Presentation on theme: "CBTC from the start: 28 years of SkyTrain in Vancouver Ian R Graham Manager (retiring) Operations Planning Expo/Millennium Lines BC Rapid Transit Company,"— Presentation transcript:
CBTC from the start: 28 years of SkyTrain in Vancouver Ian R Graham Manager (retiring) Operations Planning Expo/Millennium Lines BC Rapid Transit Company, Burnaby, Canada 12th March 2014 Conference The Hatton London, UK
CBTC: More than a signalling system Ian R Graham Manager (retiring) Operations Planning Expo/Millennium Lines BC Rapid Transit Company, Burnaby, Canada 12th March 2014 Conference The Hatton London, UK
Vancouver in context >3 decades of history and development since 1980 – a different starting point now. Green field – a clean start. No regional interoperability issues. Proprietary technology, but generally applicable experience.
Vancouver, Canada Canada’s 3 rd largest city metro area 2.5 million in 2013 3 million by 2027? was 1.5 million in 1980 (SkyTrain decision)
Technology Urban Transportation Development Corporation (UTDC), now part of Bombardier – small lightweight cars – steerable trucks – linear induction motors (LIM) SelTrac S40 inductive loop ATC system (Thales) – full operational dependence on primary system – no axle counters or other “backup” systems. – ongoing evolution of functionality around the original system principles
Expo/Millennium Lines 1986: 21 km / 15 stns / 114 cars / 20M pass/year now: 49 km / 33 stns / 258 cars / 80M pass/year 2016: plus 11 km / 6 stns / 28 cars future: discussions of extensions; $$$?
Canada Line: same but different opened in 2009 separate line (non-interoperable), but integral part of the transit system P3 project with 30 year concession 19 km / 16 stns / 40 cars (larger) / 40M pass/year Rotem cars, with AC rotary motors Seltrac ATC, similar to Expo/Millennium generally similar operational approach
5 km 5 mi Expo Line (1986-1994) Millennium Line (2002) Canada Line (2009 - separate P3 operation) Evergreen Line (2016) Surrey extension (future) Broadway-UBC (future)
The commitment to automate Automation experience in the 1970’s High dependence on signalling in “manual” systems An attendant to watch a machine drive itself? Eliminating the cab – no turning back
Unattended Train Operation (UTO) SkyTrain is: – not only automated – not only driverless – it operates trains primarily in unattended mode Unchaining the driver from the cab makes a fundamental customer service difference. The SkyTrain system is not unstaffed; – not about eliminating staff or unions
Operating staff levels BCRTC total 600 staff for O&M Operations staff on duty (per shift) for: – 33 stations, 49 km, 22-57 trains Field: – 38 SkyTrain Attendants (STAs) – 4 Field Supervisors – 1 Duty Manager Control: – 7 Control Operators (ATC, power, alarms, communications) – 1 Duty Manager
Original issues and concerns No driver to view the track ahead – full track segregation – intrusion detection system (no platform screen doors) No on-board personnel – passenger security features (intercom, alarm, PA) – door safety (positive interlocking; “pushback” feature) – system reliability and redundancy Unattended stations – design, CCTV, communications; passenger self-service => organizational confidence / public acceptance
CBTC/UTO achievements (1) throughput – 108 sec. sustained AM/PM 3-hour peaks – 96 sec. average, inner 6 stations, 2-hour AM peak – 95 sec. target future headway – 80 sec. “recovery” headway at terminus => 75 sec. potential increased service frequency – same operating cost with shorter trains at higher frequency =>less waiting time for passenger travel time (average in-service speed) – optimized and consistent speed control =>shorter travel time headway consistency – all “drivers” are the same => variation and bunching are reduced
CBTC/UTO achievements (2) delay recovery – no recovery (rest) time required for drivers at end stations; insertion of spare trains in front of delayed train schedule adjustments – additions or reductions based on demand special events – additional trains without extra drivers (some extra staff may still be needed to manage crowds and supplement fare collection) alternative service (planned / unplanned) – preplanned for maintenance, or unplanned for emergencies
CBTC/UTO achievements (3) safety – automated train control minimizes routine human error, although giving up opportunity for human discretion fleet productivity – higher average speed and reduced end-station turnaround means fewer vehicles, and smaller yard, to serve the same ridership yard flexibility and productivity – automation of storage lanes and some maintenance tracks allow trains to be launched, returned, and inspected, with minimal driving
CBTC/UTO achievements (4) fault response – SkyTrain Attendants (STAs) can deal with many train faults while the train is still in service, minimizing delay or disruption passenger emergency – STAs can respond to passenger emergencies customer assistance – STAs available to assist customers with directions, information, fare payment, etc.
Ongoing and future challenges Proprietary technology Technology obsolescence and upgrades Maintenance and upgrades of aging system Growth – getting better to stay the same “More than a signalling system” -- CBTC is not a “get and forget” system
Conclusions A rapid transit system is always a “work in progress”. CBTC, and the related commitment to UTO, has provided Vancouver with a successful, well-used, efficient rapid transit system, and provided a relevant reference point to other cities around the world.