Presentation on theme: "CBTC from the start: 28 years of SkyTrain in Vancouver"— Presentation transcript:
1CBTC from the start: 28 years of SkyTrain in Vancouver 12th March 2014 Conference The Hatton London, UKCBTC from the start: 28 years of SkyTrain in VancouverIan R GrahamManager (retiring) Operations PlanningExpo/Millennium LinesBC Rapid Transit Company, Burnaby, Canada
2CBTC: More than a signalling system 12th March 2014 Conference The Hatton London, UKCBTC: More than a signalling systemIan R GrahamManager (retiring) Operations PlanningExpo/Millennium LinesBC Rapid Transit Company, Burnaby, Canada
3Vancouver in context>3 decades of history and development since 1980 – a different starting point now.Green field – a clean start.No regional interoperability issues.Proprietary technology, but generally applicable experience.
4Vancouver, Canada Canada’s 3rd largest city metro area 2.5 million in 20133 million by 2027?was 1.5 million in 1980 (SkyTrain decision)
5TechnologyUrban Transportation Development Corporation (UTDC), now part of Bombardiersmall lightweight carssteerable truckslinear induction motors (LIM)SelTrac S40 inductive loop ATC system (Thales)full operational dependence on primary system – no axle counters or other “backup” systems.ongoing evolution of functionality around the original system principles
7Expo/Millennium Lines 1986: 21 km / 15 stns / 114 cars / 20M pass/yearnow: 49 km / 33 stns / 258 cars / 80M pass/year2016: plus 11 km / 6 stns / 28 carsfuture: discussions of extensions; $$$?
8Canada Line: same but different opened in 2009separate line (non-interoperable), but integral part of the transit systemP3 project with 30 year concession19 km / 16 stns / 40 cars (larger) / 40M pass/yearRotem cars, with AC rotary motorsSeltrac ATC, similar to Expo/Millenniumgenerally similar operational approach
10SkyTrain, Vancouver BC Canada 5 km5 miSkyTrain, Vancouver BC CanadaMillennium Line (2002)Evergreen Line (2016)Broadway-UBC (future)Expo Line ( )Canada Line ( separate P3 operation)Surrey extension (future)January 16, 200710
11The commitment to automate Automation experience in the 1970’sHigh dependence on signalling in “manual” systemsAn attendant to watch a machine drive itself?Eliminating the cab – no turning back
12Unattended Train Operation (UTO) SkyTrain is:not only automatednot only driverlessit operates trains primarily in unattended modeUnchaining the driver from the cab makes a fundamental customer service difference.The SkyTrain system is not unstaffed;not about eliminating staff or unions
13Operating staff levels BCRTC total 600 staff for O&MOperations staff on duty (per shift) for:33 stations, 49 km, trainsField:38 SkyTrain Attendants (STAs)4 Field Supervisors1 Duty ManagerControl:7 Control Operators (ATC, power, alarms, communications)
14Original issues and concerns No driver to view the track aheadfull track segregationintrusion detection system (no platform screen doors)No on-board personnelpassenger security features (intercom, alarm, PA)door safety (positive interlocking; “pushback” feature)system reliability and redundancyUnattended stationsdesign, CCTV, communications; passenger self-service=> organizational confidence / public acceptance
15CBTC/UTO achievements (1) SkyTrain, Vancouver BC CanadaCBTC/UTO achievements (1)throughput108 sec. sustained AM/PM 3-hour peaks96 sec. average, inner 6 stations, 2-hour AM peak95 sec. target future headway80 sec. “recovery” headway at terminus => 75 sec. potentialincreased service frequencysame operating cost with shorter trains at higher frequency =>less waiting time for passengertravel time (average in-service speed)optimized and consistent speed control =>shorter travel timeheadway consistencyall “drivers” are the same => variation and bunching are reducedJanuary 16, 200715
16CBTC/UTO achievements (2) SkyTrain, Vancouver BC CanadaCBTC/UTO achievements (2)delay recoveryno recovery (rest) time required for drivers at end stations; insertion of spare trains in front of delayed trainschedule adjustmentsadditions or reductions based on demandspecial eventsadditional trains without extra drivers (some extra staff may still be needed to manage crowds and supplement fare collection)alternative service (planned / unplanned)preplanned for maintenance, or unplanned for emergenciesJanuary 16, 2007
17CBTC/UTO achievements (3) SkyTrain, Vancouver BC CanadaCBTC/UTO achievements (3)safetyautomated train control minimizes routine human error, although giving up opportunity for human discretionfleet productivityhigher average speed and reduced end-station turnaround means fewer vehicles, and smaller yard, to serve the same ridershipyard flexibility and productivityautomation of storage lanes and some maintenance tracks allow trains to be launched, returned, and inspected, with minimal drivingJanuary 16, 200717
18CBTC/UTO achievements (4) SkyTrain, Vancouver BC CanadaCBTC/UTO achievements (4)fault responseSkyTrain Attendants (STAs) can deal with many train faults while the train is still in service, minimizing delay or disruptionpassenger emergencySTAs can respond to passenger emergenciescustomer assistanceSTAs available to assist customers with directions, information, fare payment, etc.January 16, 200718
19Ongoing and future challenges Proprietary technologyTechnology obsolescence and upgradesMaintenance and upgrades of aging systemGrowth – getting better to stay the same“More than a signalling system” -- CBTC is not a “get and forget” system
20ConclusionsA rapid transit system is always a “work in progress”. CBTC, and the related commitment to UTO, has provided Vancouver with a successful, well-used, efficient rapid transit system, and provided a relevant reference point to other cities around the world.
21SkyTrain, Vancouver BC Canada January 16, 200721
22SkyTrain, Vancouver BC Canada January 16, 200722