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UNIT PRICE PRODUCTION.

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Presentation on theme: "UNIT PRICE PRODUCTION."— Presentation transcript:

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17 Conflict has traditionally been thought to contribute to the epidemic spread of HIV… the ‘post-conflict phase’ may be a particularly dangerous time for HIV transmission. The post- conflict phase is characterized by a potentially disastrous confluence of factors including: Demobilization of combatants, the presence of foreign peacekeeping forces, the return of potentially infected soldiers and refugees, high-risk sexual and drug use behaviours, persistent economic and social debilitation. concentration of populations into cities and urban areas, A paradoxical peace: HIV in post-conflict states J Becker and E Drucker

18 NYT March 10, West Africa Slayings May Signal a New Day By LYDIA POLGREEN BISSAU, Guinea-Bissau — Just after sunset, the general got up from under his favorite mango tree. As he climbed toward his second-floor office, a remote- controlled bomb under the staircase exploded, crumpling the building ’ s flank into a jumble of rubble. His nemesis, the president, died less than 12 hours later, after heavily armed men fired a rocket-propelled grenade into the front door of his house. The drug trade is the nations new scourge. According to United Nations officials, as much as $1 billion a year of cocaine is funneled through the country en route to Europe. Both Mr. Vieira and General Tagme Na Waie were suspected of involvement in drug trafficking, according to diplomats and analysts in the region, an allegation their supporters vehemently denied.United Nations

19 VOICE of AMERICA Illegal Drugs Ravage West Africa By Nico Colombant Dakar, Senegal 23 April Nico Colombant's Focus Report - Download (MP3) Nico Colombant's Focus Report - Listen (MP3) Illegal drugs coming from South America to rich European markets increasingly are going through West Africa because of its porous borders and vast unpoliced areas. The growing illicit traffic seems to be feeding local drug networks, creating more addicts in Africa. According to a recent study, out of some15 million cocaine addicts in the world, about one million are Africans -- most of them in West Africa. But doctors say they don't have the means to help them

20 BBC NEWS / AFRICA | Monday, 9 July 2007, 00:31 GMT 01:31 UK Africa - new front in drugs war By Joseph Winter BBC News website How can you hope to battle organised, rich and ruthless international drugs gangs when there is not even a proper prison in the country? This is the problem faced by the authorities in Guinea-Bissau, which some fear could be on its way to becoming Africa's first "narco-state".Guinea-Bissau is the most glaring example of the increasing use of West Africa by Latin American cocaine traffickers to get their wares into Europe. The country is wracked by poverty, coups, political unrest and has a coastline full of uninhabited islands, creeks and swamps, providing the perfect cover

21 MAJOR DRUG TRANSIT ROUTES IN THE East REGION

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23 Lt Grn = <5000 Green = Blue= >10000 Gray = Unk Numbers of people who inject drugs Source : SAHRN 2008

24 HIV prevalence rates among people who inject drugs More than 50% Not Known (nk) % 20% - 50% More than 50% Not Known (nk) Blue = % Gray = unknown HIV Prevalence Among IDUs

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26 Table 9.2: HIV prevalence rates in prisons in Sub- Saharan Africa There are no available data on HCV prevalence rates in prisons. rate among prisonersYear Burkina Faso 11% 1999 Cameroon 12% 2005 Cote D’Ivoire 28% 1993 Djibouti 6.1% n/a Malawi 60–75% n/a Nigeria 9% 2004 Rwanda 14% 1993 Senegal 2.7% 1997 South Africa 45% 2006 Uganda 8% 2002 Zambia 27% 1999

27 NYT November 26, 2008 Study Cites Toll of AIDS Policy in South Africa By CELIA W. DUGGERCELIA W. DUGGER JOHANNESBURG — A new study by Harvard researchers estimates that the South African government would have prevented the premature deaths of 365,000 people earlier this decade if it had provided antiretroviral drugs to AIDS patients and widely administered drugs to help prevent pregnant women from infecting their babies.AIDS The Harvard study concluded that the policies grew out of President Thabo Mbeki ’ s denial of the well-established scientific consensus about the viral cause of AIDS and the essential role of antiretroviral drugs in treating it.Thabo Mbeki

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