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Chapter 4: Representation of data in computer systems: Sound OCR Computing for GCSE © Hodder Education 2011
How sound is represented in computers Sound is an analogue energy form It can take a range of values –for loudness –for frequency OCR Computing for GCSE © Hodder Education 2011
Analogue signals Computers only work with digital signals, so the sound is sampled. –Measurements taken at intervals. –Various parameters measured. –The more measurements, the better the quality of the recording. Audio CD –music is sampled 44,100 times per second –the samples are 2 bytes (16 bits) long –44,100 samples/second * 16 bits/sample * 2 channels = 1,411,200 bits per second Audio CDs store a LOT of data. This is much too much for normal computer storage and downloads. OCR Computing for GCSE © Hodder Education 2011
Sampling The rate of sampling can be varied. This is the bit rate The number of bits sampled in a given time. The higher the bit rate, the better the recording but the bigger the file size. OCR Computing for GCSE © Hodder Education 2011
Compression Sound files are usually compressed for computer storage and transmission. MP3 is a common compressed sound file format. Algorithms devised to remove the parts of the data that humans are least likely to hear. OCR Computing for GCSE © Hodder Education 2011
GCSE Computing: A451 Computer Systems & Programming Representation of Data in Computer Systems Sound.
Chapter 4: Representation of data in computer systems OCR Computing for GCSE © Hodder Education 2011.
GCSE Computing#BristolMet Session Objectives#10 MUST define the term sample rate COULD explain how sound can be sampled and stored in digital form SHOULD.
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Chapter 4: Representation of data in computer systems: Images OCR Computing for GCSE © Hodder Education 2011.
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© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Chapter 4: Sound.
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