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Monocotyledons: monocots, Monocotyledoneae, or Liliopsida Chapter 7 Simpson, 2 nd Edition.

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Presentation on theme: "Monocotyledons: monocots, Monocotyledoneae, or Liliopsida Chapter 7 Simpson, 2 nd Edition."— Presentation transcript:

1 Monocotyledons: monocots, Monocotyledoneae, or Liliopsida Chapter 7 Simpson, 2 nd Edition

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3 C. Order Asparagales Hemerocallis fulva day-lily Hemerocallidaceae – day-lily family

4 C. Order Asparagales Alliaceae – onion family 13/600

5 C. Order Asparagales Amaryllidaceae – Amaryllis family 59/850

6 C. Order Asparagales Asphodelaceae – Aloe family 15/780

7 Iridaceae - iris family 70/1750 cosmopolitan/tropical diversity 1. equitant leaves 2. sepals and petals petaloid but dimorphic 3. showy flowers radial to strongly zygomorphic 4. stigma petaloid (Iris) 5. anther under stigma branch C. Order Asparagales P3+3 or (3+3) A3 or (3) G(3) inferior mostly

8 Iridaceae - iris family C. Order Asparagales Crocus Gladiolus Freesia Sisyrinchium

9 Iridaceae - iris family C. Order Asparagales

10 Orchidaceae - orchid family 800/20,000 cosmopolitan/tropical diversity 1) strongly mycotropic habit in terrestrial species 2) diverse in tropics and subtropics; many epiphytic 3) numerous tiny seeds with minute mostly undifferentiated embryo and no endosperm 4) bilateral corolla with labellum = lower lip (simple, sac or spur) [labellum is actually the upper petal but because of resupination, a 180° twist, it appears as the lower one] 6) pollinia - waxy or mealy masses under anther cap 7) gynostemium - stigma + styles + androecium = column 8) pollination involves many elaborate mechanisms 9) five subfamilies C. Order Asparagales column stigma pollinia anther cap stigma P(3+3) A1-3 G(3) inferior with gynostemium

11 Orchidaceae - orchid family C. Order Asparagales

12 Orchidaceae - orchid family C. Order Asparagales

13 Orchidaceae - orchid family C. Order Asparagales

14 Orchidaceae - orchid family C. Order Asparagales

15 Orchidaceae - orchid family C. Order Asparagales

16 Orchidaceae - orchid family C. Order Asparagales

17 Orchidaceae - orchid family C. Order Asparagales Spiranthes cernua

18 Vanilla planifolia - vanilla extracted from the fermented capsules Orchidaceae - orchid family C. Order Asparagales Platanthera praeclara - Prairie fringed orchid Cattleya - common cultivated form Habenaria – green fringed orchid Cypripedium - Lady ’ s slipper

19 Commelinids monophyletic chemical apomorphy: cell walls fluoresce under UV light due to a class of organic acids (coumaric, diferulic, ferulic)

20 Arecaceae (= Palmae) - palm family 200/3000 pantropical 1) arborescent habit – no secondary growth (from vascular cambium) 2) unbranched trunks 3) broad leaf blade 4) large fan-shaped or pinnately compound leaves = frond 5) well developed vascular system that has vessels in all vegetative organs 6) mycorrhizal roots (lack root hairs) 7) immense economic importance, 2nd only to Poaceae edible fruits, oils, waxes, building materials, numerous ornamentals D. Order Arecales P3+3 A3+3 or (3+3) G3or(3) superior

21 Arecaceae (= Palmae) - palm family D. Order Arecales Washingtonia- fan palm Phoenix - date palm Cocos - coconut palm

22 E. Commelinales Commelinaceae - spiderwort family 39/640cosmopolitan 1) herbs with swollen nodes 2) somewhat succulent 3) leaves with closed sheaths; spiral along stem 4) flowers subtended by boat-shaped spathes Tradescantia - spiderwort Commelina - dayflower K3or(3) C3or(3) A3or3+3 G(3) superior

23 E. Commelinales Commelinaceae - spiderwort family Prairie Spiderwort Tradescantia occidentalis

24 F. Zingiberales Musaceae – banana family 3/40 cosmopolitan 1) perennial herbs 2) monecious 3) stems subterranean 4) leaves large, basal, spiral, sheathing forming pseudostem of overlapping leaf bases 5) Old world origins 6) Food: Musa acuminata and M. X paradisiaca 7) Fiber: M. textilis & M. basjoo P(3+3) A5-6 G(3) inferior

25 F. Poales basal groups with showy flowers many species have small, reduced, wind- pollinated flowers

26 F. Poales Typhaceae - cattail family 1/13 cosmopolitan 1) emergent aquatics 2) rhizomatous perennials 3) leaves simple, entire 4) monecious 5) inflorescence double spadix male above female below 6) sepals of bristles or scales 7) wind pollination 8) female inflorescence disperses wind- dispersed fruits P0-3 A3 P0-3 G1 superior

27 F. Poales Typhaceae - cattail family

28 E. Poales Bromeliaceae - pineapple family 59/2400 New World – tropical diversity 1) perennial herbs or shrubs 2) terrestrial or epiphytic 3) absorptive peltate trichomes – water & mineral 4) water can collect in “well” by the overlapping leaf bases (tank) 5) leaves often form dense basal rosettes 6) leaves leathery or fleshy 7) twisted stigmas P3+3 or (3+3) A3+3 G(3) superior or inferior

29 E. Poales Bromeliaceae - pineapple family P3+3 or (3+3) A3+3 G(3) superior or inferior

30 E. Poales Bromeliaceae - pineapple family Ananas comosus - pineapple Tillandsia – spanish moss

31 E. Poales Juncaceae - rush family 7/350 worldwide 1) perennial herbs 2) “grass-like” 3) variable stems cylindrical, leaflless stems flattened stems & 2- ranked equitant leaves 4) distinct flowers (unlike sedges and grasses) never in spikelets 5) scarious (thin, dry) perianth 6) common in wet areas 7) fruit loculicidal capsule P3+3 A3+3 G(3) superior

32 E. Poales Cyperaceae - sedge family 104/5000cosmopolitan; wetlands of temperate and colder regions 1) “grass-like” herbs 2) semi-aquatic 3) stems 3-sided, solid pith 4) leaves three-ranked 5) blades flat 6) inflorescence of 1- many spikelets 7) fruit = achene P6or0 A3 G(2-3) superior

33 E. Poales Cyperaceae - sedge family

34 E. Poales Cyperaceae - sedge family

35 E. Poales Cyperaceae - sedge family Cyperus - sedge Scirpus - bullrush Carex - sedge Eleocharis – spike-rush

36 E. Poales Poaceae (=Graminae) - grass family 668/9500 cosmopolitan 1) herbs 2) stems terete, swollen nodes, hollow 3) leaves two-ranked with ligules 4) roots adventitious and fibrous 5) rhizomes/stolons 6) culms erect 7) intercalary meristems 8) inflorescence a spikelet with 2 basal bracts (glumes) 9) floret with 2 bracts (lemma & palea) 10) fruit caryopsis (grain) P2-3 lodicules A2-3 G(2-3) superior

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38 E. Poales Poaceae (=Graminae) - grass family

39 E. Poales Poaceae (=Graminae) - grass family

40 E. Poales Poaceae (=Graminae) - grass family

41 E. Poales Poaceae (=Graminae) - grass family

42 E. Poales Poaceae (=Graminae) - grass family

43 E. Poales Poaceae (=Graminae) - grass family Little Bluestem – Schizachyrium scoparium (Andropogon scoparius) Big Bluestem – Andropogon gerardii Switch Grass – Panicum virgatum Indian Grass – Sorghastrum nutans


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