extra Teacher” –Recruits and renewed contract for school committees –In some classes, divided the group by knowledge level.

14 Research design schools 121 schools: Extra Teacher Program 89 schools No ETP Randomization 60 schools: Spilt by ability 61 schools: Split randomly Randomization

15 Tracking and Extra Teachers Dividing the class by knowledge level is the most efficient– results are best for all children (two groups) –After 18 months, 0.14 sd difference in test scores –One year after program ended, 0.16 sd difference in test scores Why? –Possibly, children benefit from a more targeted instruction to their level and from more efforts from the teachers

16 Education Quality: Evidence from elsewhere The problem Remedial Education in India Extra Teachers in Kenya Key Insights Teaching Community Assistant Initiative Ghana Program Design Research Design

17 Key Insights It is relatively easy to teach how to read and count to children, in a short period, with simple and cheap learning and teaching material (India) It is important to target instruction to the right level. E.g. in dividing classes by knowledge level (India, Kenya) It is this important to have a simple method to identify knowledge levels of each child (India) Low qualified individuals can be trained in a relatively short period (4 to 15 days) to teach basic language and math knowledge (India). Giving school committee authority to recruit and supervise assistant and contractual teachers is efficient (Kenya).

18 Education Quality: Evidence from elsewhere The problem Remedial Education in India Extra Teachers in Kenya Key Insights Teaching Community Assistant Initiative Ghana The context Program Design Research Design

19 19 The Quality Gap in Ghana As enrollment has swelled, quality of primary education has fallen Less than 20% meet proficiency standards in Math and English in P3 (NEA) Large regional differences – proficiency in Greater Accra 33.5%, Upper East 6.3% General Situation: Teachers coping with children at a wide range of levels Disparities in PTR between urban-rural areas: from 38:1 to 57:1 As a consequence: Full classes being led by untrained teachers High teacher absenteeism 21 to 27% Only 39% of time spent in direct instruction

20 The Initiative The context Problem of quality evidence through results of a national test (NEA) It is possible to recruit low qualified individuals in the system There already exist some initiatives aimed at improving quality The Teaching Community Assistant Initiative Recruiting “assistant” with the Program of Youth Employment Assign them a school Role: teacher basic knowledge to children lagging behind. 10 days training and simple teaching and learning material Supervised by School Management Committees 20

21 Education Quality: Evidence from elsewhere The problem Remedial Education in India Extra Teachers in Kenya Key Insights Teaching Community Assistant Initiative Ghana The context Program Design Research Design

22 The intervention process 22 Recruitment Orientation and Training Children Identification and class Monitoring of intervention Mainstreaming NYEP, GES and SMCs GES Teachers Colleges GES and NYEP SMCs, GES, GNAT and NYEP Assistants and Teachers SMC Training NYEP collects Applications SMCs identifies qualified Candidates GES tests and screens (criteria) NYEP finalizes Assistants: 10 days Teachers: 2 days 1 day orientation for Districts reps Using a simple 5 scale oral test Simple materials based on NALAP Focusing on basic skills – Reading and Maths Regular testing A part of teaching SMC: daily Checks on attendance and assigned task GES Circuit Supervisors, NYEP Coord: as part of routine job GNAT Coordinators: regular checks; Feedback from teachers Training for NYEP “graduates”? Having been an assistant a condition? Facilitate entry In Teachers Colleges

23 Why is this interesting for a government? Focus on quality and basic knowledge in P1, P2, P3 Collaboration between Union, Ministry of Education et Youth Concepts de “remedial” were rigorously tested Complementarities with the Strategic Plan et other initiatives– NALAP Test children regularly Opportunities of an entry positions for youth Cost Effectiveness 23

24 Education Quality: Evidence from elsewhere The problem Remedial Education in India Extra Teachers in Kenya Key Insights Teaching Community Assistant Initiative Ghana The context Program Design Research Design Next Steps

25 National Pilot – Impact Evaluation A.1 Lowest performers A.2 Best performers C Add an assistant. Split Class randomly D Train teachers only in testing and teaching low performing E Control Randomly allocate 440 schools into one of the following group: A TCAI: Remedial education during school B TCAI: Remedial education after school Randomly allocate students to teacher or assistant. CB.1 Students assigned to regular teacher CB.2 Students assigned to the assistant D.1 Lowest performers D.2 Best performers B.1 Lowest performers B.2 Best performers

26 Education Quality: Evidence from elsewhere The problem Remedial Education in India Extra Teachers in Kenya Key Insights Teaching Community Assistant Initiative Ghana The context Program Design Research Design Next Steps

27 May-September: Logistics Pilot September-December: Preparations for National Pilot December onwards: National Pilot 27

28 Benefits: Improved Basic Skills 28 *Approximation based on NEA report ** Estimated specific literacy competencies at NEA score cut-offs %50%35% 20%37%24% Upper East Lower Half* 63% can read at least letters** 98% 20% can read stories** 2 years 3-6 months RemedialNo change 68% 46%28%


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